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Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers  [PDF]
Alicia K. Matthews,Chien-Ching Li,Lisa M. Kuhns,Timothy B. Tasker,John A. Cesario
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/984508
Abstract: Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS) and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants ( age?=?40.5) were mostly White (70.4%) and male (60.5%) and had at least a college degree (58.4%). Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerstr?m Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment ( 75% sessions). Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR?=?2.45), use of NRT (OR?=?4.24), and lower nicotine dependency (OR?=?0.73) were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake. 1. Introduction Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities have been identified as a population group at elevated risk for smoking-related health disparities [1, 2]. For example, results from national samples of LGBT persons consistently demonstrate disparate rates of tobacco use, with prevalence rates of smoking roughly twice those of heterosexuals [2–5]. A recent study found that tobacco use contributes to the greater than expected rates of acute respiratory illnesses among LGBT young adults compared to a heterosexual comparison group [1]. Furthermore, LGBT persons have higher than expected prevalence of risk factors (e.g., heavy drinking) for diseases associated with or exacerbated by smoking (e.g., heart disease, HIV infection, and lung cancer) [6–8]. As such, tobacco prevention and control have emerged as a significant priority for researchers, policy makers, and national organizations focused on LGBT concerns. Yet, best practices for smoking cessation among LGBT populations are glaringly absent because of the lack of empirical research [9, 10]. Testing innovations developed by community
Increased oxidative stress in asymptomatic current chronic smokers and GOLD stage 0 COPD
Paula Rytil?, Tiina Rehn, Helen Ilumets, Annamari Rouhos, Anssi Sovij?rvi, Marjukka Myll?rniemi, Vuokko L Kinnula
Respiratory Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-7-69
Abstract: Exhaled NO (FENO) and induced sputum samples were collected from 22 current smokers (13 healthy smokers without any respiratory symptoms and 9 with symptoms i.e. stage 0 COPD) and 22 healthy age-matched non-smokers (11 never smokers and 11 ex-smokers). Sputum cell differential counts, and expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) were analysed from cytospins by immunocytochemistry. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and lactoferrin were measured from sputum supernatants by ELISA.FENO was significantly decreased in smokers, mean (SD) 11.0 (6.7) ppb, compared to non-smokers, 22.9 (10.0), p < 0.0001. Induced sputum showed increased levels of neutrophils (p = 0.01) and elevated numbers of iNOS (p = 0.004), MPO (p = 0.003), nitrotyrosine (p = 0.003), and 4-HNE (p = 0.03) positive cells in smokers when compared to non-smokers. Sputum lactoferrin levels were also higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.02). Furthermore, we noted four negative correlations between FENO and 1) total neutrophils (r = -0.367, p = 0.02), 2) positive cells for iNOS (r = -0.503, p = 0.005), 3) MPO (r = -0.547, p = 0.008), and 4) nitrotyrosine (r = -0.424, p = 0.03). However, no major differences were found between never smokers and ex-smokers or between healthy smokers and stage 0 COPD patients.Our results clearly indicate that several markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress are increased in current cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers and no major differences can be observed in these biomarkers between non-symptomatic smokers and subjects with GOLD stage 0 COPD.The most important factor causing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is cigarette smoking which causes increased oxidative and nitrosative stress in this disease [1-3]. One major contributor to the increased oxidant burden in COPD is evidently nitric oxide (NO) since cigarette smoke contains the highest levels of NO to which humans are dir
Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Mette Rasmussen,Berit Lilienthal Heitmann,Hanne T?nnesen
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10083653
Abstract: Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.
Standard setting: Comparison of two methods
Sanju George, M Sayeed Haque, Femi Oyebode
BMC Medical Education , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-6-46
Abstract: The norm – reference method of standard -setting (mean minus 1 SD) was applied to the 'raw' scores of 78 4th-year medical students on a multiple-choice examination (MCQ). Two panels of raters also set the standard using the modified Angoff method for the same multiple-choice question paper on two occasions (6 months apart). We compared the pass/fail rates derived from the norm reference and the Angoff methods and also assessed the test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the modified Angoff method.The pass rate with the norm-reference method was 85% (66/78) and that by the Angoff method was 100% (78 out of 78). The percentage agreement between Angoff method and norm-reference was 78% (95% CI 69% – 87%). The modified Angoff method had an inter-rater reliability of 0.81 – 0.82 and a test-retest reliability of 0.59–0.74.There were significant differences in the outcomes of these two standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates that passed and failed the assessment. The modified Angoff method was found to have good inter-rater reliability and moderate test-retest reliability.Kane [1] stated that the passing score is a point on the observed-score scale whereas the standard is a conceptual boundary on the true-score scale between acceptable and non-acceptable performance. Or in other words, a standard is the 'boundary between those who perform well enough and those who do not.' [2]. Standards are generally classed as absolute (criterion based) or relative (norm based) [3-5]. An absolute standard determines the pass/fail outcome by how well a candidate performs and he/she is usually judged against an arbitrarily set external standard. Hence it is independent of the performance of the group. A relative standard on the other hand, compares how well the examinee has performed compared to others who took the test and hence the outcome (pass/fail) is dependent on the performance of the group.The outcome of assessments is determined by t
Standard Setting for the Extractive Industries: A Critical Examination
Corinne Cortese,Helen Irvine,Mary Kaidonis
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2007,
Abstract: This study examines the players involved in the setting of an international accountingstandard for the extractive industries. Publicly available data is used to exposeconnections between key constituents involved in the process, to enhance understandingof how the international accounting standard setting process occurred, and to identifyfuture research possibilities.
Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers
Carla J. Berg,Gillian L. Schauer
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/248541
Abstract: Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B), end of treatment (EOT), and six-week followup (FU). We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (<.001) in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (<.05); however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.
Standard guidelines for setting up a dermatosurgery theatre
Rajendran S,Omprakash H
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction, definition, rationale and scope: Dermatologists in India are now increasingly performing surgical and cosmetic procedures in their practice. This calls for minimum standards at the national level with the main focus of patient safety and hence the guidelines for setting up a dermatosurgical theatre. Facility: The dermatosurgery theatre can be created in either physician′s clinic, or a hospital depending on the procedure to be performed. The dermatosurgery theatre requires careful planning with regards to - location, dimension, shell design, lighting, electrical requirements, operation table, chair, trolley, surgical instruments, sterilization of devices, asepsis and advanced life support. Apart from physical considerations, other considerations including theatre etiquettes, consent for surgery, safety of dermatosurgeon, theatre staff and lastly biomedical waste management should be looked into. These issues are discussed in detail in the recommendations.
Antitrust, Intellectual Property and Standard-Setting Organizations  [PDF]
Mark A. Lemley
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Standard-setting organizations (SSOs) regularly encounter situations in which one or more companies claim to own proprietary rights that cover a proposed industry standard. The industry cannot adopt the standard without the permission of the intellectual property owner (or owners). How SSOs respond to those who assert intellectual property rights is critically important. Whether or not private companies retain intellectual property rights in group standards will determine whether a standard is "open" or "closed." It will determine who can sell compliant products, and it may well influence whether the standard adopted in the market is one chosen by a group or one offered by a single company. SSO rules governing intellectual property rights will also affect how standards change as technology improves. Given the importance of SSO rules governing intellectual property rights, there has been surprisingly little treatment of SSOs or their intellectual property rules in the legal literature. My aim in this article is to fill that void. To do so, I have surveyed the intellectual property policies of dozens of SSOs, primarily but not exclusively in the computer networking and telecommunications industries.
Efficacy of a smoking cessation program in a population of adolescent smokers in vocational schools: a public health evaluative controlled study
Laetitia Minary, Linda Cambon, Hervé Martini, Nathalie Wirth, Dovi S Acouetey, Francine Thouvenot, Céline Maire, Yves Martinet, Abraham Bohadana, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Fran?ois Alla
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-149
Abstract: This prospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study was conducted in eight vocational training centres (VTC) in France. The intervention group underwent the TABADO program, which included a general information session for all students and small-group sessions plus individual counselling and nicotine therapy, if needed, for volunteers in an enhanced program. The control group received no specific intervention other than the educational services usually available. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 12 months.The mean age of the 1,814 students included was 16.9 years (SD = 1.0); 84.7% were males. At baseline, 52% were smokers and 5.7% ex-smokers. In the intervention group, 24.6% of smokers volunteered for the enhanced program and 18.1% could be included. By 12-month follow-up, with participants lost to follow-up considered non-abstinent, 10.6% of smokers in the intervention group had become abstinent versus 7.4% in the control group (adjusted p = 0.03; odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05--3.0); considering lost to follow-up as missing data, 17% of intervention group participants were abstinent versus 11.9% in the control group (univariate p = 0.08; adjusted p = 0.008; OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2--3.6).The TABADO program, targeting teenagers in vocational schools, was effective in producing a higher 12-month abstinence rate among all smokers in the intervention group.Trial registration: Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570.
Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers
Jamie Bryant, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, Jon O'Brien, Wendy Oakes
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-493
Abstract: Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with clients attending five community welfare organisations located in New South Wales, Australia. Thirty-two clients participated in six focus groups. A discussion guide was used to explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking and smoking cessation including: current smoking behaviour, motivation to quit, past quit attempts, barriers to quitting and preferences for cessation support. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis techniques.Participants were current smokers and most expressed a desire to quit. Factors predisposing continued smoking included perceived benefits of smoking for stress relief, doubting of ability to quit, fear of gaining weight, and poor knowledge and scepticism about available quit support. The high cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use. Continual exposure to smoking in personal relationships and in the community reinforced smoking. Participants expressed a strong preference for personalised quit support.Disadvantaged smokers in Australia express a desire to quit smoking, but find quitting difficult for a number of reasons. SCSOs may have a role in providing information about the availability of quit support, engaging disadvantaged smokers with available quit support, and providing personalised, ongoing support.According to the World Health Organisation, tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death and disease worldwide [1]. It is a leading risk factor in the development of chronic diseases including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular disease and is responsible for more than 5 million deaths each year [1]. If current trends continue, the number of deaths caused as a result of tobacco is expected to rise to between 8 and 10 million deaths annually by 2030 [2-4]. Within Australia, tobacco is estimated to be responsible for 7.8% of the total burden of disease [5], and costs the economy more than $31.5 billion dollar
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