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ComGIS-Based Early Warning System of Rural Drinking Water Safety in Ya’an City of Sichuan, China  [PDF]
Fuquan Ni, Guodong Liu, Liping Xu, Chengwei Fu
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.22018
Abstract: According to characteristic index of spatial-temporal variability of rural drinking water safety in Ya’an City of Sichuan, China, such as water quantity, water quality, convenience degree and guaranteed rate, etc., this study elaborated the basic framework, model’s methodology structure in early warning system of rural drinking water safety on the basis of ComGIS and initially designed information collection, search and re-trieval, evaluation and analysis of factors, dynamic prediction and dynamic early-warning and functions of guidance and management in this system. The design of this system provided scientific basis to grasp the state of rural drinking water safety timely, release early warning information and properly take necessary control measures, etc. The evaluation results showed that the overall trend was getting better. It proved that the rising pressure value and response value were main reasons which caused the rising evaluation value of rural drinking water safety.
Testing and Analysis of Drinking Water Quality in the Rural Areas of High-tech District in Tai’an City  [cached]
Wu-yuan Jia,Chuan-rong Li,Kun Qin,Lin Liu
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n3p155
Abstract: In order to understand the sanitation condition of drinking water in the rural areas of High-tech District in Tai’an City, and to provide scientific bases for drinking water quality improvement and public health protection, water quality was tested and analyzed using the methods recommended in the China national health standard GB5750-85, which included 14 indicators, i.e. sensory characteristics, general chemical indicators, toxicological indicators and bacteriological indicators. The results showed that the contents of total coliform, ammonia nitrogen and iron exceeded the standards, and the contents of volatile phenol and Cr (VI), and the total hardness slightly exceeded the standards. It was concluded that drinking water, especially well water in the rural areas of High-tech District in Tai’an City was slightly polluted. Therefore, currently the related government departments should focus on strengthening “the three wastes” treatment and sanitation management of drinking water transmission, and providing additional water disinfection facilities.
ArcGIS-Based Rural Drinking Water Quality Health Risk Assessment  [PDF]
Fuquan NI, Guodong LIU, Jian YE, Huazhun REN, Shangchun YANG
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.15042
Abstract: Aiming at the unsafe of water quality which is the core problem in rural drinking water safety, the study col-lected 221 water samples of rural drinking water sources in Ya'an and detected the concentrations of the car-cinogen and the non-carcinogen. Based on the analysis of water environment characteristics and the identifi-cation of water environment health risk source of Sichuan Ya’an City, which includes seven counties and a district and is the typical region of the western margin of Sichuan Basin, this study calculated and analyzed the carcinogenic risk (R) and non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index, HI) by applying the health risk model recommended by the US National Research Council of National Academy of Science. Then, taking advan-tage of the geo-statistic spatial analysis function of ArcGIS, this study analyzed the assessment result data (R and HI), selected the proper interpolation approach and educed R and HI spatial distribution maps of the study area. R and HI of the single factor and integrate factors were evaluated and thus obtained the following conclusions: For one thing, the cancerous risk indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 94%) is the level of 10-7 and it belong to the safety extension. The main carcinogen in the water sources are As, Cr6+ and Pb, their concentrations are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01, 0.005, 0.01mg/l respectively and such water source mainly distributed in Yucheng district and Mingshan county. For another, the non-cancerous hazard indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 98%) is also less than the limit value 1 and will not harm the local residents. The health risk of non-carcinogen comes mainly from As and fluoride, their concentra-tions are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01 and 0.1-4.2mg/l respectively. The results of the integrate factors health risk assessment showed that the total cancerous risk were still at the level of 10-6, only 12 drinking water source investigation sites (5%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA (the limit value is 10-6); the total non-cancerous hazard indexes are still in the range of 10-2-10-1, and will not harm the local residents either, only 18 drinking water source investigation sites (8%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA(the limit value is 1).The densely populated areas such as Yucheng Dis-trict, Tianquan County, Yingjing County and Shimian County are where the four contaminating materials, i.e., As, Cr6+, Pb and fluoride should be monitored with emphasis. Study results disclosed the health risk control indexes
An Early Warning System for Regional Rain-Induced Landslide Hazard  [PDF]
Shengshan Hou, Ang Li, Bin Han, Pinggen Zhou
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.43053
Abstract:

Landslide in alpine regions often causes heavy losses of both human lives and properties, most of the landslides are induced by heavy rainfall. In this paper, we put forward an early warning system of rain-induced landslide. From 2002, we carried on the demonstrative work of landslide monitoring and early warning in Yaan, Sichuan Province, China, and constructed the first county-scale landslide monitoring and early warning region. Yucheng District of Yaan City is located in the west of the Sichuan Basin, right in the intersection of SichuanBasin and the Tibetan Plateau. The slopes are made of Mesozoic sedimentary rock, sandstone inter-bedded with mudstone. Yucheng District has the title “sky funnel” because of the high precipitation, the annual precipitation is about 1750 mm. We carried out detailed landslide survey, and obtained the location, scale, characteristics, influence and triggering factors of the landslides. Then we assessed the regional landslide susceptibility. Based on the evolution law of the landslides, we selected ten factors to study the relationship between the factors and landslide. Using the bi-variate statistics method, we calculated the contribution to landslide from each factor, classified the susceptibility into four categories. We set up the regional rainfall monitoring network with 13 automatic CAWS600R rain gauges. Using the landslide survey data, we studied the rainfall influencing of the regional landslides. The one-day and three-day rainfall controls the occurrence of regional landslide. We also classified the triggering effect of rainfall into four categories. We presented a method to calculate the landslide danger degree using the susceptibility and triggering category. Utilizing the predicted rainfall data and real-time monitored rainfall data, together with the landslide susceptibility map, we developed a WebGIS-based landslide warning system, which greatly strengthened the capability for geohazard

Oestrogenic activity in drinking waters from a rural area in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa
NH Aneck-Hahn, MS Bornman, C de Jager
Water SA , 2009,
Abstract: In South Africa, limited data are available regarding possible oestrogenic activity in the aquatic systems and especially drinking water. Water in the rural areas is often contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic compounds originating from nearby industries, agriculture and households. In these rural areas the only access to drinking water is boreholes, natural springs and rivers. Thus human exposure to environmental contaminants in drinking water is potentially high. Two rural communities near Mokopane in the Waterberg district of the Limpopo Province were selected in order to screen for oestrogenic activity in drinking water sources in a rural area. Eleven 1 . water samples (Molekane n= 4; Sekuruwe n= 7), were collected in prepared glass bottles and extracted on a SPE C18 cartridge and reconstituted into ethanol. The recombinant yeast oestrogen screen was used to determine the oestrogenic activity in the extracts. 17 à-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control and the results were expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEq). The EEq of the water from both the communities ranged between 0.63 - 2.48 x10-9 g/.. These concentrations are similar to other studies conducted in Korean river waters in rural and city areas and Flemish surface waters. The recombinant yeast screen confirmed oestrogenic activity in the drinking water samples; further investigation is necessary to determine the source of the contamination and association with impaired growth.
Iron stability in drinking water distribution systems in a city of China
NIU Zhang-bin,WANG Yang,ZHANG Xiao-jian,HE Wen-jie,HAN Hong-da,YIN Pei-jun,
NIU Zhang-bin
,WANG Yang,ZHANG Xiao-jian,HE Wen-jie,HAN Hong-,YIN Pei-jun

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: A field study on the estimation and analysis of iron stability in drinking water distribution system was carried out in a city of China. The stability of iron ion was estimated by pC-pH figure. It was found that iron ion was unstable, with a high Fe(OH)
Trace Elements in the Drinking Water and Their Possible Health Effects in Aligarh City, India  [PDF]
Taqveem Ali Khan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.37062
Abstract: Environmental degradation and unethical human intervention in the natural system has increased the concern for the betterment of healthy living. The deterioration of aquatic system is commonplace in the developing world. The present paper shows the trace elements (Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu and Mn) concentrations in the drinking water of Aligarh city and their possible effect on the health of the inhabitants. The higher concen- tration of some elements in the drinking water and the poor health of inhabitants are found correlated. The statistical analysis of the data shows positive correlation between some elements. The principal component analysis of the data gives four factors with significance level of 42%, 29%, 15% and 12% respectively.
Comparison of TRMM and Water District Rain Rates over New Mexico
Long S CHIU,Zhong LIU,Jearanai VONGSAARD,Stanley MORAIN,Amy BUDGE,Paul NEVILLE,Chandra BALES,
Long S. CHIU
,Zhong LIU,Jearanai VONGSAARD,Stanley MORAIN,Amy BUDGE,Paul NEVILLE,Chandra BALES

大气科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: This paper compares monthly and seasonal rain rates derived from the Version 5 (V5) and Version 6(V6) TRMM Precipitation Radar (TPR, TSDIS reference 2A25), TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI, 2A12),TRMM Combined Instrument (TCI, 2B31), TRMM calibrated IR rain estimates (3B42) and TRMM merged gauge and satellite analysis (3B43) algorithms over New Mexico (NM) with rain gauge analyses provided by the New Mexico water districts (WD). The average rain rates over the NM region for 1998-2002 are 0.91 mm d- 1 for WD and 0.75, 1.38, 1.49, 1.27, and 1.07 mm d-1 for V5 3B43, 3B42, TMI, PR and TCA; and 0.74, 1.38, 0.87 and 0.97 mm d-1 for V6 3B43, TMI, TPR and TCA, respectively. Comparison of V5 3B43 with WD rain rates and the daily TRMM mission index (TPR and TMI) suggests that the low bias of V5 3B43 for the wet months (summer to early fall) may be due to the non-inclusion of some rain events in the operational gauge analyses that are used in the production of V5 3B43. Correlation analyses show that the WD rain rates vary in phase, with higher correlation between neighboring WDs.High temporal correlations (>0.8) exist between WD and the combined algorithms (3B42, 3B43 and TCA for both V5 and V6) while satellite instrument algorithms (PR, TMI and TCI) are correlated best among themselves at the monthly scale. Paired t-tests of the monthly time series show that V5 3B42 and TMI are statistically different from the WD rain rates while no significant difference exists between WD and the other products. The agreements between the TRMM satellite and WD gauge estimates are best for the spring and fall and worst for winter and summer. The reduction in V6 TMI (-7.4%) and TPR (-31%)rain rates (compared to V5) results in better agreement between WD estimates and TMI in winter and TPR during summer.
Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II): Characterization of chemical parameters
ZA Napacho, SV Manyele
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents a study on drinking water quality in Temeke District (Dar es Salaam), which involved analyses of chemical parameters of drinking water samples from different drinking water sources. The drinking water sources examined included tap water, river water and well water (deep and shallow wells). Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and chloride were obtained by titration method while the nitrate concentration levels were determined by spectrophotometer. Tap water was found to be of high quality than other sources in terms of chemical characteristics. The study revealed that the chemical parameters of water sources did not meet the permissible World Health Organization (WHO) and Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS) levels. Examining exceedence above the WHO standards, it was revealed that most of the samples contained chloride levels above allowable WHO limits. It was recommended that drinking water sources for domestic use should be protected from pollution sources.
Flood risk assessment of coastal community: A case study in Longwan District of Wenzhou City
沿海城市社区暴雨洪水风险评价——以温州龙湾区为例

ZHAO Qing-liang,WANG Jun,XU Shi-yuan,CHEN Zhen-lou,LIU Yao-long,XIE Cui-na,
赵庆良
,王军,许世远,陈振楼,谢翠娜,胡英杰

地理研究 , 2010,
Abstract: Coastal cities are not only regions with frequent natural disasters, but also important regions and strategic centers with high population density and highly-developed economy. Owing to the global warming, sea-level rising, and the interaction of land and ocean, the vulnerability and the natural disasters risk level of the coastal cities have remarkably increased, and the losses caused by natural disasters are enormous. Therefore, the research on the natural disaster risk of the coastal cities has become a focus owing to the importance and the high risk of the coastal cities exposure to natural disasters. Longwan District of Wenzhou City has seriously affected by flood disaster resulted from rainstorm of typhoon and storm surge. Beach aquaculture and fishery in Longwan District are well developed, but the annual typhoon flood season often results in casualties and great economic losses. Flood risk assessment and regionalization research in this region is not only able to make up inadequate studies on flood risk in mountainous and hilly cities, but also able to enrich and develop the theories and methodologies of urban flood risk management. Scenario-based studies on rainstorm flood risk assessment are especially carried out on the basis of mountainous and hilly regions in mediumand small watersheds down streams and flooding scenarios at different return periods in Longwan District, Wenzhou. By calculating the frequency of precipitation of heavy rain in Longwan District of Wenzhou City, the different precipitation and flow depths of different return periods were obtained. With the aid of self-compiled GIS program and flood scenario simulation on the basis of "precipitation volumetric method", and taking consideration of natural factors such as surface runoff, topographic relief and infiltration, this article simulates flood surface level at different return periods, calculates respective flooding areas corresponded to different submerge depths range, and evaluates rainstorm flood risk in Longwan District in terms of flood submerge depths. The paper simulates typical flooding scenario caused by history-recorded typhoon rainstorms and evaluates the risk with the data observed when typhoon "Haitang" occurred in Longwan District in 2005.
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