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A Microbiological and Nutritional Evaluation of the West African Dried Meat Product, Kilishi
M. J. Jones, V. N. Tanya, C. M.F. Mbofung, D. N. Fonkem, D. E. Silverside
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2001,
Abstract: The quality attributes of Kilishi, a West African dried meat product were studied over an eight week storage period comparing traditional production and packaging systems with a potassium sorbate treatment system and simple modern packaging. Changes in chemical composition and microbiological counts are reported. Moisture and water activity results indicated that the experimental Kilishi was sufficiently dried to minimise microbial growth. Fat oxidation levels measured by free fatty acids (FFA) (%) on extracted fats were unacceptably high (>1.2-2.1%) and may be a reflection of the quality of the groundnut and its oil in the ingredients. Processing of beef into Kilishi appears to lead to a decrease in mineral availability. Results suggest that treatment of Kilishi with 10% (w/v) potassium sorbate confers a degree of protection of the product from mould contamination. Aflatoxin levels far exceeded all established safe limits and are thought to be due to the use of pre-contaminated groundnut, as mould growth levels in Kilishi were very low. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 No.4, 2001, pp. 126-129 KEY WORDS: aflatoxins, dried meat, food preservative, kilishi, potassium sorbate.
Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais
Sartorelli, SA;Bertechini, AG;Fassani, EJ;Kato, RK;Fialho, ET;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2003000100007
Abstract: the present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (mbm) produced in minas gerais state (experiment i) and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those mbm (experiment ii). in the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [ame] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [amen]) of ten different mbm were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. four hundred forty 21 day-old hubbard broilers were used. a reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing mbm to be tested. a completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten mbm), four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females). in the second experiment, five mbms from the ten analyzed in experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. the growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of mbm inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age). one-day-old hubbard broilers (1,320 birds) were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. the experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of mbm, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of mbm. the results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. no significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different mbm or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. the performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of mbm inclusion in the diets.
Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais  [cached]
Sartorelli SA,Bertechini AG,Fassani EJ,Kato RK
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2003,
Abstract: The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM) produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I) and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II). In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn]) of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM), four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females). In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age). One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds) were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.
Quality and Storage Stability of Low Acid Goat Meat Pickle
Arun K. Das,R.B. Sharma,N.P. Singh
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to prepare highly acceptable and long shelf-life low acid goat meat pickle and its quality evaluation and storage stability at 32±0.5°C. Low acid goat meat pickle was prepared using deboned meat from spent Barbari goat breed. The product was evaluated after an elapse of seven days as maturation, for changes in physico-chemical (pH, titrable acidity), microbiological (Aerobic mesophilic, halophiles, yeast and mould counts) and organoleptic properties at an interval of 15 days up to 60 days of storage at 32±0.5°C. Results showed that pH and titrable acidity of the low acid pickles was 4.87 and 0.69 whereas in control goat meat pickle, these values were 4.70 and 0.76, respectively after 60 days storage period. Microbiological counts and sensory quality traits did not show appreciable change and remained satisfactory throughout the storage period. Low acid pickles had significantly lower sourness and higher overall acceptability compared to the control. Therefore, the present study suggests that a highly acceptable low acid goat meat pickle can be prepared using spent goat meat and can safely be stored on shelf for 60 days even during summer season.
NUTRITIONAL, HYGIENIC, HEALTH AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MEAT OF BOVINE BREED PIEMONTESE  [cached]
C.A. Ghia,D.M. Bianchi,S. Gallina,V.M. Moretti
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2008.2.65
Abstract: The autochthonous “Piemontese” bovine breed is primarily raised for meat due to the high quality of production. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological, nutritional and chemical aspects of samples meat from cattle breeding “Piemontese”.
Validating the demand for goat meat in the US meat market  [PDF]
Xuanli Liu, Mack Nelson, Erika Styles
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.410074
Abstract:

There is a large body of literature in economics examining the US meat market, but few studies have focused on the US goat meat market. This study, as a catch-up effort, provides an estimate of the demand for goat meat and assesses the impact of driving factors in the US goat meat market. The data for this study were collected in 11 southern states and specifically elicit the demand and consumer preferences in this non-conventional market. Four econometric models are fitted to examine the multiple layers of the demand, including the current, the potential, the latent, and the seasonal demand. Findings indicate a substantial demand for goat meat with great growth potential, driven by demographic factors and food safety concerns. Ethnic groups and the aged comprise the current niches for goat meat, and the preferences for healthy and safe meat will define the market in the future.

Examination of Physical Properties of Goat Meat  [PDF]
Mohammad Asif Arain,M. Khaskheli,I.R. Rajput,S. Rao
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The study was conducted to examine physical properties of goat meat to evaluate the relationship between goat meat in different age groups, group A (<7 m), group B (8-10 m) and group C (>11 m). In the first step physicochemical characteristics of goat meat in respect of pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC), Cooking Loss (CL) and Drip Loss (DL) were determined. A total of 21 goat meat samples were collected equally from three age groups each containing 7 samples. The mean pH value of goat meat of group A, B, and C (6.28, 6.30 and 6.34% respectively) mean WHC (61.77, 63.36 and 63.36% respectively) were not significantly different (p>0.05) from each other. WHC of goat meat group B (63.36±028%) and group C (63.36±0.21%) were very similar and significantly (p<0.05) higher than meat group A goat (61.77±0.32%). Cooking loss and drip loss in goat meat of group A (38.72±0.60 and 4.93±0.16%, respectively) were higher compared to advanced slaughter age (8-10 m of age: 35.77±0.86 and 4.02±0.10% and >11 m of age: 33.40±1.13 and 4.06±0.14%, respectively). The result concludes the meat of goat slaughtered in advanced age may have an extensive advantage to reduce qualitative and quantitative losses of end products and by products with relation to export.
Effect of Slaughtering Age on Chemical Composition of Goat Meat  [PDF]
Mohammad Asif Arain,M. Khaskheli,I.R. Rajput,S. Faraz
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The research consist of chemical analysis of the goat meat to investigate the relationship between goat meat in different age groups, group A (<7 m), group B (8-10 m) and group C (>11 m). Chemical characteristics of goat meat in respect of moisture, protein, fat and ash contents were determined of goat meat processed by butchers under local marketing conditions were investigated during 2008-9. Moisture content of goat meat group A was higher (78.30±0.48%) followed by group B (75.70±0.50%) and group C (73.8±0.061%). Protein, fat, ash content in meat of group A was lowered (15.31±0.68, 1.77±0.24 and 1.20±0.06%, respectively) and increase with advance slaughter age (Group B; 18.43±0.80, 2.71±0.18 and 1.31±0.08% and Group C; 20.30±0.91, 3.07±0.17 and 1.63±0.07. The results conclude the meat of goat slaughtered in advanced age may have an extensive advantage to reduce qualitative and quantitative losses of end products and variation in meat of different age groups animal were found.
Microbiological evaluation of precooked goat "buchada"
Costa, Roberto Germano;Santos, Neube Michel dos;Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de;Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto;Madruga, Marta Suely;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822006000300029
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to evaluate the microbiological characteristics of the precooked goat "buchada", a typical dish in north east of brazil, composed mainly by goat viscera such as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, stomach and blood. samples of "buchada" produced at the different areas of the state of paraíba, brazil, presented a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, with values ranging from 5.5 to 6.9 log10 cfu/g. all samples presented total coliforms, and 96.6% presented fecal coliforms, with values between 2.3 and 5.0 log10 nmp/g. the occurrence of staphylococcus aureus was observed in one sample only, at a proportion of 4.0 log10 cfu/g. salmonella was absent in all samples. water activity was around 0.98 and ph close to neutrality except for the samples collected in campina grande which presented ph 5.1, significantly lowar (p<0.05) than the other products. results indicate inadequate hygienic-sanitary practices during slaughter and processing, requiring preventive measures to minimize contamination at the critical points of the process and to guarantee products with longer shelf life and desirable quality standards.
Some Nutritional, Technological and Environmental Advances in the Use of Enzymes in Meat Products  [PDF]
Anne y Castro Marques,Mário Roberto Maróstica Jr.,Gláucia Maria Pastore
Enzyme Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/480923
Abstract: The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat processing, particularly the application of the proteolytic enzymes transglutaminase and phytases, associated with nutritional, technological, and environmental improvements. 1. Introduction Meat products consumption (including beef, pork, mutton, goat and poultry) has increased gradually, particularly in developing countries. Studies estimate that the world consumption of meat products will reach 40?kg per capita in 2020 [1]. The processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat are complex. The chemical and physical properties of muscle tissue and the associated connective tissue are determinant on meat quality [2]. The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat foods. In order to achieve these nutritionally enhanced meat foods, changes such as the use of improved raw materials, reformulation of products, and technological processes are necessary [3]. These improvements, however, can bring undesirable consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods [4, 5]. Additionally, high costs have stimulated researchers to use all animal parts, including muscles of poorer technological quality, to maximize the yield of marketable products. This has required the development of methods to restructure low-valued cuts and trimmings, improving appearance and texture and increasing market value [6, 7]. Faced with new market trends, is it possible to produce meat products that meet all the market requirements (healthy, with good sensory properties, low cost, and environmental friendly)? The aim of this paper is to show some advances related to this topic, focusing on the application of proteolytic enzymes, transglutaminase and phytases in meat products. 2. The Use of Proteolytic Enzymes in Meat Products Of all the attributes of meat quality, consumers rate tenderness as the most important. Tenderness is a characteristic resulting from the interaction of actomyosin effect of myofibrillar proteins, the bulk density effect of fat, and the background effect of connective
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