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Characterising and modelling groundwater discharge in anagricultural wetland on the French Atlantic coast
Ph. Weng,F. Giraud,P. Fleury,C. Chevallier
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2003,
Abstract: Interaction between a wetland and its surrounding aquifer was studied in the Rochefort agricultural marsh (150 km2). Groundwater discharge in the marsh was measured with a network of nested piezometers. Hydrological modelling of the wetland showed that a water volume of 770,000 m3 yr–1 is discharging into the marsh, but that this water flux essentially takes place along the lateral borders of the wetland. However, this natural discharge volume represents only 20% of the artificial freshwater injected each year into the wetland to maintain the water level close to the soil surface. Understanding and quantifying the groundwater component in wetland hydrology is crucial for wetland management and conservation. Keywords: wetland, hydrology, groundwater, modelling, marsh
Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal
J. Figueiredo da Silva,R. W. Duck,T. S. Hopkins,J. M. Anderson
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2002,
Abstract: The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ~16 m water depth) from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria de Aveiro. The buoyant plume has a distinctive reddish brown colour and is clearly visible at the water surface. The transport and dispersion of the plume was monitored by airborne photography and by in situ water sampling. Results revealed the surface currents present and water mass fronts in the nearshore zone of the Aveiro coast. During the spring and summer, the plume was not transported offshore in the manner expected by the upwelling shelf circulation. Instead, it was commonly observed to be transported alongshore with the prevailing southerly circulation or with an onshore component. The transport to the south caused the outfall plume to interact with the circulation associated with the tidal currents generated in the inlet channel to the Ria de Aveiro. The observations suggest that the trophic status of the Ria de Aveiro is unlikely to change because of the operation of the submarine outfall. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how simple observations of wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall can be used to improve understanding of nearshore circulation. Keywords: water circulation, upwelling, ocean outfall, remote sensing, eutrophication, Ria de Aveiro
Vertical distribution of aerosols over the east coast of India inferred from airborne LIDAR measurements
S. K. Satheesh, V. Vinoj, S. Suresh Babu, K. Krishna Moorthy,Vijayakumar S. Nair
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: The information on altitude distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere is essential in assessing the impact of aerosol warming on thermal structure and stability of the atmosphere. In addition, aerosol altitude distribution is needed to address complex problems such as the radiative interaction of aerosols in the presence of clouds. With this objective, an extensive, multi-institutional and multi-platform field experiment (ICARB-Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget) was carried out under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO-GBP) over continental India and adjoining oceans during March to May 2006. Here, we present airborne LIDAR measurements carried out over the east Coast of the India during the ICARB field campaign. An increase in aerosol extinction (scattering + absorption) was observed from the surface upwards with a maximum around 2 to 4 km. Aerosol extinction at higher atmospheric layers (>2 km) was two to three times larger compared to that of the surface. A large fraction (75–85%) of aerosol column optical depth was contributed by aerosols located above 1 km. The aerosol layer heights (defined in this paper as the height at which the gradient in extinction coefficient changes sign) showed a gradual decrease with an increase in the offshore distance. A large fraction (60–75%) of aerosol was found located above clouds indicating enhanced aerosol absorption above clouds. Our study implies that a detailed statistical evaluation of the temporal frequency and spatial extent of elevated aerosol layers is necessary to assess their significance to the climate. This is feasible using data from space-borne lidars such as CALIPSO, which fly in formation with other satellites like MODIS AQUA and MISR, as part of the A-Train constellation.
Airborne Particles during a Firework Festival in Belvedere M.mo, South-Western Italian Coast  [PDF]
Mariantonia Bencardino, Virginia Andreoli, Jessica Castagna, Francesco D’Amore, Valentino Mannarino, Sacha Moretti, Attilio Naccarato, Nicola Pirrone, Francesca Sprovieri
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2018.72009
Abstract: The effects of a Summer Firework Festival on the air quality were studied for the first time in a rural area of Southern Italy. The case study analyzes the physical-chemical properties of airborne particles collected during the Note di Fuoco (NDF) Festival, which took place in Belvedere M.mo in 2016. The sampling period was peculiar since in one week three different kinds of events have succeeded: three days during the NDF Festival with the concurrence of the festival and the firework displays, one day with the typical street Market involving food stalls and specialty shops, and three days with no specific events, considered as background conditions. Particulate Matter in different two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) was simultaneously collected on a daily basis and then chemically analyzed for major and rare metal content as well as for organic and elemental carbon determination. Levels of particles were even below the European air quality limit values. However, the day with the country market and during the three days of the NDF festival, the finer and respirable particulate fraction, PM2.5, showed an increase of 46% and 84%, respectively, over the mean concentration values observed during the background days. Both elemental and organic carbon, even in the finer fraction showed an increment up to 30%. All major, trace and rare elements were found in higher concentrations during the festival with respect to those recorded in days with no events. In our case study, K was recognized as the best fireworks tracer because its level doubled during the festival. Typical firework tracers like Fe, Ti, Mn, Pb and Sr resulted in greater concentrations, up to 50%.
Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan)  [PDF]
A. Al-Zoubi,L. Eppelbaum,A. Abueladas,M. Ezersky,E. Akkawi
International Journal of Geophysics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/341797
Abstract: Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological), technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures) on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise), and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan). We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here) are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM). 1. Introduction The development of new modern gravimetric and variometric (gradientometric) equipment, which makes it possible to record small previously inaccessible anomalies, has enhanced observational methodology as well as new gravity data processing methods and interpretation. These advances have triggered the rapid rise in the number of microgravity methodology applications in environmental and economic minerals geophysics. Microgravity is now recognized as an effective tool for the analysis of a whole range of geological subsurface inhomogeneities, the monitoring of volcanic activity, and prospecting for useful minerals (e.g., [3–36]). At the same time different kinds of noise of different origin complicate analysis of microgravity data. For removing (elimination) the noise components numerous procedures and methodologies were developed. We will analyze in this paper a problem of regional trend removing under complex geological-geophysical environments. Such a problem is highly essential by delineation of weak anomalies from buried karst terranes in the Dead Sea Basin where regional horizontal gravity gradients may exceed
The Impact of Yangtze River Discharge, Ocean Currents and Historical Events on the Biogeographic Pattern of Cellana toreuma along the China Coast  [PDF]
Yun-wei Dong, Hai-shan Wang, Guo-Dong Han, Cai-huan Ke, Xin Zhan, Tomoyuki Nakano, Gray A. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036178
Abstract: Aim Genetic data were used to measure the phylogeographic distribution of the limpet, Cellana toreuma along the China coast in order to acsertain impacts of historic events, ocean currents and especially freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River on the connectivity of intertidal species with limited larval dispersal capability. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic variation in 15 populations of C. toreuma (n = 418), ranging from the Yellow Sea (YS), East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS), were determined from partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Genetic diversity and divergence based on haplotype frequencies were analyzed using CONTRIB, and AMOVA was used to examine genetic population structure. Historic demographic expansions were evaluated from both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution tests. Among the 30 haplotypes identified, a dominant haplotype No. 1 (H1) existed in all the populations, and a relatively abundant private haplotype (H2) in YS. Pairwise FST values between YS and the other two groups were relatively high and the percentage of variation among groups was 10.9%. Conclusions The high nucleotide and gene diversity in the YS, with large pairwise genetic distances and relatively high percentages of variation among groups, suggests that this group was relatively isolated from ECS and SCS. This is likely driven by historic events, ocean currents, and demographic expansion. We propose that freshwater discharge from the Yangtze River, which may act as physical barrier limiting the southward dispersal of larvae from northern populations, is especially important in determining the separation of the YS group from the rest of the Chinese populations of C. toreuma.
Elevated airborne beta levels in Pacific/West Coast US States and trends in hypothyroidism among newborns after the Fukushima nuclear meltdown  [PDF]
Joseph J. Mangano, Janette D. Sherman
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.31001

Various reports indicate that the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is increasing in developed nations, and that improved detection and more inclusive criteria for the disease do not explain this trend entirely. One risk factor documented in numerous studies is exposure to radioactive iodine found in nuclear weapons test fallout and nuclear reactor emissions. Large amounts of fallout disseminated worldwide from the meltdowns in four reactors at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi plant in Japan beginning March 11, 2011 included radioiodine isotopes. Just days after the meltdowns, I-131 concentrations in US precipitation was measured up to 211 times above normal. Highest levels of I-131 and airborne gross beta were documented in the five US States on the Pacific Ocean. The number of congenital hypothyroid cases in these five states from March 17-December 31, 2011 was 16% greater than for the same period in 2010, compared to a 3% decline in 36 other US States (p < 0.03). The greatest divergence in these two groups (+28%) occurred in the period March 17-June 30 (p < 0.04). Further analysis, in the US and in other nations, is needed to better understand any association between iodine exposure from Fukushima-Dai-ichi and congenital hypothyroidism risk.

The Dead State  [cached]
Richard Gaggioli
International Journal of Thermodynamics , 2012, DOI: 10.5541/ijot.423
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for the selection of the dead state for exergy analysis, guidance that is especially important in applications to energy-conversion and materials processing plant engineering, and to ecology. First, the general definition of the dead state is provided, based on the concept of ‘the available energy of a body’ as originally presented by Gibbs. Gibbs ‘body’ can be any overall system, no matter how complex and a crucial point is that there is no need to include or have a ‘reference environment.’ On this groundwork, criteria underlying the selection of the appropriate dead state for a variety of practical engineering systems are referred to; while these cases are not exhaustive, they provide examples of the rationale for selection of an appropriate dead state for any case. Finally, the implications and relevance of the dead state on applications of exergy considerations to the issues of ecology and sustainability are discussed.
Dvergar and the Dead  [cached]
Santiago Barreiro
Brathair , 2008,
Abstract: In this article we analyze, through Old Norse sources, the evidence that has lead scholars to propose a connection between mythical dvergar and the dead in the Scandinavian Middle Ages. Instead of focusing on the reconstruction of original meanings and etymological roots, we analyze the sources under the light of the social system exiting in the Scandinavian cultural area, beginning with the late pre- Christian period up to the late Middle Ages. We criticize the perspective that imagines dvergar were representing the dead, and propose an alternative interpretation for their possible meaning and association during the analyzed timeframe, connecting them with outsiders and to the role of the gift-exchange as a creator of social ties.
The walking dead
Gregory A Petsko
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-3-108
Abstract: Sheriff McClelland: Yeah, they're dead. They're all messed up."Night of the Living Dead (1968)They come out of the night, shuffling towards us slowly, inexorably - pitiless, mindless and voracious. They care for nothing but their own continued existence. Unchecked, they will devour everything in their path.They are the Zombie Ideas: ideas that seemingly died long ago but nonetheless still walk among us. Creationism, the Efficient Market, Iraq as the wellspring of the 9/11 terrorists, faith as inherently superior to reason - Zombie Ideas, every one, and there are scores more. They should be dead, but they won't stay dead.I've been thinking about zombies a lot lately. Not that I particularly want to; it's just that you can't avoid it if you live in the United States. Zombies are a dominant theme in American popular culture, along with vampires and werewolves. But whereas vampires are dangerously romantic (that biting of the neck is pretty obvious stuff), and werewolves are doomed tragic figures (Universal Studios' 1941 picture The Wolfman, starring Lon Chaney Jr and Claude Rains, is still one of the most moving films of all time), zombies are pretty much without redeeming social value. They don't think, communicate, or feel. All they do is stumble along, looking for human flesh to feed on.It may surprise you to learn that the current idea of what zombies are like is a recent development and quite different from what people used to believe. Zombies traditionally were not resurrected corpses; they were living people who had lost all capacity for independent thought and action because they had fallen under the spell of a voodoo witch doctor.That was before October 1968, when a young, Pittsburgh-based, independent filmmaker named George Romero released Night of the Living Dead. Filmed in glorious black-and-white for a tiny budget and starring a cast of complete unknowns, the movie received surprising critical acclaim. Rex Reed wrote, "If you want to see what turns a B mov
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