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Cardiovascular disease risk factors for women. A life course-events perspective  [PDF]
Hobel C. J.,Arora Chander P.
Biopolymers and Cell , 2010,
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is the most common cause of death and in 2009 accounted for one third of all deaths. The purpose of this paper is to present what conditions during pregnancy and during the pre-menopause period lead to a greater risk of CVD. The early recognition and the application of interventions may decrease this risk. To emphasize this point we have taken a Life course-events perspective . Current data suggests that genetic predisposition to disease in conjunction with behavior and environmental factors during fetal life is related to permanent changes in fetalplacental-maternal physiology and function, resulting in fetal programming characterizing the phenotype of the child which may persist into adulthood. Longitudinal studies have identified biological, behavioral and environmental factors related to childhood diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance and mental health disorders. Gender differences have been identified and animal studies have suggested that estrogens in women are protective and when the risk of CVD in men is considered, the risk in women is delayed by 10 years. Thus, a normal pregnancy may be protective and reduce the risk of CVD in women. However, hypertension developing in women before or during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for women and diabetes further increases this risk of CVD, as does smoking. It is very clear that an intervention action plan must be developed. It is the current opinion of the authors that this action plan must be implemented early in life to decrease the risk for the development of CVS in women.
Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: From the Perspectives of Children and Parents
Ing-Marie Bystr m,Elisabet Hollén,Karin F lth-Magnusson,AnnaKarin Johansson
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/986475
Abstract: Aim. To examine how celiac children and adolescents on gluten-free diet valued their health-related quality of life, and if age and severity of the disease at onset affected the children’s self-valuation later in life. We also assessed the parents’ valuation of their child’s quality of life. Methods. The DISABKIDS Chronic generic measure, short versions for both children and parents, was used on 160 families with celiac disease. A paediatric gastroenterologist classified manifestations of the disease at onset retrospectively. Results. Age or sex did not influence the outcome. Children diagnosed before the age of five scored higher than children diagnosed later. Children diagnosed more than eight years ago scored higher than more recently diagnosed children, and children who had the classical symptoms of the disease at onset scored higher than those who had atypical symptoms or were asymptomatic. The parents valuated their children’s quality of life as lower than the children did. Conclusion. Health-related quality of life in treated celiac children and adolescents was influenced by age at diagnosis, disease severity at onset, and years on gluten-free diet. The disagreement between child-parent valuations highlights the importance of letting the children themselves be heard about their perceived quality of life.
Adverse life events and coping skills in panic disorder
Savoia, Mariangela Gentil;Bernik, Márcio;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87812004000600005
Abstract: research literature and clinical experience shows that panic patients are often able to identify stressors that preceded the onset of their first attacks. in this study we investigated the relation between life events, coping skills, and panic disorder. methods: forty-tree panic patients were compared with 29 control subjects regarding the occurrence and the impact of stressful life events in a 1-year period preceding the onset of panic attacks using the social readjustment rating scale and london life event and difficulty schedule. coping skills were measured using the ways of coping questionnaire. results: no differences were observed between panic patients and controls regarding the number of reported stressful life events in the previous year. panic patients compared to controls reported loss of social support as the most meaningful class of events significantly more often. in response to stressful situations, panic patients more often used coping skills judged as ineffective. conclusions: the present study suggests that the type of life event and the coping skills used in response to them, more than the occurrence of stressful events itself, may be associated with the onset of panic disorder.
Validation of a French Version of the Quality of Life “Celiac Disease Questionnaire”  [PDF]
Jacques Pouchot, Carole Despujol, Georgia Malamut, Emmanuel Ecosse, Jo?l Coste, Christophe Cellier
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096346
Abstract: Background and Objective Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune disorder. Both the manifestations of the disease and the burden of the compulsory life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) have been shown to be associated with impairment of health-related quality of life. The objectives of this study were to provide a cross-cultural adaptation of the specific quality of life “Celiac Disease Questionnaire” (CDQ) and to analyze its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods A cross-cultural French adaptation of the CDQ (F-CDQ) was obtained according to the revised international guidelines. The questionnaire was administered at baseline to 211 patients with biopsy proven CD followed-up in a single tertiary referral centre. The questionnaire was also administered after 7 days and 6 months. Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and Bland and Altman graphical analysis), validity (factorial structure and Rasch analysis, convergent validity), and responsiveness (effect size) of the F-CDQ were studied. Results The reliability of the F-CDQ was excellent with ICC and Cronbach's alpha coefficients being between 0.79 and 0.94 for the four subscales and the total score. The factorial structure and the Rasch analysis showed that the four dimensions of the original instrument were retained. Correlations with external measures (a generic measure of quality of life, an anxiety and depression instrument, a self-assessed disease severity, and clinical manifestations) were all in the expected direction confirming the validity of the instrument. Responsiveness was studied and effect sizes ≥0.20 were demonstrated for most of the subscales for patients who reported improvement or deterioration after 6 months. Conclusion The F-CDQ retains the psychometric properties of the original instrument and should be useful in cross-national surveys and to assess outcome in clinical trials involving patients with CD.
Life Events and Psychoeducation in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis  [PDF]
Yue Chen, Ji-Zhong Huang, Yu Qiang, Mao-Mao Han, Shi-Chao Liu, Chun-Lan Cui
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.13022
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of psychological/psychoeducational assessment in pa-tients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods: A diagnostic interview was undertaken in order to investigate any tem-poral connection between an adverse life event and the first appearance of SSc. Following this, the rheumatologist's assessment of subsequent changes in the SSc were noted. The psychoeducation we did, as an adjunct to conventional thoracic duct lymphatic drainage therapy (TDD), started in Dec. 2002, and the primary end point was an improvement in clinical outcome at 1 month after entry. Results: The patients with SSc in the study showed higher percentages of lower education (69.2%) and working class (63.5%), and reported that the most common life event in adults was di-vorce or separation from spouse, while in adolescent was difficult home conditions. A favourable response was noted in all patients who participated in the study; Remission was achieved in 35, while 17 showed some improvement. Conclusions: We conclude that life events were causally related to the onset of SSc and psychoeducation combinated with conventional TDD led to a remission in the majority of patients.
The Tempo and Quantum of Life Cycle Events  [PDF]
John Bongaarts,Griffith Feeney
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research , 2006,
Abstract: This study develops and applies a general framework for the analysis of the period quantum and tempo of life-cycle events, extending methods developed previously by the authors. The existence of tempo distortions is demonstrated in selected period quantum measures such as the total fertility rate and in period tempo measures such as life expectancy. A tempo distortion is defined as an inflation or deflation of a period quantum or tempo indicator of a life-cycle event, such as birth, marriage, or death, that results from a rise or fall in the mean age at which the event occurs. Period measures derived from life tables are also found to be subject to tempo distortions. Methods to remove these tempo distortions are then developed and applied.
Schizophrenia and delusional disorders with onset in later life
Hassett, Anne;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462002000500015
Abstract: schizophrenia-spectrum illness is most commonly associated with an onset in early adulthood. when non-affective psychotic symptoms emerge for the first time in later life, the clinical presentation has both similarities and differences with earlier-onset syndromes. this situation has resulted in continuing debate about the nosological status of late-onset psychosis, and whether there are particular risk factors associated with this late-life peak in incidence. although early cognitive decline is frequently identified in these patients, studies, to date, have not established if there is a relationship with the dementing illnesses of old age. sensory impairment, social isolation, and a family history of schizophrenia have been associated with late-onset psychosis, but appear to exert a nonspecific influence on vulnerability. while diagnostic issues remain unresolved, clinicians need to formulate treatment strategies that most appropriately address the constellation of symptoms in the clinical presentation of their psychotic elderly patients.
Schizophrenia and delusional disorders with onset in later life
Hassett Anne
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2002,
Abstract: Schizophrenia-spectrum illness is most commonly associated with an onset in early adulthood. When non-affective psychotic symptoms emerge for the first time in later life, the clinical presentation has both similarities and differences with earlier-onset syndromes. This situation has resulted in continuing debate about the nosological status of late-onset psychosis, and whether there are particular risk factors associated with this late-life peak in incidence. Although early cognitive decline is frequently identified in these patients, studies, to date, have not established if there is a relationship with the dementing illnesses of old age. Sensory impairment, social isolation, and a family history of schizophrenia have been associated with late-onset psychosis, but appear to exert a nonspecific influence on vulnerability. While diagnostic issues remain unresolved, clinicians need to formulate treatment strategies that most appropriately address the constellation of symptoms in the clinical presentation of their psychotic elderly patients.
Celiac disease: Association with adult-onset Still′s disease: Apropos of a clinical case  [cached]
Kumar Sachin,Gupta N,Jhamb Rajat,Mishra Deepak
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Adult-onset Still′s disease (AOSD) is a rheumatic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by a triad of fever, polyarthritis and evanescent rash. We present a case report of a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of fever, joint pains, rash, weakness for the past 4 years and diarrhea for the past 2 years. On investigation the patient was diagnosed to be a case of AOSD. Duodenal biopsy report was suggestive of celiac disease with a positive IgA tissue transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibody. The patient was started on weekly methotrexate and gluten-free diet, and her symptoms gradually improved. The patient remains in our follow-up and is doing well.
Role of stressful life events in induction or exacerbation of psoriasis and chronic urticaria  [cached]
Malhotra S,Mehta Vivek
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The possibility of a causal influence of emotional stress, especially of stressful life events, on the course of various skin diseases has long been postulated. Previous reports addressing its influence on skin psoriasis and chronic urticaria have been mainly anecdotal. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stressful events of life within 1 year preceding onset or exacerbation of skin disease in patients of psoriasis vulgaris and chronic urticaria. Method: Fifty consecutive clinically diagnosed psoriasis patients and 50 consecutive clinically diagnosed chronic urticaria patients were examined clinically and administered Gurmeet Singh′s presumptive stressful life events scale. Results: Stressful life events were seen in 26% of the patients in the psoriasis vulgaris group and 16% of the patients in the chronic urticaria group within 1 year preceding onset or exacerbation of skin disease. In the psoriasis vulgaris group, the most common stressful life event seen was financial loss or problems (8%), followed by death of close family member (4%), sexual problems (4%), family conflict (2%), major personal illness or injury (2%),and transfer or change in working conditions (2%), failure in examinations (2%), family member unemployed (2%), illness of family member (2%), getting married or engaged (2%), miscellaneous (2%). In the chronic urticaria group, the most common stressful life event seen was death of a close family member (6%), followed by family conflict (2%), financial loss or problems (2%), sexual problems (2%), illness of family member (2%), getting married or engaged (2%), trouble at work with colleagues, superiors, or subordinates (2%), going on a pleasure trip (2%) and extramarital relations (2%). Conclusion: Psychological stress plays a significant role in triggering or exacerbating dermatological diseases. Our study indicates the role of relaxation therapies and stress management programs in chronic diseases such as psoriasis and chronic urticaria. Psychological interventions can help individuals to reinterpret events and develop strategies to cope with stressful events, thus decreasing morbidity due to these diseases.
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