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Dispositional optimism and coping with pain  [cached]
Bargiel-Matusiewicz K,Krzyszkowska A
European Journal of Medical Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/2047-783x-14-s4-271
Abstract: Objective The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). Material and methods The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results The results show that dispositional optimism correlates positively with: internal locus of pain control r = 0.6, P < 0.01; declared coping with pain r = 0.38, P < 0.05; diverting attention r = 0.93, P < 0.01; and behavioral activity r = 0.82, P < 0.01. Dispositional optimism correlates negatively with catastrophizing r = -0.28, P < 0.05. Conclusions We conclude that dispositional optimism plays a key role in forming the mechanisms of coping with chronic pain and thereby in improving the psychophysical comfort of patients.
Nuclear gene phylogeography using PHASE: dealing with unresolved genotypes, lost alleles, and systematic bias in parameter estimation
Ryan C Garrick, Paul Sunnucks, Rodney J Dyer
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-118
Abstract: We found that PHASE usually had very low false-positives (i.e., a low rate of confidently inferring haplotype pairs that were incorrect). The majority of genotypes that could not be resolved with high confidence included an allele occurring only once in a dataset, and genotypic configurations involving two low-frequency alleles were disproportionately represented in the pool of unresolved genotypes. The standard practice of omitting unresolved genotypes from downstream analyses can lead to considerable reductions in overall phylogenetic diversity that is skewed towards the loss of alleles with larger-than-average pairwise sequence divergences, and in turn, this causes systematic bias in estimates of important population genetic parameters.A combination of experimental and computational approaches for resolving phase of segregating sites in phylogeographic applications is essential. We outline practical approaches to mitigating potential impacts of computational haplotype reconstruction on phylogeographic inferences. With targeted application of laboratory procedures that enable unambiguous phase determination via physical isolation of alleles from diploid PCR products, relatively little investment of time and effort is needed to overcome the observed biases.The increasing use of nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences in phylogeographic studies, in combination with sequence data from a haploid organellar locus, has been driven by the considerable improvements in strength and accuracy of historical inference that multi-locus analyses can provide [1]. The development of conserved intron-spanning polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers has facilitated amplification of low- or single-copy nuclear loci in non-model species [2,3], and anonymous nuclear sequence loci have also been successfully applied in phylogeographic studies of diverse taxa (e.g., arthropods [4,5]; reptiles [6]; birds [7]). However, assaying nDNA sequence variation for reasonably large population-genetic sample s
An ehea stuck in traffic  [cached]
Bert Vanderkendelare
REDU : Revista de Docencia Universitaria , 2011,
Abstract: En esta contribución, el autor ofrece su impresión personal sobre el punto de vista de los estudiantes sobre la aplicación del Proceso de Bolonia' y sobre las líneas de actuación introducidas en los últimos a os así como los retos que se avecinan en relación a la Conferencia Ministerial de 2012 en Bucarest, Rumania. Comenzando con las quemas llevadas a cabo en 2009 en Bolonia con ocasión del 10o aniversario de la Declaración de Bolonia, el autor describe los distintos problemas que sufrido la aplicación de Bolonia y las causas que frenan la plena realización del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Mirando hacia adelante al2012, el autor sugiere cómo el EEES se podría renovar y convertirse en un verdadero espacio para el intercambio educativo de alta calidad. No sólo se cita la lista de 14 prioridades para el a o 2012 creada por la Unión de Estudiantes Europeos, sino que se demanda un proceso de Bolonia más vinculante, que obligue a los países signatarios a comprometerse con mayor claridad en los avances previstos para los próximos a os y en ayudar a otros países a hacer lo mismo. ABSTRACT An ehea stuck in traffic In this contribution the author gives a personal impression from a European students’ point of view on the implementation of the Bologna Process’ action lines in the past years and the challenges that lie ahead for the 2012 Ministerial Conference in Bucharest, Romania. Starting off with the Bologna Burns protest at the 10th anniversary of the Bologna Process in 2009 the author outlines the different problems the Bologna implementation has known and the causes that are holding the European Higher Education Area from a full completion. Looking forward to 2012 the author advises how the EHEA can revamp and become a true area for educational exchange of high quality. Not only does he cite a list of 14 priorities for 2012 created by the European Students’ Union, but he also poses a demand for a more binding Bologna Process, that forces the signatory countries to commit themselves more clearly to progress in the next years and help other countries to do so as well.
Coding for Memory with Stuck-at Defects  [PDF]
Yongjune Kim,B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2013.6655249
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an encoding scheme for partitioned linear block codes (PLBC) which mask the stuck-at defects in memories. In addition, we derive an upper bound and the estimate of the probability that masking fails. Numerical results show that PLBC can efficiently mask the defects with the proposed encoding scheme. Also, we show that our upper bound is very tight by using numerical results.
Codes for Partially Stuck-at Memory Cells  [PDF]
Antonia Wachter-Zeh,Eitan Yaakobi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this work, we study a new model of defect memory cells, called partially stuck-at memory cells, which is motivated by the behavior of multi-level cells in non-volatile memories such as flash memories and phase change memories. If a cell can store the $q$ levels $0, 1, \dots, q-1$, we say that it is partially stuck-at level $s$, where $1 \leq s \leq q-1$, if it can only store values which are at least $s$. We follow the common setup where the encoder knows the positions and levels of the partially stuck-at cells whereas the decoder does not. Our main contribution in the paper is the study of codes for masking $u$ partially stuck-at cells. We first derive lower and upper bounds on the redundancy of such codes. The upper bounds are based on two trivial constructions. We then present three code constructions over an alphabet of size $q$, by first considering the case where the cells are partially stuck-at level $s=1$. The first construction works for $u
The Use of Structured Imagery and Dispositional Measurement to Assess Situational Use of Mindfulness Skills  [PDF]
Jonathan C. Mitchell, Patricia A. Bach, Jeffrey E. Cassisi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070253
Abstract: The recent proliferation of studies on mindfulness produced varying theoretical models, each based in part on how mindfulness is assessed. These models agree, however, that mindfulness encompasses moment-to-moment or situational experiences. Incongruence between dispositional and situational assessment would be problematic for theory and empirical research. In particular, it remains to be established whether situational measurement is an accurate method for mindfulness assessment and whether dispositional measures are able to accurately detect mindfulness skills in various situations. The association between dispositional and situational mindfulness processes (i.e., situational attention awareness and emotion acceptance) was examined in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 148), independent groups who reported high and low levels of dispositional mindfulness skills were compared on a continuous measure of situational mindfulness skills. In Study 2 (N = 317), dispositional mindfulness questionnaires were used to predict situational use of mindfulness skills. Results suggest not only that situational measures accurately detect use of mindfulness skills, but also that dispositional measures can predict one’s use of situational mindfulness skills. Findings from both studies were consistent across both positive and negative situations. Moreover, neither neuroticism nor extraversion was shown to have a moderating effect on the relationship between dispositional and situational use of mindfulness skills. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future investigations pertaining to measurement validity in this area are discussed.
Dispositional Coping Styles and Childhood Abuse History Among Japanese Undergraduate Students
Noriko Shikai, Masayo Uji, Masahiro Shono, Toshiaki Nagata and Toshinori Kitamura
The Open Family Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874922400801010076]
Abstract: Dispositional coping styles in adulthood may be influenced by one’s experiences as a child. Japanese university students were examined in terms of their coping styles and child abuse history. Regression analyses revealed that an emotion- oriented coping style was predicted by neglect and emotional abuse during childhood.
The Stability of Dispositional Optimism in Relation to Receiving or Not Receiving a Cancer Diagnosis  [PDF]
Inger Schou Bredal, ?ivind Ekeberg
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76083
Abstract:

We used the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) as a unidimensional scale to investigate the stability of dispositional optimism and compared the results with the stability of anxiety and depression. Five hundred and twelve women completed the LOT-R and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale before follow-up mammography and 4 weeks after receiving the result (breast cancer or not). This study shows that dispositional optimism is relatively stable and is not influenced by receiving a cancer diagnosis.

Dispositional Self-Control Capacity and Trait Anxiety as Relates to Coping Styles  [PDF]
Chris Englert, Alex Bertrams, Oliver Dickh?user
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26092
Abstract: In the present article, we analyzed the relationship between dispositional self-control capacity, trait anxiety, and coping styles. Since self-control is often crucial for adapting one’s behavior to be positive, we predicted that dispositional differences in the capacity to exert self-control play a role in determining individuals coping styles. To test this assumption, we assessed participants’ (N = 163) dispositional self-control capacity using the Self-Control Scale, and their dispositional coping styles by using the short version of the German Coping Questionnaire SVF78 (German: Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen). A path analysis supported our hypothesis; higher levels of dispositional self-control capacity were positively associated with positive coping style and negatively associated with negative coping style. Basing on attentional control theory, we further assumed that this relationship was mediated by trait anxiety. In a second study based on a sample of N = 98 participants, we additionally applied the trait version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The results of a path analysis revealed that trait anxiety mediated the relationship between dispositional self-control capacity and coping styles. The results suggest that it may be useful to take a closer look at the role of self-control in the anxiety-coping relationship.
Core Self-Evaluations Mediate the Associations of Dispositional Optimism and Life Satisfaction  [PDF]
Wensheng Jiang, Fei Li, Haipeng Jiang, Lili Yu, Wenbo Liu, Qiang Li, Luning Zuo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097752
Abstract: Background Positive traits, such as life satisfaction, optimism, and core self-evaluation (CSE), have garnered increasing attention from researchers and professionals. However, the trilateral relationship among them remains unclear. Objective This study examines the effect of dispositional optimism on life satisfaction and primarily verified the mediator role of CSEs. Methods Six hundred thirty college students from two general universities completed a questionnaire packet containing life orientation test–revised (LOT–R), core self-evaluations, and satisfaction with life scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the dimension of LOT–R. Bootstrap was used in structural equation modeling to analyze mediation effect. Results Results revealed that dispositional optimism and core self-evaluations were significantly correlated with life satisfaction. CFA identified the bidimensional structure of dispositional optimism. SEM indicated that core self-evaluations partially mediated the effect of dispositional optimism on life satisfaction. The final model also revealed significant paths from optimism and pessimism to life satisfaction through core-self evaluations. Conclusion The findings extended prior studies and shed light on how dispositional optimism influences life satisfaction. This study provides valuable evidence on how to promote the life satisfaction of human beings in positive psychology. A further study can fully explore the relationship among them in multi-cultural follow-up studies.
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