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Pain-Relief Effects of Aroma Touch Therapy with Citrus junos Oil Evaluated by Quantitative EEG Occipital Alpha-2 Rhythm Powers  [PDF]
Tomomi Bohgaki, Yoshitada Katagiri, Makoto Usami
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.41002
Abstract:


Aroma touch therapy is widely used in clinical fields for alleviating pain-related symptoms; however, few studies have reported the pain-relief mechanisms. The present study aimed to elucidate the analgesic effects of aroma touch therapy with Citrus junos oil based on the quantitative evaluation of deep brain network (DBN) activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) occipital alpha-2 rhythm (10-13 Hz) powers. Experimental investigations were performed with 13 healthy volunteers using the cold pressor task for simulating chronic pain in three different sessions: a baseline session with no therapies, a control session with a touch therapy, and an aroma touch therapy. We have found for the first time that the interviewed pain ratings represented by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores were strongly correlated with a DBN activity index, which was derived from the slow fluctuation components of occipital EEG alpha-2 rhythm powers. The correlation was characterized by a V-shaped curve in the DBN activity index versus the pain rating, i.e., the NRS score, which provided the complete analgesic states (NRS = 0) for some subjects under aroma touch therapy at an appropriate DBN activity index. Such analgesic states were not so strongly correlated with emotional valence. In conclusion, aroma touch therapy may directly modulate DBN activity so that pain-induced outcomes are minimized.


Dynamic Modulation of Local Population Activity by Rhythm Phase in Human Occipital Cortex During a Visual Search Task  [PDF]
Kai J. Miller,Dora Hermes,Christopher J. Honey,Mohit Sharma,Rajesh P. N. Rao,Marcel den Nijs,Eberhard E. Fetz,Terrence J. Sejnowski,Adam O. Hebb,Jeffrey G. Ojemann,Scott Makeig,Eric C. Leuthardt
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00197
Abstract: Brain rhythms are more than just passive phenomena in visual cortex. For the first time, we show that the physiology underlying brain rhythms actively suppresses and releases cortical areas on a second-to-second basis during visual processing. Furthermore, their influence is specific at the scale of individual gyri. We quantified the interaction between broadband spectral change and brain rhythms on a second-to-second basis in electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurement of brain surface potentials in five human subjects during a visual search task. Comparison of visual search epochs with a blank screen baseline revealed changes in the raw potential, the amplitude of rhythmic activity, and in the decoupled broadband spectral amplitude. We present new methods to characterize the intensity and preferred phase of coupling between broadband power and band-limited rhythms, and to estimate the magnitude of rhythm-to-broadband modulation on a trial-by-trial basis. These tools revealed numerous coupling motifs between the phase of low-frequency (δ, θ, α, β, and γ band) rhythms and the amplitude of broadband spectral change. In the θ and β ranges, the coupling of phase to broadband change is dynamic during visual processing, decreasing in some occipital areas and increasing in others, in a gyrally specific pattern. Finally, we demonstrate that the rhythms interact with one another across frequency ranges, and across cortical sites.
Studies on Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Substance of Yuzu (Citrus junos hort. ex Tanaka) Seed
Yukiko Nakazono,Yuka Watanabe,Fumio Hashinaga,Kenjiro Tadera
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A yuzu (Citrus junos hort. ex Tanaka) seed extract with 80% methanol showed a potent antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The antimicrobial substance was purified by adsorption column chromatography and identified as p-methoxycinnamic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of p-methoxycinnamic acid against M. luteus, S. aureus, E. coli and S. enteritidis were 80, 60, 50 and 60 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, this structure suggested that p-methoxycinnamic acid had the antioxidative activity and we investigated also the antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of p-methoxycinnamic acid was about 70-80% of that of BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol.
Please touch
Terry Caesar
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2011,
Abstract: : This article discusses how, in Brazilian society, people tend to touch one another more freely in public than in other societies. Using several anecdotes, the article explores the ways in which men greet each other, women reach out to hug and kiss each other, how children relate to their mothers, and how even within the same society habits and mores related to physical touch change in time.
A Giant Occipital Encephalocele  [PDF]
Amit Agarwal,Aruna Vijay Chandak,Anand Kakani,Shivshankar Reddy
APSP Journal of Case Reports , 2010,
Abstract: Giant occipital encephaloceles are rare lesions. Because of their enormous size they pose a surgical challenge. Herein we report a four months old female baby who presented with progressively increasing swelling over the occipital region. This swelling was present since birth. Surgery was planned to reduce the size of the swelling as well as its contents. The redundant sac was excised and reduced sufficiently enough to accommodate the healthy looking brain tissue. In contrast to the previous case reports where the neonates had poor prognosis, this infant did well postoperatively.
Probing the Neural Basis of Perceptual Phenomenology with the Touch-Induced Visual Illusion  [PDF]
Philip Servos, Allison Boyd
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047788
Abstract: Using the touch-induced visual illusion we examine whether the brain regions involved in coding sensory information are dissociable from those that contain decision information. Activity in the intraparietal sulcus, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging, was associated with the illusion suggesting a sensory coding role whereas activity in the middle occipital gyrus differentially modulated activity according to the decisions made by subjects consistent with their reported perceptual phenomenology.
Advances in Fruit Aroma Volatile Research  [PDF]
Muna Ahmed Mohamed El Hadi,Feng-Jie Zhang,Fei-Fei Wu,Chun-Hua Zhou,Jun Tao
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18078200
Abstract: Fruits produce a range of volatile compounds that make up their characteristic aromas and contribute to their flavor. Fruit volatile compounds are mainly comprised of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. Many factors affect volatile composition, including the genetic makeup, degree of maturity, environmental conditions, postharvest handling and storage. There are several pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, terpenoids and carotenoids. Once the basic skeletons are produced via these pathways, the diversity of volatiles is achieved via additional modification reactions such as acylation, methylation, oxidation/reduction and cyclic ring closure. In this paper, we review the composition of fruit aroma, the characteristic aroma compounds of several representative fruits, the factors affecting aroma volatile, and the biosynthetic pathways of volatile aroma compounds. We anticipate that this review would provide some critical information for profound research on fruit aroma components and their manipulation during development and storage.
The Lesser Occipital Nerve in Fetuses
Pillay,P; Partab,P; Lazarus,L; Satyapal,K. S;
International Journal of Morphology , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022012000100025
Abstract: the lesser occipital nerve (lon) is an ascending superficial branch of the cervical plexus that has a variable origin either from the ventral ramus of the second cervical nerve or second and third cervical nerves and is purely sensory. forty fetuses (right side: 40/80; left: 40/80) with gestational ages between 15 to 28 weeks were microdissected to document the anatomy of the lon. results: a) incidence and morphometry: lon present in 100% specimens, with average length on the right and left sides of 23.59 ± 2.32 mm and 23.45 ± 2.27 mm, respectively; b) course: in its ascent towards the occipital region, the lon was located on the splenius capitus muscle in 85% of specimens and in 15% of the specimens, it ascended vertically on the sternocleidomastoid muscle towards the ear, innervating its superior third; c) branching pattern: lon displayed (i) single: 70%; (ii) duplicate: 26% and (iii) triplicate: 4% patterns; d) variation in the course of lon was observed in 6% of the specimens. knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the lon may assist in the understanding of cervicogenic headaches and may be of assistance to anesthetists performing regional anesthesia for surgical procedures in the neck.
Discrimination of roast and ground coffee aroma
Ian Fisk, Alec Kettle, Sonja Hofmeister, Amarjeet Virdie, Javier Kenny
Flavour , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-1-14
Abstract: Different methods offered complimentary results for the discrimination of products; the concentration in the coffee brew was found to be the least discriminatory and concentration in the headspace above the roast and ground coffee was shown to be most discriminatory.All approaches should be taken into consideration when classifying roast and ground coffee especially for alignment to sensory perception and consumer insight data as all offer markedly different discrimination abilities due to the variation in volatility, hydrophobicity, air-water partition coefficient and other physicochemical parameters of the key aroma compounds present.The aroma of roast and ground (R&G) coffee is critical to consumer liking and is perceived by consumers in one of many ways: the period directly after opening the pack is representative of the static partitioning of volatile chemicals between the R&G coffee and the pack headspace; during early brewing the aroma is characteristic of the dynamic partitioning of volatile aroma compounds between the coffee, water, steam and air due to the infusion of water with the R&G coffee; the process of extraction involves the kinetic partitioning of volatile aroma compounds between the coffee and the water [1]; and finally the partitioning of volatile aroma compounds between the filtered aqueous brew, R&G fines, coffee oil and the headspace both above the cup and within the buccal and nasal cavity drives in-cup aroma [2,3]. All mechanisms are important to the overall perception of coffee aroma, and each contributes individually to key drivers of liking.Differences in aroma between R&G coffee originate from a number of sources: coffee beans may originate from different coffee plant cultivars (for example Arabica, Robusta) [4]; intrinsic bag to bag and seasonal variation may also contribute to differences [5,6]; in addition, sourcing from different geographical locations [7], differences in processing (wet vs. dry processing) and ageing before roastin
SIGNIFICANCE OF STEP AND TOUCH VOLTAGES
Dwarka Prasad,H.C. Sharma
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Step and touch voltages play an importantrole when designing high voltage substation. Step and touchpotentials near high voltage substation due to severe ground faultspresent a hazard to anyone in proximity to substation when a faultoccurs. A primary issue of concern is hazardous step and touchvoltage is that arise during fault situations, hence a reliable andefficient solution to the problem is essential. Although personnelsafety is of primary concern, effect of electric current, resistanceof the human body and tolerable voltage criteria considerationsare also essential in the design system to ensure the protection ofpersonnel and equipment. This study will briefly explain thesignificance of step and touch voltages.
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