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Zooplankton diversity of two floodplain lakes (pats) of Manipur, northeast India  [PDF]
Sharma, B.K.
Opuscula Zoologica Instituti Zoosystematici et Oecologici Universitatis Budapestinensis , 2011,
Abstract: Plankton samples collected (November, 2002 – October, 2004) from Waithou and Utra pats, two floodplain lakesin Manipur state of northeast India, revealed species rich zooplankton (121 species) with diverse nature of Rotifera (75 species).The individual pats exhibited rich species diversity (110 and 103 species) and high monthly richness (68±7 and 61±8 species)respectively with higher community similarities. Zooplankton formed important quantitative component (56.0±4.3 % and55.1±5.1 %) of net plankton of the two pats; Rotifera dominantly contributed to their abundance while Cladocera > Copepodawere sub-dominant groups. The richness and abundance showed significant variations between pats and between months andfollowed oscillating annual patterns in each pat except for peaks during winter. Zooplankton indicated higher species diversityand evenness, lower dominance, lack of quantitative importance of individual species, low densities and equitable abundance ofthe majority of species in both pats. The richness correlated inversely only with nitrate in Waithou pat and abundance positivelycorrelated with alkalinity only in Utra Pat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with abiotic factors explained 55.6 % and61.8% cumulative variance of zooplankton assemblages of Waithou and Utra pats respectively along axis 1 and 2.
Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded
M Suresh Kumar, Richard D Natale, B Langkham, Charan Sharma, Rachel Kabi, Gordon Mortimore
Harm Reduction Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-6-4
Abstract: In the early 1980s injecting heroin became popular in northeast India, sharing border with Myanmar and since then injecting has diffused extensively into many states of northeast India [1,2]. Recent size estimation data show that injecting drug users (IDUs) could constitute 1·9–2·7% of the adult population in Manipur and Nagaland [3]. Ever since HIV was first reported among IDUs in Manipur, HIV infection has rapidly diffused and escalated among the IDUs in the region [4-6]. The HIV prevalence among IDUs during the 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 sero sentinel surveillance was estimated at 39%, 24.5%, 21%, 24% in Manipur and 10%, 8.4%, 3.2%, 4.5% in Nagaland respectively [7]. Sexual transmission of HIV from IDUs to their non-injecting wives has occurred in Manipur [8]. Manipur and Nagaland in northeast India are among the high prevalent HIV states in India and the antenatal HIV prevalence in both states is > 1% [7,9]. The community outreach based interventions for IDUs have been established since early 1990s [10]. Harm reduction interventions have been advocated in the northeastern states to deal with the increasing HIV epidemic among IDUs and they have been driven by community based organizations run by former drug users [11-13]. The targeted interventions supported by the State AIDS Control Societies focus on community outreach based education; distribution of needles and syringes and condoms; and, referral for voluntary confidential, counselling and testing (VCCT). Methadone is not available in India for clinical use since the time it was taken off the Indian pharmacopoeia in 1982. Sublingual buprenorphine is licensed in India for treatment of opioid dependence by drug abuse treatment centres since 1999 [14]. Though an opioid substitution treatment (OST) with sublingual buprenorphine was established and operated in Imphal, Manipur by a non-Governmental organization (NGO) during 1999–2002 targeting about 250 IDUs, the lessons learnt from the project were not documented i
Nutritional Status among the Urban Meitei Children and Adolescents of Manipur, Northeast India  [PDF]
Maibam Samson Singh,R. K. Neeta Devi
Journal of Anthropology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/983845
Abstract: Purpose. To determine the nutritional status (underweight and overweight) among Meitei children and adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional data on 854 subjects (384 boys and 470 girls) were collected during the months of May 2009 to August 2009 following house-to-house survey. An anthropometric rod and a weighing scale were used to measure height and weight. The presence of underweight and overweight has been evaluated using the international cutoff points for children and adolescents. MS-Excel software was used for all statistical analyses. Results. A high prevalence of underweight (30.21%) and overweight (3.12%) in the present study was found among children and adolescent boys, respectively. Among girls, the prevalence of both underweight (33.86%) and overweight (5.18%) was reported higher among children than adolescents, and the differences in the distribution were significant at 0.05 levels. The overall prevalence of underweight (28.29%) was found more or less the same among boys and girls, but overweight (5.10%) was reported higher among girls than boys (2.34%). Conclusion. The possible reasons for both forms of malnutrition among Meitei children and adolescents could be traced through poverty, low dietary intake, socioeconomic condition, nutrition transition, and changing lifestyles. The other possible reasons could be due to peer pressure, eating habits, or emotional factor. 1. Introduction Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood that demands extra nutrients and energy-rich food for rapid growth and maturation [1]. Inadequate diet and unfavourable environmental condition in developing nations like India may adversely affect the growth and nutrition of adolescents. Malnutrition, both undernutrition and overnutrition, refers to an impairment of health, resulting from a deficiency or from an excess or imbalance of nutrients. It is of public health significance among adolescents across the world [2]. The coexistence of overweight/obesity and underweight is rather common in developing countries and is found to be increased proportionally over time [3, 4]. Several studies have investigated the nutritional status of children and adolescents from different parts of India [5–7]. In India alone, there are approximately 60 million children who are underweight [8], this prevalence is higher in rural areas compared to urban areas [9]. India has one of the highest underweight burdens in the world, even twice that of sub-Sahara region. However, India is now also beginning to experience the emerging problem of overweight [10, 11]. A
Proximate Composition and Nutritional Evaluation of Underutilized Legume Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. Grown in Manipur, Northeast India  [PDF]
R.D. Ningombam,P.K. Singh,J.S. Salam
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. (Winged bean), a lesser known nutritious leguminous plant is grown luxuriantly in Manipur State, North-east India. Almost all the plant parts; leaves, flowers, immature pods, matured seeds and tubers are edible. Winged bean plant parts viz., seeds (tender, matured and fully matured seed), pods case (tender, matured and fully matured pod case) and tubers were chemically analysed on dry weight basis. The concentration of crude protein, fat, and fibre, total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugars, starch, total amino acid and minerals (Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Co) were analysed. The results indicated that the highest crude fat (1.7%) was present in mature seed and crude protein was present in fully mature seed (50.7%). The maximum amounts of total sugar (488.90 mg g-1), non-reducing sugar (415.95 mg g-1) and starch (420.60 mg g-1) were recorded in tuber. The plant was also found to have significant quantity of minerals. As regard to the mineral content, mature pod case showed the maximum amount of K (8.9 mg g-1), Ca (8.06 mg g-1) and Mg (5.72 mg g-1). Thus, among the stages taken for analysis, mature pod case contains the maximum amount of macro- and micro-elements. So P. tetragonolobus has got a great future prospect, if properly exploited may serve as a supplementary source of protein and minerals, as a subsidiary food material in Manipur.
Prevalence of malnutrition among the Chiru children of Manipur, India  [cached]
Yumnam Luxmi,Mohinder Pal Sachdeva
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The present study describes the nutritional status of 4 to 12 year-old Chiru children of Manipur, India evaluated with the help of anthropometric measurements. The Chiru is one of the 33 Scheduled tribes of Manipur. The study is based on height and weight of 322 children among whom 172 were boys and 150 girls. It also aims to throw light on different conventional methods of nutritional assessment based on height and weight and their varied results. The Chiru children are shorter in height and lighter in body weight as compared to the NCHS (National Centre for Health Statistics) and ICMR data on Indian children in all the age groups. According to Waterlow’s classification of height for age, about 51% of the Chiru boys and girls are below -2SD score, whereas according to Gomez’s classification of weight for age shows that 31.37%, 49.69% and 15.53% fall under mild, moderate and severe malnourished, respectively categories. Waterlow’s classification of weight for height depicts 70.50% of the children as normal
Nutritional Status among the Urban Meitei Children and Adolescents of Manipur, Northeast India  [PDF]
Maibam Samson Singh,R. K. Neeta Devi
Journal of Anthropology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/983845
Awareness Level of Married Couples on HIV/AIDS in Northeast India – An Empirical Analysis  [cached]
ibyojyoti Bhattacharjee,Dilip C. Nath,Kishore K. Das,Prasanta R. Acharjee
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a complicated disease that can pass on from person to person and can damage the human body’s immune system. Thus, the victim remains susceptible to various other infections. Since appropriate cure for the disease is yet to be available so the better way of avoiding the disease is to eliminate the risk of developing it. The Northeast India is the eastern most part of India and consists of eight states viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is faced with a critical problem of HIV/AIDS and is spreading like wild fire (Srinivasan, 2003). Objectives: (i) To measure the impact of education of both husband and wife and residential type on the knowledge about the transmission of HIV in the North Eastern Region (NER).(ii) To compare the knowledge regarding transmission of HIV among the rural and urban people of the North Eastern Region (NER). Data and Methodology: Data has been taken from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey -II (RCH II) conducted by the Government of India in 2005. Information about five variables like, State, Type of residence, Husband’s education, Wife’s education and Awareness of AIDS (which is considered as the dependent variable) was used. The respondent's awareness about HIV/AIDS were divided into two categories viz. complete knowledge (1) and misconception (0), which is decided by the answers of the respondents to some simple questions on HIV/AIDS. Since the dependent variable is binary so binary logistic regression was used to reach the results. Results/Findings: The misconception of the people about HIV/AIDS is more in the northeast India than those with complete knowledge. As expected, the awareness level is less amongst the rural people compared to their urban counterpart. However, in Manipur where the prevalence of HIV cases is high, more people have complete knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The men with education, has more chance of having complete knowledge about the disease which is however not the case with women. This is true for both rural and urban women of the region. Conclusion: The finding that for women the difference between the percentage of people with complete knowledge about HIV/AIDS amongst those with education and those without education (both rural and urban female population), is negligible- needs proper attention. It means that even education of women of the North East India does not play a significant role to do away with the misconception that they have about HIV/AIDS. Thus, special program are t
Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India  [cached]
Sujit Narwade,Mohit Kalra,Rajkumar Jagdish,Divya Varier
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.150.2002
Abstract: The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven provinces of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula.
DEBDOM: Database Exploring Banana Diversity of Manipur  [PDF]
Warepam Amuchou Singh,Somkuwar Bharat Gopalrao,Thingnam Gourshyam,Pratap Jyoti Handique
Bioinformation , 2013,
Abstract: Being poor man’s apple, banana has a wide popularity worldwide. It’s one of the important horticultural crops used irrespective of rich and poor alike. Manipur along with the other states of Northeast India harboured with plenty of wild and cultivated species of banana that are not fully explored. A data base named DEBDOM has been developed here describing the diversity of banana resources of Manipur and it comprises twenty eight genotypes of Musaceae. The database DEBDOM provides a sophisticated web base access to the details of the taxonomy, morphological characteristics, utility as well as sites of collection of Musa genotypes, and it would have contribute as a potential gene pool sources for the conservation, sustainability as well as for crop improvement in the future breeding programmes.
Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation
Venkatesan Chakrapani, Peter A Newman, Murali Shunmugam, Robert Dubrow
Harm Reduction Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-8-9
Abstract: This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75), two focus groups (n = 17), seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews.One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs); non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using.Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs' human rights; adequate and sustained funding for NSPs to cover all IDU populations, including prisoners; and non-discriminatory access by IDUs to affordable needles/syringes in pharmacies.Injecting drug users (IDUs) are among the highest priority subpopulations for HIV prevention identified by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) in India [1]. Sexual transmission is the pri
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