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Nationalism in exotic clothes? Postcolonial thinking, gender and translation in the field day anthology of irish writing Nationalism in exotic clothes? Postcolonial thinking, gender and translation in the field day anthology of irish writing
Aidan 0'Malley
Ilha do Desterro , 2010,
Abstract: Field Day has been the most important collective cultural initiative in Ireland since Yeats and Lady Gregory’s National Theatre movement in the early twentieth century. Founded in 1980 to articulate a cultural intervention into the crisis in Northern Ireland, it brought together some of the most important cultural figures in Ireland, such as the playwright Brian Friel, the actor Stephen Rea, and the poet Seamus Heaney. While it was originally conceived of as a touring theatre company, the enterprise also became a publishing imprint, and has produced some of the most challenging scholarly work on Irish culture and history. Its most ambitious project was The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, a massive undertaking that looked to compile and rethink 1,500 years of Irish writing. When the first three volumes of the Anthology were published in 1991 the egregious lack of women’s writing in their 4,044 double-columned pages, and the fact that not one of the editors of the 44 different sections was a woman, were immediately noted. In an embarrassed response, the editors commissioned a second instalment, which was entirely edited by women and devoted to women’s writing, and was published in 2002 in two volumes. The focus of this article is on the modes of postcolonial thinking that informed these two instalments. The first three volumes were clearly influenced by thinkers such as Said, who published a pamphlet with the group, and considered Field Day an archetypal postcolonial enterprise. Indeed, Field Day is credited with having introduced postcolonial thinking into Irish Studies, a move that was by no means uncontroversial. For many critics, theories emanating from African, Caribbean and Indian colonial experiences had no relevance in an Irish context, and they strongly suspected that Field Day’s interest in postcolonial thinking was little more than an attempt by the group to re-dress nationalism in exotic clothes. The blindness to gender evidenced in The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing was taken as confirmation of this, as it showed that Field Day was a group that could not see beyond the ‘national’ question and engage with other urgent issues. In many ways, then, attention to gender and to women was construed in these, at times fiery, debates about the first three volumes as a symbol of progress and modernisation. Particularly in the Republic of Ireland, Field Day was characterised as a group of middle-ged, patriarchal Northern Irish men, who would drag the whole island backwards; who could not provide a viable narrative for it at the end of the twen
Grammatical Gender Affects Bilinguals' Conceptual Gender: Implications for Linguistic Relativity and Decision Making
James N. Forbes, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Magda R. Rivero and Maria D. Sera
The Open Applied Linguistics Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874913500801010068]
Abstract: We used a non-linguistic gender attribution task to determine how French and Spanish grammatical gender affects bilinguals’ conceptual gender. French-English and Spanish-English bilingual, as well as English monolingual adults were asked to assign a male or female voice to 32 color drawings depicting people, animals, and common objects. French- English and Spanish-English bilinguals classified items according to French and Spanish grammatical gender respectively. This effect was replicated for French-English bilinguals on those items whose grammatical gender was opposite in French and Spanish. Unexpectedly, Spanish gender similarly affected classifications by Spanish-English and English- Spanish bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals. We discuss how grammatical gender, possible covariates, and the order of L1 and L2 acquisition, affect conceptual gender as well as implications for decision making.
The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History
Elizabeth Kuznesof
History of Women in the Americas , 2013, DOI: http://journals.sas.ac.uk/hwa/article/view/1686
Abstract: This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English) defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.
Verbitskaya Olga Mikhailovna,Yakovleva Valentina Anatolievna
Magister Dixit , 2012,
Abstract: The article deals with linguistic and cultural type “Hollywood Star” from conceptual, figurative and evaluative aspects. The specific trait of this linguistic and cultural concept consists in his involvement into historical and cultural context, the ability to associate with verbal, symbolic and event-trigger phenomena known to all members of linguistic and cultural community. The work reveals verbal and semiotic characteristics of linguistic and cultural type under consideration, analyses its ethnocentric essence.
Performing Speaking “Ungrammatical” American English: A Kuwaiti Linguistic Phenomenon  [PDF]
Nada A. Algharabali, Hanan A. Taqi
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2018.86021
Abstract: Language attitudes have been addressed by many studies, and the importance of accent choice is one of the attitudes investigated, yet scarcely by EFL educationists. The current study investigates the conscious choice of the American accent by Kuwaiti speakers of English as a foreign language and the importance of accent over other language aspects such as grammar, vocabulary and style as perceived by students. 67 female informants from the College of Basic Education, who are to become potential English teachers and speak with an American-like accent, participated in this study. The informants were given a questionnaire, and after obtaining their consent, their speech was recorded during in-class presentations. Some of the informants were interviewed to elaborate further on the importance of acquiring an American accent. The data was analyzed quantitatively through SPSS (mean and frequency) and qualitatively (through general sociolinguistic and phonetic analysis), and it suggests that most participants believe that achieving an American accent is prestigious and “cool” and more important than developing grammatical and lexical skills.
Ethnicity, Gender, and the Education of Cambodian American Students in an Urban High School  [cached]
Kimmie Tang,Dennis Kao
Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement , 2012,
Abstract: This paper explores the role of gender and ethnicity in the education of Cambodian American high school students. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed ninth-grade Cambodian American students (n=10), teachers (n=4), and administrators (n=2) at a Southern California high school. The data revealed that Cambodian students were often mistaken for other Asian groups and due to stereotypes, expected to excel academically. Fearing that they would disappoint their teachers or be ridiculed by other students, they often remained silent about their academic struggles. Traditional values regarding gender and familial expectations also played prominent roles for both Cambodian boys and girls andtheir academic progress.
Gender Differences in Vocabulary Instruction Using Keyword Method (Linguistic Mnemonics)  [cached]
Omid Tabatabaei,Nafiseh Hossainzadeh Hejazi
Canadian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669620110705.465
Abstract: This study investigated the differences between the improvement of Iranian EFL male and female learners in terms of learning vocabulary through keyword method (Linguistic Mnemonics). Totally, 38 male and 39 female university students taking Freshman English courses in one of Iran universities participated in this study. These intermediate-level EFL male and female learners (in four groups, two experimental and two control groups), were selected using Oxford Placement Test (Allan, 2004). The length of the instructional program was 3 sessions for all experimental and control groups. A quantitative analysis of vocabulary pretest, vocabulary immediate posttest and vocabulary delayed posttest was conducted. The statistic results showed that first, females achieved higher percentage scores than males in vocabulary immediate posttest. Second, in the delayed posttest, females achieved significantly higher scores of retention than males. Third, a within-group comparison showed that females achieved significantly higher scores of both vocabulary immediate posttest and retention. Analysis of the attitudinal questionnaire carried out in this study, demonstrated that the majority of the participants had particularly positive attitudes towards the application of the keyword as a vocabulary learning method and especially it was discovered that most of the L2 learners could take charge of their own learning and performed as autonomous vocabulary learners. Also, students’ motivation to use the method was aroused and most of them volunteered to find suitable association for vocabulary items. Finally, instructional recommendations were presented to enhance L2 vocabulary instruction through the keyword method. Key words: Mnemonic; Linguistic Mnemonics (Keyword Method); Strategy; vocabulary learning; Autonomy Résumé Cette étude examine les différences entre l'amélioration des apprenants EFL iranienne hommes et femmes en termes d'apprentissage du vocabulaire à travers la méthode clé (mnémoniques linguistique). Totalement, 38 hommes et 39 étudiantes universitaires qui suivent des cours en anglais Freshman dans une des universités en Iran ont participé à cette étude. Ces apprenants de niveau intermédiaire EFL males et femelles (en quatre groupes, deux expérimentaux et deux groupes de contr le), ont été sélectionnés à l'aide de test de placement Oxford (Allan, 2004). La longueur du programme d'enseignement a été de 3 séances pour tous les groupes expérimentaux et de contr le. Une analyse quantitative de prétest de vocabulaire, le vocabulaire post-test immédiat et post-test retar
Political and Social Impact on the Linguistic Behavior of Iraqis: A Gender-based Study on Lexical Innovation
Rajaa Sabbar Jaber,Hariharan N. Krishnasamy
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v2n2p10
Abstract: In this research, we believe that there is political and social impact on the linguistic choices of males and females. The main objectives of the research are to investigate the way the political and social changes affect the linguistic word choices of Iraqis, and to find out the direction of the gender pattern. The main problem in Arabic sociolinguistics is the absence of a unitary gender pattern differentiation. However, in many cases, men, not women, have attempted to approximate the Standard Arabic. The issue of prestige is also confusing, because each Arab country has a local variety that is prestigious, but not necessarily the standard. This issue has motivated us to study the linguistic differences between males and females in their choices of 12 new lexical items in Baghdad, where all the events of the 2003 war happened. Twenty hours of tape recordings of ten males and ten females were investigated and analyzed. The most important finding in the current research is that female prestige is not associated with the standard variety. Rather, the meaning of words is what should be prestigious. For females, if the meaning of a word is stigmatized, then the word is stigmatized as well even if it is a standard word.
Jazz: The Smithsonian Anthology  [cached]
Patrick Warfield
Journal of Music History Pedagogy , 2013,
Abstract: Jazz: The Smithsonian Anthology—a complete rethinking of The Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz—is a valuable compilation of recordings, essays, and photographs. Students and aficionados alike will find it useful for its broad reach, excellent audio, and impressive packaging.
Gendered-Linked Differences in Speech Styles: Analysing Linguistic and Gender in the Malaysian Context  [cached]
Angelina Subrayan. Michael,Liaw Shun Chone,Chittra Muthusamy,Jeyamahla Veeravagu
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2010, DOI: 10.3968/782
Abstract: This study aims to look at the differences in speech styles of Malaysian men and women. The assertion that women and men typically employ different linguistic style is pursued in a wide range of studies. There is significant interest in the sociolinguistic variation associated with the speaker’s gender. Over the last few years there has been an explosion of research in this field. Research conducted to date in anthropology and education clearly states that gender-specific patterns of behavior remain relevant factors and important social variables to be analyzed through the most common cultural codes of society, which is its language. Turning to linguistic differences between women and men, there do seem to be linguistic features that are stereotypically associated with men and women, and there is a large measure of agreement about the association of such features with one of the other gender. Gender is the term used to describe socially constructed categories based on sex. Most societies operate in terms of two genders, masculine and feminine, and it is tempting to treat the category of gender as a simple binary opposition. This paper limits itself to describe language use, in particular the different usage of women and men as speakers. Particular attention is given to the usage of five linguistic features; questions, hedges, adjectives, verbosity and politeness. Subsequent discussion of language of women and men will be presented in sociolinguistic terms. Key words: speech styles, linguistic, gender, hedges, sociolinguistics Résumé: Cette étude vise à examiner les différences dans les styles de discours des hommes et des femmes malaisiens. L'affirmation que les femmes et les hommes emploient généralement des styles linguistiques différents est poursuivie dans un large éventail d'études. Il y a un intérêt significatif dans la variation sociolinguistique associée au sexe du locuteur. Au cours des dernières années, il y a eu une explosion des recherches dans ce domaine. Les recherches menées à ce jour dans l'anthropologie et l'éducation montre clairement que des modèles spécifiques de comportement des sexes restent des facteurs pertinents et des variables sociales importantes à être analysées à travers les codes culturels les plus courants de la société, c’est-à-dire la langue. Quant aux différences linguistiques entre les femmes et les hommes, il semble qu’il y a des éléments linguistiques stéréotypiquement associés aux hommes et aux femmes, et qu’il y a un vaste accord sur l'association de ces caractéristiques avec l'un de l'autre sexe. Le genre est le t
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