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Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity  [PDF]
I. Kyrou,G. Osei-Assibey,N. Williams,R. Thomas,L. Halder,S. Taheri,P. Saravanan,S. Kumar
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/918402
Abstract: Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥?35?kg/m2) using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99?kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99?kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0?kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median) (range: 0–1.75); Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5); Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65) (Group III versus II ; Group III versus I ; Group II versus I ). HAQ score strongly correlated with BMI and age. Nearly three-fourths of the study participants reported some degree of disability (HAQ score > 0). The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35?kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities. 1. Introduction Obesity is the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide and can progressively lead to a spectrum of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, and osteoarthritis [1–3]. Preventing obesity-related co-morbidity relies on effective weight loss interventions; however, it is becoming evident that there is also a further need to focus on the daily living and well-being of obese patients. Obesity is still associated with high early mortality, but advances in the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and acute coronary syndromes are now offering better cardioprotection options and prolong life expectancy [4]. Current data support the notion that in developed societies an increasing number of obese patients are expected to live more than previously estimated, despite failing to reduce their body weight [4, 5]. Furthermore, demographic and epidemiological projections predict growing and progressively ageing obese populations in the Western world [6–8]. These populations are expected to exhibit an escalating burden of obesity-related disease, particularly regarding complications which were previously underestimated or underexpressed due to earlier
Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity  [PDF]
I. Kyrou,G. Osei-Assibey,N. Williams,R. Thomas,L. Halder,S. Taheri,P. Saravanan,S. Kumar
Journal of Obesity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/918402
Abstract: Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median) (range: 0–1.75); Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5); Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65) (Group III versus II <0.001; Group III versus I <0.001; Group II versus I =0.004). HAQ score strongly correlated with BMI and age. Nearly three-fourths of the study participants reported some degree of disability (HAQ score > 0). The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study  [cached]
Silva Diego Augusto Santos,Petroski Edio Luiz,Peres Marco Aurelio
Nutrition Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-112
Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF) estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years) from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50). Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4) and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1). Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.
Prevalence of self-reported overweight-obesity and its association with socioeconomic and health factors among older Mexican adults
Ruiz-Arregui,Liliana; Castillo-Martínez,Lilia; Orea-Tejeda,Arturo; Mejía-Arango,Silvia; Miguel-Jaimes,Alejandro;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007001000007
Abstract: objective: to investigate the prevalence of obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors and comorbidities in a population-based study. material and methods: data were examined from 4 605 persons ages 60 and older that participated in the 2001 mexican health and aging study, conducted in rural and urban communities in mexico. the prevalence of obesity (according to self-reported weight and height) was obtained, stratified by age, and logistic regression was used to study cross-sectional associations between obesity and socioeconomic factors. results: of the population studied, 20.9% were classified as obese and the prevalence diminishes with age. overall, women were more likely than mentobe obese. lower educational level was associated with lower risk of overweight. in both men and women, obesity was more common between subjects with hypertension (or 1.38 and 1.71, respectively) and long-distance walk limitation (or 2.08 and 2.21, respectively). concluison: in older mexican adults, hypertension and long-distance walk limitation were independent associated factors for higher prevalence of obesity.
Life Years Lost Associated with Obesity-Related Diseases for U.S. Non-Smoking Adults  [PDF]
Su-Hsin Chang, Lisa M. Pollack, Graham A. Colditz
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066550
Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to predict life years lost associated with obesity-related diseases (ORDs) for U.S. non-smoking adults, and to examine the relationship between those ORDs and mortality. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2000, were used. We employed mixed proportional hazard models to estimate the association between those ORDs and mortality and used simulations to project life years lost associated with the ORDs. We found that obesity-attributable comorbidities are associated with large decreases in life years and increases in mortality rates. The life years lost associated with ORDs is more marked for younger adults than older adults, for blacks than whites, for males than females, and for the more obese than the less obese. Using U.S. non-smoking adults aged 40 to 49 years as an example to illustrate percentage of the life years lost associated with ORDs, we found that the mean life years lost associated with ORDs for U.S. non-smoking black males aged 40 to 49 years with a body mass index above 40 kg/m2 was 5.43 years, which translates to a 7.5% reduction in total life years. White males of the same age range and same degree of obesity lost 5.23 life years on average – a 6.8% reduction in total life years, followed by black females (5.04 years, a 6.5% reduction in life years), and white females (4.7 years, a 5.8% reduction in life years). Overall, ORDs increased chances of dying and lessened life years by 0.2 to 11.7 years depending on gender, race, BMI classification, and age.
Diversity of eating patterns and obesity in older adults—A new challenge  [PDF]
Patricia Moraes Ferreira, Silvia Justina Papini, José Eduardo Corrente
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3004
Abstract:

The increase in the variety of food choices influences the eating patterns of older adults, which is in turn increases the occurrence of obesity. This study aimed at identifying eating patterns and their association with obesity in a representative sample of older adults living in an urban area and registered in the basic health unit in the city of Botucatu, S?o Paulo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study and data collection took place from March to June of 2011 through the application of a validated food frequency questionnaire for older adults, a socio-demographic survey and an anthropometric evaluation. Eating patterns were identified through principal component analysis. Scores of individual consumption were divided in tertiles, characterizing as low, moderate or high adherence of the individuals to each pattern. Logistic regression models were fitted for the outcomes “general obesity” and “abdominal obesity” and the tertiles of consumption adjusting by sociodemographic variables. Six eating patterns were identified: Healthy foods, Snacks and weekend meals, Fruits, Light and whole foods, Mild diet and Traditional diet. It was found that the adherence to healthy foods is protective against obesity as well as adherence of snacks and weekend meals are risk of obesity. Eating patterns and their recognized influence on obesity comprise an issue that deserves continuous attention in order to evaluate collectively the eating profile, and develop specific nutritional guidelines for older adults.

Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system
Yong Liu, Janet B Croft, Anne G Wheaton, Geraldine S Perry, Daniel P Chapman, Tara W Strine, Lela R McKnight-Eily, Letitia Presley-Cantrell
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-84
Abstract: Data from 375,653 US adults aged?≥?18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity).The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p?<?0.0001) after adjustment for covariates and were modestly attenuated but not fully explained by FMD. The relationships between insufficient sleep and both diabetes and high blood pressure were also modestly attenuated but not fully explained by obesity.Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.Although sleep is a necessity, about 60 million Americans are affected by chronic sleep disorders and sleep problems that can impair physical well-being and cognitive functioning [1]. A growing body of evidence strongly suggests that self-reported sleep durations are correlates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression and anxiety [2]. These include a cross-sectional study [3], prospective cohort studies [4-6], and an intervention study [7]. However, underlying mechanisms of this relationship are still widely discussed.Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the information collected on sleep health in the U.S. national surveillance systems based on recommendations from the Institute of Medicine [1].
Obesity in Older Adults
Ann Mabe Newman
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2009,
Abstract: The prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled. In this article the author describes the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity are also provided. Differences between the two groups of older adults, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed. The goal of the article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults.
Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria
IO Amole, AD Olorun, AO Owolabi
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2011,
Abstract: Developing countries are now witnessing an increase in overweight; obesity and obesity-related morbidity. We determined the prevalence of obesity using the measure of body mass index (BMI) and hypertension and the association between obesity and hypertension among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 adults was carried out. Participants were administered a standardized questionnaire and had measurements of weight, height and blood pressure taken. Four hundred subjects were randomly selected (221 females and 179 males) with a mean age of 48.65 ± 16.56 years. The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.75% (8.9% for males and 19.5% for females). In addition, 62.4% of the females were sedentary as compared to 50.8% of the males and the difference is statistically significant. The families of most of the subjects who were obese (88.1%) preferred high calorie diets. The prevalence of hypertension among the study population was 50.5% [49.3% for female and 52.0% for males (p>0.05)]. The prevalence of hypertension among the subjects who were obese was 72.9%. Obesity in this environment is particularly significant among females and is associated with hypertension, physical inactivity and the consumption of high calorie diets.
Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria  [PDF]
Isaac Olusayo Amole,Akintayo David OlaOlorun,Akinwumi Olayinka Owolabi
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2011,
Abstract: Developing countries are now witnessing an increase in overweight; obesity and obesity-related morbidity. We determined the prevalence of obesity using the measure of body mass index (BMI) and hypertension and the association between obesity and hypertension among adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 adults was carried out. Participants were administered a standardized questionnaire and had measurements of weight, height and blood pressure taken. Four hundred subjects were randomly selected (221 females and 179 males) with a mean age of 48.65 ± 16.56 years. The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.75% (8.9% for males and 19.5% for females). In addition, 62.4% of the females were sedentary as compared to 50.8% of the males and the difference is statistically significant. The families of most of the subjects who were obese (88.1%) preferred high calorie diets. The prevalence of hypertension among the study population was 50.5% [49.3% for female and 52.0% for males (p>0.05)]. The prevalence of hypertension among the subjects who were obese was 72.9%. Obesity in this environment is particularly significant among females and is associated with hypertension, physical inactivity and the consumption of high calorie diets.
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