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Comparing Pre-Paid Communal Water Metering and Delegated Management in Urban Poor Setting: Case Studies in Nakuru and Kisumu in Kenya  [PDF]
Robert Hanjahanja, Christian Omuto, Elijah Biamah
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.64026
Water service providers face multiple challenges in their service provision. These challenges include high non-revenue water, low water coverage, many incidences of waterborne diseases, and high water bills, etc. This study set to assess how changes in water metering strategies can overcome these challenges. The study analyzed three water metering technologies for their suitability to improve service provision. The strategies were: conventional water metering where meter-readers collect readings for post-billing; community prepaid metering (CPM) where meters are preloaded with tokens; and delegated meter management (DMM) where service provision and billing is delegated to master operators. CPM and DMM were installed in an existing conventional network and data on commonly-used performance evaluation parameters collected through interviews, field-visits, and existing literature. The results portrayed CPM and DMM with positive improvements to the conventional metering. CPM had over 70% improvements in unit cost of water and time for water access. DMM had over 90% improvements in water coverage and non-revenue water. In general, the study found CPM with positive impacts on the cost of water, potable water, and time to fetching water while DMM had positive impacts on water coverage and non-revenue water. It’s recommended that the CPM and DMM models used in this study be cross-tested and more individual strengths be drawn.
Smart Metering and Water End-Use Data: Conservation Benefits and Privacy Risks  [PDF]
Damien P. Giurco,Stuart B. White,Rodney A. Stewart
Water , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/w2030461
Abstract: Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in the home, disaggregated by end-use (shower, toilet, clothes washing, garden irrigation, etc.). This paper explores questions regarding the degree of information detail required to assist utilities in targeting demand management programs and informing customers of their usage patterns, whilst ensuring privacy concerns of residents are upheld.
Conceptual Design and Development of Water Metering System for Multiple Family Residential Buildings  [PDF]
Eswaran.P , Aswin Kumar
International Journal of Advanced Computer Research , 2012,
Abstract: This paper proposes the technique to implement a closed loop water metering system for multiple family residential building (MFRB). Conceptual design of the system was projected. Single channel water metering system was developed, implemented and the performance was evaluated. The electronic water flow meter required for this system was also developed by modifying the existing mechanical water meter and calibrated to measure the flow. Theclosed loop system was established with the help electronic water meter, solenoid valve to control the flow of water associated with software and customer database.
Water Resources and Management under Increasing Urban Demography: A Kenyan Perspective—A Review  [PDF]
Deziline Adhiambo Ondigo, Agnes Mumo Kavoo, Jeremiah Kebwaro
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.109054
Abstract: The United Nations classifies Kenya as a water-scarce country since it has less than 1000 m3 per capita of renewable freshwater supplies. Numerous factors including global warming, contamination of drinking water, and a lack of investment in water resources have aggravated the water crisis in Kenya. Estimates indicate that only about 56% of its population has access to safe water supply. Like many developing countries, Kenya recognizes the crucial role of water in realizing its development goals. Its economic performance and poverty reduction are critically dependent on clean water availability for agriculture, industrialization, energy production and tourism among others. Similar to most developing countries, Kenya suffers from lack of human, monetary and institutional capabilities to efficiently provide clean and sufficient water to its citizens. The water shortage in the major cities is acute and chronic and has continued to worsen with increasing urbanization, water pollution and encroachment of water catchment areas by humans and invasive plant species. Despite the water challenges facing the urban populations, Kenya possesses sufficient water resources to meet demand if the available resources are properly managed. Several initiatives are being put in place in Kenya to mitigate the water challenges and protect water resources in Kenya. These include enacting of water policies to protect water catchment areas, reduce pollution and enhance access to clean water.
Is individual metering socially sustainable? The case of multifamily housing in France
Bernard Barraqué
Water Alternatives , 2011,
Abstract: Before generalising water metering and billing at the apartment level for consumer equity reasons, and alleviating the burden of water bills for poor families through increasing block tariffs (IBTs), Paris Council asked for some expert advice. The pros and cons of two separate issues – IBTs efficiency and justice; and individual household metering – were mixed. Our research first summarises various studies of the redistributive effects of tariff changes, first from flat rates to metering, and then from uniform prices to IBTs. We address the particular case of multifamily housing, where it is possible to retain collective billing, while relying on sub-metering to allocate the bill. The limitations of classical econometric surveys on large samples (in terms of understanding households’ strategies with tap water) support the need for supplementary detailed sociological surveys at neighbourhood or building levels, if only to check the unexpected redistributive effects of tariff changes in practice. We review the specific French situation, peculiarly in Paris, to show that individual apartment billing is more costly and tends to have regressive effects. Like other cities in France, Paris abandoned the implementation of Art. 93 of the 2000 law, which encouraged individual billing; and we explain why.
Intelligent Urban Sustainable Development Plan  [PDF]
Zaiqiang Ku, Ting Liao
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.55092
Abstract: Based on the entropy weight method and the gray relational analysis method, we first calculate the weight of each index and the correlation coefficient between the indicators, get the urban intelligent growth index, and then calculate the annual growth rate of the composite index. We find the following results. First, Suzhou to improve its environment, the success rate of 109.67%. Saint Louis to improve its economy, the growth rate of 57.4%. Second, the sensitivity of the data analysis, each of the indicators is increased by 10%, 20%, 30%, other indicators remain unchanged. Recalculate the city’s intelligent growth index, we find that the greater the volatility, the greater the potential. The total population of the city, built green area, the total length of the bus operating a greater potential, built-up area, the smallest regional GDP potential. Finally, we propose an improved model combining remote sensing with GIS to analyze urban expansion and farmland loss from time and space qualitatively and quantitatively.
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2010,
Abstract: Generation and accumulation of domestic waste from fast growing human settlements is becoming a major environment and health problem in developing country like India. The problem is becoming very acute in urban areas. Appropriate management of these wastes is very important for a positive improvement in the quality of life in cities. With unprecedented growth of cities, the present waste management facilities have been found to be very haphazard and inadequate. Conventional methodologies like conventional sewerage systems presently in use are grossly inadequate to manage the generated waste. As a result, untreated domestic waste finds direct access to water systems or lies untreated on the land surface. Solid waste management also is a major problem in virtually all the cities. This is grossly detrimental to the environment and to the health of the community. Therefore, it becomes necessary to take an overview of the existing situation and to think about appropriate solutions and alternative technologies for the management of these wastes. This paper will highlight one of such treatment option that has been employed in Pune District of Maharashtra State (India).
Intelligent Control: A Review  [PDF]
Huang Xinhan,Muhammad Arif,Wang Min
Information Technology Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Intelligent control, which includes fuzzy, neural, neuro-fuzy and evolutionary control, is result of applying computational intelligence to the control complex systems. This class of unconventional control system differs radically from conventional (or hard control) system that are based on classical and modern control theory. The techniques of intelligent control are being applied increasingly to industrial control problems and are leading to solutions where conventional control methods have proved unsuccessful. This paper reviews computational intelligence (branch of soft computing) which includes expert system, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and evolutionary computing with emphasis on its application to control engineering.
Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation  [PDF]
?akari? Jasenka
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1004375c
Abstract: This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating well-known urban and technical factors with presence of water on a surface model, optimum results are obtained with respect to water percentage in cities. Overall results of the research represent an instruction for future transformations of urban structures encouraged by water presence.
Review of intelligent tutoring systems using bayesian approach  [PDF]
R. Santhi,B. Priya,J. M. Nandhini
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: With advancement in computer science research on artificial intelligence and in cognitive psychology research on human learning and performance, the next generation of computer-based tutoring systems moved beyond the simple presentation of pages of text or graphics. These new intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) called cognitive tutors; incorporated model-tracing technology which is a cognitive model of student problem solving that captures students multiple strategies and common misconceptions. Such Intelligent tutoring systems or Knowledge Based Tutoring Systems can guide learners to progress in the learning process at their best. This paper deals with the review of various Intelligent tutoring systems using Bayesian Networks and how Bayesian Networks can be used for efficient decision making.
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