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The Sexism in English and Its Rebuilding  [cached]
Xiang Xu
International Education Studies , 2008, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v1n4p101
Abstract: Through lots of examples, the passage exhibits the phenomenon of sexism in English and its reason, its main display and its rebuilding, and explains the importance of eliminating it.
SEXISM IN CONSUMERS AND THEIR SEXIST ASESSMEN
Heidy T. Luengas,Andrea Velandia-Morales
Suma Psicológica , 2012,
Abstract: This research identifies the relationship between the score for consumers of television media in Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, Glick and Fiske, 1996. Adapt. Expósito et al., 1998) and they valuation around level of sexism than 14 television commercials broadcast in the national channels. The study was conducted with 100 participants, of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years of strata 4, 5, 6, consumers of television media. It is an ex post facto study, a prospective with single independent variable (Montero & Leon, 2007). The level of ambivalent sexism is the independent variable by classification and the valuation of commercial is the dependent variable. The main findings show an interaction statistically significant between level of ambivalent sexism in the component of gender differentiation and the perception of sexism in advertising, but without a statistically significant effect with gender, age and other demo-graphic variables.
An Analysis of Sexism in English  [cached]
Guimei He
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.3.332-335
Abstract: Language plays an important role in society. As a phenomenon of society, language reflects all the sides of human society naturally. Sexism in language has long been a heat topic in sociolinguistics. By looking at the sexism in English and relating it to the relevant linguistic theories, this paper tries to make an analysis of sexism in the use of language through comparison, induction and exemplification. The purpose is to disclose some of the features of English language that suggest cultural biases and socially unjust attitudes towards women. The study will help us to have a better understanding of the relationship between language and society.
The Informational Patterns of Laughter  [PDF]
José A. Bea,Pedro C. Marijuán
Entropy , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/e5020205
Abstract: Laughter is one of the most characteristic -and enigmatic- communicational traits of human individuals. Its analysis has to take into account a variety of emotional, social, cognitive, and communicational factors densely interconnected. In this article we study laughter just as an auditive signal (as a 'neutral' information carrier), and we compare its structure with the regular traits of linguistic signals. In the experimental records of human laughter that we have performed, the most noticeable trait is the disorder content of frequencies. In comparison with the sonograms of vowels, the information content of which appears as a characteristic, regular function of the first vibration modes of the dynamic system formed, for each vowel, by the vocal cords and the accompanying resonance of the vocalization apparatus, the sonograms of laughter are highly irregular. In the episodes of laughter, a highly random content in frequencies appears, reason why it cannot be considered as a genuine codification of patterned information like in linguistic signals. In order to numerically gauge the disorder content of laughter frequencies, we have performed several "entropy" measures of the spectra -trying to unambiguously identify spontaneous laughter from "faked", articulated laughter. Interestingly, Shannon's entropy (the most natural candidate) performs rather poorly.
Narratives and Emotions: Revealing and Concealing Laughter  [PDF]
Lena Marander-Eklund
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2008,
Abstract: My paper deals with laughter as an expression of emotions in stories.I study laughter both as a communicative factor in fieldwork and as a stylistic device in narratives. When is laughter used as an effect in storytelling and what does this laughter mean? Is laughter always an expression of humour and comics? What else can it be an expression of? The stories that I use for analysing laughter are personal experience stories of giving birth. In these stories women use laughter in many ways, both in contact with me as an interviewer, together with me, and as a way of marking the meaning of the story. The women often laugh when they talk about corporeality, pain and difficulties during labour, but also when they perform a self-presentation with elements that “almost” happened during birth. What do they reveal or conceal with laughter in narratives and what can the laughter reveal about the point of their narration?
The Darwinian revolution
CHAVES,óSCAR M;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2010000200004
Abstract: the scientific revolution probably began at 16th century with the heliocentric theory of the eminent astronomer nicolaus copernicus, but it was culminated with the masterful discoveries of galileo galilei and isaac newton at 17th century who revealed that planet movements around the sun and other similar phenomena can be explained by simple mechanical laws of physics and astronomy. however, the origin, complexity and configuration of living beings remained in the mystery until 19th century, with the publication of "on the origin of species". in this essay i discuss the importance of the darwinian scientific revolution, its beginnings, and the main objections of creationists to his evolutionary ideas. darwin demonstrated that the origin and complexity of living beings can be explained by natural processes, without the intervention of a supernatural being. however, the beginnings of the darwinian revolution were particularly difficult and 128 years after his death, the controversy between evolutionists and creationists still persists.
LAUGHTER THERAPY (World laughter day- First Sunday of May)  [PDF]
Dumbre Satish P.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: Laughter is a part of human behavior regulated by the brain, helping humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and providing an emotional context to conversations. Traditionally, it is considered a visual expression of happiness, or an inward feeling of joy. It may ensue from hearing a joke, being tickled, or other stimuli. In History Gelotology was first studied by psychiatrists, although some doctors in antiquity recommended laughter as a form of medicine. Several types of therapy have emerged which use laughter to help patients like Humor and Laughter Therapy, Laughter Meditation, Laughter Yoga. A link between laughter and healthy function of blood vessels was first reported in 2005 by researchers at the University of Maryland Medical Center with the fact that laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining of blood vessels, the endothelium, and increases blood flow. Drs. Michael Miller (University of Maryland) and William Fry (Stanford), theorize that beta-endorphin like compounds released by the hypothalamus activate receptors on the endothelial surface to release nitric oxide, thereby resulting in dilation of vessels. Other cardioprotective properties of nitric oxide include reduction of inflammation and decreased platelet aggregation. Laughter has also been shown to have beneficial effects on various other aspects of biochemistry1. For example, laughter has been shown to lead to reductions in stress hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine. While laughing the brain also releases endorphins that can relieve some physical pain. Laughter also boosts the number of antibody-producing cells and enhances the effectiveness of T-cells, leading to a stronger immune system.
The Bonds of Laughter: A Multidisciplinary Inquiry into the Information Processes of Human Laughter  [PDF]
Pedro C. Marijuan,Jorge Navarro
Quantitative Biology , 2010,
Abstract: A new core hypothesis on laughter is presented. It has been built by putting together ideas from several disciplines: neurodynamics, evolutionary neurobiology, paleoanthropology, social networks, and communication studies. The hypothesis contributes to ascertain the evolutionary origins of human laughter in connection with its cognitive emotional signaling functions. The new behavioral and neurodynamic tenets introduced about this unusual sound feature of our species justify the ubiquitous presence it has in social interactions and along the life cycle of the individual. Laughter, far from being a curious evolutionary relic or a rather trivial innate behavior, should be considered as a highly efficient tool for inter-individual problem solving and for maintenance of social bonds.
Trigeminal schwannoma associated with pathological laughter and crying.
Virani M,Jain S
Neurology India , 2001,
Abstract: A 46 year old man with trigeminal schwannoma displayed symptoms of ataxia with pathological laughter and crying. The tumour developed in the cerebellopontine angle, compressing the pontomesencephalic structures backward, extending in the posterior parasellar region and Meckel′s cave. No recurrence of laughter and crying attacks were noted after total removal of the tumour. Theories of mechanism of pathological laughter and crying reported in the literature are reviewed.
Emergence of Thermodynamics from Darwinian Dynamics  [PDF]
P Ao
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2979021
Abstract: Darwinian dynamics is manifestly stochastic and nonconservative, but has a profound connection to conservative dynamics in physics. In the present paper the main ideas and logical steps leading to thermodynamics from Darwinian dynamics are discussed in a quantitative manner. A synthesis between nonequilibrum dynamics and conservative dynamics is outlined.
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