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An overview of the role of bacterial infection in male infertility
Hamed Fanaei,Jalal Mardaneh,Samira Khayat
Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: An important cause of male infertility is the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract. These infections affect sperm cell function and whole spermatogenesis and also cause deterioration in spermatogenesis, obstruction of the seminal tract, and impairment of spermatozoa function. The most important bacteria associated with genitourinary tract infections include chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and genital mycoplasma species. Inappropriate or delayed therapy of the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract will lead to reduced fertility and, subsequently in severe cases, infertility. In other words, a good understanding of the interaction between bacterial infections and the reproductive system plays an important role in the treatment of infertile men. In this review article, we will discuss clinical and laboratory findings related to the bacterial infection of the genitourinary tract and its effects on male infertility.
Chlamydial Infection, Plasma Peroxidation and Obesity in Tubal Infertility
AC Nsonwu-Anyanwu, MA Charles-Davies, AA Oni, VO Taiwo, FA Bello
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Genital tract infections and obesity are both sources of oxidative stress. Alterations in immune and antioxidant parameters may arise from this or from an indeterminate autoimmune mechanism. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of Chlamydial infection, obesity and oxidative response with tubal infertility in Nigerian women. Methods: It was a case-control study of 40 women with tubal infertility and 32 fertile women, respectively, recruited from the Infertility and Family Planning Clinics respectively, of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Anthropometric indices were measured in each subject and endocervical swabs were taken to screen for current genital tract infection. Antioxidant, hormonal and immunologic analysis were performed on serum. Results: None of the subjects had current genital tract infections. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG positivity was significantly higher in infertile than in fertile subjects [OR 4.33; 95%CI (0.078-0.681)]. No significant variations were observed in the anthropometric indices, antioxidant parameters and hormones between infertile and the fertile women. Body mass index correlated positively with oxidative stress in infertile subjects. Waist and hip circumferences correlated negatively with oestradiol in women with tubal infertility. Conclusion: Chlamydial infection is associated with tubal factor infertility, however, obesity seems to increase oxidative stress and reduce fertility potential in women with tubal factor infertility.
Contribution of Bacterial Infection to Male Infertility in Nigerians  [cached]
Emokpae MA,Uadia PO,Sadiq NM
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: There is disagreement as to the influence of certain microbial infection on male infertility and such agents are ignored. The incidence of these microbial agents in seminal fluid isolates is on the increase. This study therefore evaluates the prevalence of male factor infertility and contribution of microbial infection to male infertility in Kano, northern Nigeria. Seminal fluid analysis in five hundred males who were investigated for infertility was evaluated using the 5th generation SQ AII C-P sperm quality analyzer and the Neubaeur counting chamber. The result indicates that 58.2% had sperm density less than twenty million per millilitre. The oligospermic subjects (sperm density 2-19 millions/ml) were 27.6%, severe oligospermic (sperm density less than 2 million) 13.2% and azoospermia, 17.4%. Asthenospermia (motility less than 50%) decrease from 44.8% in oligospermia to 24.0% in severe oligospermia. Teratospermia (abnormal morphology greater than 50%) also deteriorated from 46.3% to 35.4% in oligospermic and severe oligospermic males respectively. Seminal fluid infection increases with decreasing sperm density, motility and morphology. The prevalence of abnormal sperm indices and bacterial infection is high and Staphylococcus aureus infection should be treated and no longer ignored in the management of male factor infertility.
Association between the JC Polyomavirus Infection and Male Infertility  [PDF]
Manola Comar, Nunzia Zanotta, Eleonora Croci, Immacolata Murru, Roberto Marci, Cecilia Pancaldi, Ornella Dolcet, Stefania Luppi, Monica Martinelli, Elena Giolo, Giuseppe Ricci, Mauro Tognon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042880
Abstract: In recent years the incidence of male infertility has increased. Many risk factors have been taken into consideration, including viral infections. Investigations into viral agents and male infertility have mainly been focused on human papillomaviruses, while no reports have been published on polyomaviruses and male infertility. The aim of this study was to verify whether JC virus and BK virus are associated with male infertility. Matched semen and urine samples from 106 infertile males and 100 fertile males, as controls, were analyzed. Specific PCR analyses were carried out to detect and quantify large T (Tag) coding sequences of JCV and BKV. DNA sequencing, carried out in Tag JCV-positive samples, was addressed to viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences. The prevalence of JCV Tag sequences in semen and urine samples from infertile males was 34% (72/212), whereas the BKV prevalence was 0.94% (2/212). Specifically, JCV Tag sequences were detected in 24.5% (26/106) of semen and 43.4% (46/106) of urine samples from infertile men. In semen and urine samples from controls the prevalence was 11% and 28%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in JCV prevalence was disclosed in semen and urine samples of cases vs. controls. A higher JC viral DNA load was detected in samples from infertile males than in controls. In samples from infertile males the JC virus type 2 strain, subtype 2b, was more prevalent than ubiquitous type 1. JCV type 2 strain infection has been found to be associated with male infertility. These data suggest that the JC virus should be taken into consideration as an infectious agent which is responsible for male infertility.
The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility
EK Oghagbon, SS Taiwo, MO Buhari, DP Oparinde
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: Male infertility is receiving increasing attention in Africa as up to 50% of cases of infertility are ascribed to it. In the management of this condition, the clinical laboratory plays a crucial role especially in the proper identification of causes of infertility. The role of the pathologists in this respect stems from the choice of laboratory equipment, reagents, type of samples needed, proper sample collection and its preparation. Added to these functions, the pathologist should help in the proper selection of required tests so as to ensure optimum diagnosis and treatment efficiency. Semen analysis is the first test required in the laboratory assessment of the infertile male. The obtained spermogram serves as the pivot for further tests which include hormonal assays, tissue studies and karyotyping. There is a disturbing high prevalence of azoospermia among Nigerians. The expected laboratory evaluation and treatment of such patients and others with abnormal spermogram are discussed in this review. Key Words: Male infertility, review. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 69-76
The Role of Urogenital Infection in the Mechanism of Infertility Development  [PDF]
E.A. Shevchenko,A.A. Artifeksova,O.A. Uspenskaya
Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the study is to assess the role of urogenital infection in the mechanisms of infertility development.Materials and Methods. To diagnose urogenital infection agents, polymerase chain reaction technique in real time has been used.Results. There has been determined a statistically significant absence of differences in the groups of infertile and fertile patients according to the frequency of occurrence of urogenital infection agents studied. The bare fact that there is urogenital infection is not a cause and a triggering element of infertility pathogenesis.
Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State
Ibadin, K. O.,Osemwenkha, A. P.,Ibeh, I. N.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI) contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323) samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72) age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8%) infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%), Escherichia coli (4.3%), Micoplasma genitalium (4.0%) Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%). Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%), Schistosoma haematobium (0.9%) Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%), Human immune virus (2.7%). Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.
A Critical Appraisal on the Role of Varicocele in Male Infertility  [PDF]
Ricardo Miyaoka,Sandro C. Esteves
Advances in Urology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/597495
Abstract: Varicocele is a major cause of male infertility, as it may impair spermatogenesis through several distinct physiopathological mechanisms. With the recent advances in biomolecular techniques and the development of novel sperm functional tests, it has been possible to better understand the mechanisms involved in testicular damage provoked by varicocele and, therefore, propose optimized ways to prevent and/or reverse them. Up to now, there is still controversy involving the true benefit of varicocele repair in subfertile men as well as in certain specific situations such as concomitant contralateral subclinical varicocele or associated nonobstructive azoospermia. Also, with the continued development of assisted reproductive technology new issues and questions are emerging regarding the role of varicocelectomy in this context. This paper reviews the most recent data available on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of varicocele with regard to male infertility. 1. Introduction Approximately 8% of men in reproductive age seek medical assistance for fertility-related problems. Among them, 1%–10% carry a condition that compromise their fertility potential and varicocele alone accounts for 35% of these cases [1, 2]. Our personal database of a referral tertiary center for male reproduction presents an incidence of 21.9% of varicocele in 2,875 analyzed subjects [3]. While varicocele has an incidence of 4.4%–22.6% in the general population, 21%–41% of men with primary infertility and 75%–81% of those with secondary infertility have this condition [4, 5]. The impact of varicocele on male fertility was not suspected until the end of the 19th century, when occlusion of dilated veins from the pampiniform plexus was shown to improve semen quality [4, 6]. MacLeod in 1965 demonstrated decreased sperm count, decreased motility and higher prevalence of abnormal forms in semen specimens collected from infertile men with varicocele [7]. Although the physiopathology of varicocele and its relationship with male infertility has been discussed for the last 50 years, the exact mechanisms that would ultimately lead to an infertile/subfertile state are still controversial. Even more debatable is the true benefit from its surgical repair [8, 9]. Treating male factor infertility should have as its ultimate goal to achieve a live birth. However, efforts must be made to maximize the couple’s fertility potential. In this sense, it is argued that varicocele treatment may be critical to restore or optimize testicular function. We present a review on the current concepts and
The role of genital chlamydial infection in acute pelvic inflammatory disease
O K Obunge, C T John
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2007,
Abstract: The polymicrobial nature of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) underscores the need for a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis and etiology of PID especially among core groups most at risk. This study was designed to determine the role of specific microbial infections in leading to PID among women. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection and other reproductive tract infections were determined in 100 women presenting at a health facility at Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The result showed that 11.1 per cent of women with acute PID were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis as compared to 4.3 per cent in the control group (odds ratio 2.75: 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-11.7). Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no case in control group) and bacterial vaginosis (17.5% and 4.3% in PID and control group respectively: Odds ratio 4.7, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1) were also significantly associated with the clinical picture suggestive of acute PID. It is recommended that where resources are limited, patients presenting with acute PID be treated empirically for Chlamydia trachomatis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and gonorrhoea.
Prevalence and awareness about Chlamydial infection in women undergoing infertility evaluation in Lagos, Nigeria
O.A.O Oloyede, T.A Fakoya, A.A Oloyede, A.M Alayo
International Journal of Health Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the prevalence and level of awareness of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and possible correlative factors among women undergoing infertility evaluation. Methods: The study involved analysis of demographics and results of chlamydia screening in 77 infertile women undergoing evaluation over a six month period in Lagos, Nigeria. Results: The mean age was 32 + 6.4 yr (range 20-39 yr). Chlamydia screening was positive in 14 (18.2%). Awareness about the existence, symptomatology, mode of infection and complications was poor. Statistically significant correlation existed between prevalence of chlamydia infection and age, previous history of sexual infection and minimum of one sexual partner in the last one year (p <0.05). The prevalence also increased in secondarily infertile and married women. Conclusion: Chlamydia prevalence was relatively high in women undergoing infertility evaluation in Lagos, with positive correlative factors being increasing age of women, previous sexual infection and one or more sexual partners.

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