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Physicochemical Properties of Processed Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Oil in Relation to Sudanese Standards: A Case Study in Nyala; South Darfur State; Sudan
Omer Adam Omer El Tom,Abu El-Gasim Ahmed Yagoub
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study was oriented to valuate physical and chemical properties of the native peanut oil processed in Nyala; South Darfur state; in order to investigate the impact of local processing and storage on quality with respect to Sudanese standard measurements. Peanut oil (season, 2005) from three different processing regimes; industrially produced oil; traditionally produced oil by imported a small mill and traditionally produced oil by locally made a small mill; were analyzed for their physicochemical attributes. Changes in these attributes on storage (room temperature 35±2°C) over a period of 3 months were also investigated. Refractive index, iodine value and saponification value of all three oil samples are in coincidence with Sudanese standards. The red and yellow colors, free fatty acids, acid value and moisture contents for all peanut oil samples are significantly higher than the recommended values. But the density, the relative viscosity is slightly lower. Results of the storage experiment showed significant increases in the free fatty acids, acid values and peroxide values; and decreases in the moisture contents and iodine values for all peanut oil samples. The peanut oil sample processed industrially by a large mill was found more stable during storage. So, this oil could be valid for use for a period not less than three months. The peanut oil sample processed traditionally by a small imported mill was found less stable during storage than the industrially produced peanut oil. Thus emphasizes its consumption within a period of 3 months from production date. The sample processed traditionally by locally made a small mill was observed to be the least stable during storage. It reached the rancid zone within two months of storage.
The Darfur Crisis in Sudan: Challenge to International Peacekeeping Missions
Soetan Stephen Olayiwola
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The Darfur Crisis in Sudan has continue to pose a great challenge to International Peacekeeping mission and humanitarian intervention in politics of other states since 1983 when the most recent Sudanese civil war broke out, the Organisation of African Unity (now African Union) has made series of attempts to ensure peace and put an end to reckless killings and wanton destruction of properties in the country. She had gone to the extent of stationing a peacekeeping force in the Sudan to maintain peace of recent, the U.N. had offered military assistance to the A.U. peacekeeping mission in the Sudan.The role of International Organisation at maintaining peace in the Sudan with its attendant difficulties form the tenets of discussion in this study.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur, Sudan
Mustafa Abou, Yassir Eltahir, Abdelwahid Ali
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-146
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the two major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Both viruses are hepatotrophic, but not directly cytopathic and elicit progressive liver injuries resulting in the end-stage liver disease unless effectively eradicated [1,2]. In Sudan, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high and increasing, in one study conducted in 1996-1998 among 150 HCC patients, indicated that HBV and HCV are important risk factors of HCC in Sudan [3]. Both human viral infections can be transmitted by various routes, i.e. blood and blood products (e.g. blood transfusion), sexual, oral, vertical and horizontal transmission [4-6]. The well known and routinely used screening serologic techniques Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic test (ICT) were both employed to detect HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies among male blood donors attending Nyala Teaching Hospital. Demographic studies using interviewing questionnaire were also used to illustrate the possible risk factors for both viral infections. The basic epidemiological data for these viruses might be of great importance to the programme managers and health planers, so as to initiate the screening package in the blood banks. A little proper published data of the epidemiology of viral hepatitis is available in Sudan in general and nothing in Dar Fur region particularly. Thus the current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and the possible risk factors for HBV and HCV among blood donors in Nyala.This study was conducted during the period from May to July 2007, as a hospital based study in the city of Nyala, South Dar Fur State, Sudan. The reason for selecting this area was that no previous studies were done to investigate the seroprevalence of both human viral infections. The population of Nyala area is approximately 1.500.000. Subjects were apparently healthy male blood donors (n = 400) attending Nyala Teaching Hospital and randomly sele
‘Our Darfur, Their Darfur’: Sudan’s Politics of Deviance and the Rising ‘Ethnic-Cleansing’in an African Emerging Anarchy  [PDF]
Isiaka Alani Badmus
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This article analyses the current civil war in the Republic of theSudan’s [RoS] western region of Darfur within the broad context of the country’s age-old crisis of governance at the national level; conditioned by the inequitable State’s policies of the central state and its dominant Arab elite. Using Frost’s [1996] identified ‘settled’ body of norms in international relations to probe Sudan’s conducts in domestic and international politics, this paper found Khartoum guilty of gross misconducts and violations of international humanitarian law [IHL].These deviant behaviours, rooted in its quest to establish a theocratic state and export its radical ideology overseas, have pitted the RoS with the wider international community. Drawing from Khartoum’s current military engagements in Darfur and previous similar operations, this study contends strongly that for Sudan to come out of its present political hiccup, its rulers must jettison its lopsided policies in preference for the ones that are inclusive of all ethnic formations in the country with sincerity of purpose. In the final analysis, it is argued that this can onlybecomes meaningful within the context of improved socio-economicconditions. This, stricto sensus, calls for the Africa’s development partners and the wider international community’s economic support to Sudan.
Nutritional Evaluation and Palatability of Major Range Forbs from South Darfur, Sudan  [PDF]
Hafiz Abdalla Mohamed Ali, Abu Bakr Omer Ismail, Mohammed Fatur, Faisal Awad Ahmed, El Hadi Omer Ahmed, Magda Elmahdi Elbushra Ahmed
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2016.61006
Abstract: The nutritive value of rangelands in Southern Darfur, Sudan could be improved by introduction and multiplication of nutritious forbs with the objective of increasing livestock production in the area. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and palatability of eleven range forbs collected at flowering stage from Gahzal Gawazat, Southern Darfur, Sudan using chemical analysis. The crude protein (CP) ranged from 6.8% in Oxygonum atriplicifolium with lowest digestible crude protein (DCP) 2.8% to 16.4% in Zornia diphylla with highest DCP 11.73%. The highest and the lowest crude fiber (CF) values were obtained in Commelina spp (56.4%) and Sesamum alatum (25.9%), respectively. NDF and DMI values were maximum and minimum for Zornia diphylla (44.9 and 2.67%) and Alysicarpus glumaceus (35.3 and 3.4%), respectively. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) ranged from 57.1% in Blepharis linariifolia to 69.3% in Tribulus terrestris with highest digestible energy (DE) in later while the lowest DE was obtained in Commelina spp (2.4%). The calculated in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was highest for the Canavalia ensiformis (50.27%) and lowest value (43.17%) for Commelina spp. Zornia diphylla, Tribulus terrestris and Sesamum alatum showed highest nutritive value, while Alysicarpus glumaceus, Oldenlandia senegalensis and Chrozophora brocchiana showed highest palatability. It is concluded that these rangeland forbs are palatable and their CP and energy contents are sufficient to support different classes of livestock in South Darfur, Sudan.
An Appraisal of the Crisis in Darfur in Western Sudan and the Prospect for a Lasting Peace
MM Adamu
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: The Darfur crisis in western Sudan started in February 2003. It has to date claimed the lives of an estimated number of 200,000 people and another 2.5 million have been displaced and are now living in make shift refugee camps in Chad and neighbouring countries. All attempts to broker peace among the major warring factions had proved abortive and there is little or no hope that the displaced people would one day return to their villages. The killings, raping, suffering and starvation had continued despite the presence of the African Union troops which numbered about 7000 and deployed since 2004. A lot of propaganda, misinformation, fabrications and distortions have gone across to the public in trying to explain the causes and attendant consequence of the said conflict. These have clearly stood on the way to a real understanding of the genesis of the crisis for a lasting peace to be obtained and peace building to be accelerated, and end this bloodshed and suffering that had been the bane of the region for the past five years. This paper is an appraisal of the various views and opinions that had been put forward by different interest groups on the causes of the crisis, its impact and the way forward towards the attainment of peace. African Research Review Vol. 2 (3) 2008: pp. 315-333
From AMIS to UNAMID: The African Union, the United Nations and the challenges of sustainable peace in Darfur, Sudan  [cached]
Saka Luqman,Omede A. J
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2319
Abstract: Since, 2003 when hostilities broke out in Darfur region of Western Sudan, the African Union has been leading international community efforts at restoring peace to this trouble region. The organization deployed ceasefire monitoring commission, peacekeeping force and under Nigeria leadership broker peace agreement between the warring parties. From all indications the Darfur Peace Accord [DPA], brokered in Abuja, Nigeria has not resulted into the normalization of the security and political situation in Darfur as was envisaged. The apparent lack of robust capacity by the African Union Mission, AMIS to stabilize the security situation in Darfur reinforces the call for the United Nations to intervention. With a robust mandate, secure resource base and better logistic capabilities, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur, UNAMID has been proactive in enhancing the protection of its personnel, bases and equipments and greater capacity in the provision of security for safe delivery of humanitarian assistance and protection of civilians. Much as the deployment of UNAMID mission has brought semblance of security, there continue to exist challenges that are undermining security and militating against the achievement of durable peace in Darfur this paper argued. Key words: African Union; Conflict; Darfur; Peacekeeping; Security Résumé Depuis 2003, lorsque les hostilités ont éclaté dans la région du Darfour au Soudan occidental, l’Union africaine a dirigé les efforts de la communauté internationale à rétablir la paix dans cette région trouble. L’organisation a déployé commission de suivi cessez-le-maintien de la paix la force et sous la direction du Nigeria courtier accord de paix entre la guerre parties. de toutes les indications de l’Accord de paix sur le Darfour [DPA], négocié à Abuja, au Nigeria ne s’est pas traduite dans la normalisation de la situation sécuritaire et politique au Darfour comme cela a été envisagé. le manque apparent de forte capacité par la Mission de l’Union africaine, la MUAS à stabiliser la situation sécuritaire au Darfour renforce l’appel à l’Organisation des Nations Unies à l’intervention. Avec un mandat robuste, base de ressources en sécurité et de meilleures capacités logistiques, l’Union africaine- Nations Unies au Darfour, la MINUAD a été proactif dans le renforcement de la protection de son personnel, des bases et des équipements et une plus grande capacité dans la fourniture de sécurité pour une livraison s re de l’aide humanitaire et la protection des civils. Tout comme le déploiement de la mission de la MINUAD a a
Medical Evidence of Human Rights Violations against Non-Arabic-Speaking Civilians in Darfur: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Alexander C. Tsai equal contributor ,Mohammed A. Eisa equal contributor,Sondra S. Crosby,Susannah Sirkin,Michele Heisler,Jennifer Leaning,Vincent Iacopino
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001198
Abstract: Background Ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis. We sought to characterize the nature and geographic scope of allegations of human rights violations perpetrated against civilians in Darfur and to evaluate their consistency with medical examinations documented in patients' medical records. Methods and Findings This was a retrospective review and analysis of medical records from all 325 patients seen for treatment from September 28, 2004, through December 31, 2006, at the Nyala-based Amel Centre for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture, the only dedicated local provider of free clinical and legal services to civilian victims of torture and other human rights violations in Darfur during this time period. Among 325 medical records identified and examined, 292 (89.8%) patients from 12 different non-Arabic-speaking tribes disclosed in the medical notes that they had been attacked by Government of Sudan (GoS) and/or Janjaweed forces. Attacks were reported in 23 different rural council areas throughout Darfur. Nearly all attacks (321 [98.8%]) were described as having occurred in the absence of active armed conflict between Janjaweed/GoS forces and rebel groups. The most common alleged abuses were beatings (161 [49.5%]), gunshot wounds (140 [43.1%]), destruction or theft of property (121 [37.2%]), involuntary detainment (97 [29.9%]), and being bound (64 [19.7%]). Approximately one-half (36 [49.3%]) of all women disclosed that they had been sexually assaulted, and one-half of sexual assaults were described as having occurred in close proximity to a camp for internally displaced persons. Among the 198 (60.9%) medical records that contained sufficient detail to enable the forensic medical reviewers to render an informed judgment, the signs and symptoms in all of the medical records were assessed to be consistent with, highly consistent with, or virtually diagnostic of the alleged abuses. Conclusions Allegations of widespread and sustained torture and other human rights violations by GoS and/or Janjaweed forces against non-Arabic-speaking civilians were corroborated by medical forensic review of medical records of patients seen at a local non-governmental provider of free clinical and legal services in Darfur. Limitations of this study were that patients seen in this clinic may not have been a representative sample of persons alleging abuse by Janjaweed/GoS forces, and that most delayed presenting for care. The quality of documentation was similar to that available in other conflict/post-conflict,
An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan
Claudine Prudhon, Xavier de Radiguès, Nancy Dale, Francesco Checchi
Population Health Metrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-9-57
Abstract: We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan.The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93) and 0.675 (0.23-0.86) for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time.Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.The prevalence of acute malnutrition and mortality rates are crucial indicators to benchmark the severity of a crisis, to track trends, and to inform funding and operational decisions [1,2]. Cross-sectional sample surveys are the main method currently used to estimate these indicators [3,4]. An adequate sampling design is indispensable to ensure the representativeness and accuracy of a survey. Moreover, standardized field data collection through suitable interview and measurement instruments and techniques is paramount to guarantee quality.Despite recent improvements in standardization of nutrition and mortality survey methodology and analysis [5-7], errors in the field application of survey methods persist, potentially resulting in biased data and harmful operational decisions. Reviews of surveys carried out in various crisis settings have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many nutritional [8-12] and most mortality surveys [10,11].Cross-sectiona
Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes)  [PDF]
Mohamed AAMA Mohamed,Faisal Mohamed Ahmed El Hag,Ibrahim Ali Elnour
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093
Abstract: This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open) for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open) and growth stages (flowering and seed setting). Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production) between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP) and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF) and Dry matter yield (DM) had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 332-343
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