oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Prevalence of Stunting, Underweight and Obesity in School Aged Children in Uyo, Nigeria
D.C. Opara,E.E. Ikpeme,U.S. Ekanem
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: There is a paucity of data on the prevalence and trends of the risk factors associated with diet related chronic diseases in school-aged children in Nigeria. Using international reference standards, we determined the prevalence of underweight, stunting and obesity in school aged children in both privately owned and public schools in a fast growing state capital in the South-south region of Nigeria in a cross sectional prevalence survey. The height and weight measurements of 985 children aged 31-150 months (2 -14 years) were taken; food preference and socio-demographic characteristics of children were determined using a semi-structured questionnaire. BMI was calculated from the data. The results showed that the prevalence of underweight, stunting and obesity were 27.3, 17.1 and 11.1% respectively in the private schools and 39.4, 25.3 and 0.2% in the public schools. The food preference showed the predominance of refined highly processed foods. This study provides evidence of the co-existence of both undernutrition and obesity in the study population. While underweight and stunting remained high in the public schools, obesity existed alongside underweight and stunting in the privately owned schools, presumably patronized by the elite and medium or high socio-economic groups.
Health Services Utilization and Associated Factors in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
F Girma, C Jira, B Girma
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, utilization of health services remains low and unevenly distributed. To ensure appropriate health care use, we need to understand factors affecting health care use, and the reasons for low levels of utilization among our community. The objective of the study was to assess utilization of health services and associated factors in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional data was collected from January 15 to February 08, 2007 in Jimma zone. First, four districts were selected by lottery method. Then 2 ‘kebeles’ from each district were selected randomly and households were selected by systematic sampling. A total of 836 households were studied. The data were cleaned, coded and entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 12.0. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were conducted and a significance level of 5% was considered for interpretation. RESULTS: The health services utilization rate was found to be 45.6%. After controlling confounders using logistic regression; sex (OR=0.23), marital status (OR=8.1), household income (OR=0.70), socioeconomic status (OR=3.5), presence of disabling health problem (OR=3.3), presence of an illness episode (OR=28.3), perceived transport cost (OR=3.6), perceived treatment cost (OR=0.15) and distance to the nearest health center or hospital (OR=2.9) were found to be predictors of utilization of health care. CONCLUSIONS: It has been shown that utilization level was not satisfactory. Thus, we recommend that the level of health service utilization should be improved by improving predictors of health care use like physical accessibility. KEY WORDS: Health services utilization, accessibility, health status
Prevalence of Underweight, Stunting, and Wasting among Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South India  [PDF]
C. Padmapriyadarsini,N. Pooranagangadevi,K. Chandrasekaran,Sudha Subramanyan,C. Thiruvalluvan,P. K. Bhavani,Soumya Swaminathan
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/837627
Abstract: Background. Growth failure is a common feature of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Malnutrition increases mortality and may impair the response to antiretroviral treatment. Objective. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting in HIV-infected children in south India and to assess the utility of these parameters in predicting immune status. Methodology. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements and CD4 counts were performed on 231 HIV-infected children. scores for height for age, weight for age, and weight for height were correlated with CD4 cell counts and receiver operating characteristic curves plotted. Results. Prevalence of underweight was 63%, stunting 58%, and wasting 16%, respectively. 33–45% of children were moderately or severely malnourished even at CD4 >25%; sensitivity and specificity of stunting or underweight to predict HIV disease severity was low. Conclusions. Undernutrition and stunting are common among HIV-infected children at all stages of the disease in India. Early and aggressive nutritional intervention is required, if long-term outcomes are to be improved.
Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
Haile Yineger, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-24
Abstract: Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities and the local therapy is the only means of medical treatment for such communities.In Ethiopia, medicinal plants have been used as traditional medicine to treat different human ailments by the local people from time immemorial. These medicinal plants are estimated to be over 700 species [1] and most of them are confined to the southwestern regions of the country [2].There is a high expectation of enormous traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plant species in Ethiopia due to the existence of diverse cultures, languages and beliefs among the people. However, since cultural systems are dynamic [3], the skills are fragile and easily forgettable as most of the indigenous knowledge transfer in the country is based on oral transmission [4]. To our knowledge, there are no data regarding the traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by the local communities in Sekoru District, Southwestern Ethiopia. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess and document the indigenous knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers to treat human ailments in the study area.The study was conducted in four Kebeles (the smallest administrative units in Ethiopia) of Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. The four selected Kebeles were Unquuree, Ganda Chala, Liben and Bore (Figure 1). These areas lie at an altitudinal range of 1693 m – 1740 m a.s.l. The study area has a dry and hot climate with a mean annual temperature of 19.2°C and annual rainfall that varies from 1300 mm – 1800 mm. Clay soil with a thin layer of humus top soil is the main soil type over the area and evergreen montane thickets and shrubs are characteristic vegetation types of the area. The socioeconomic activity of the local population is mainly mixed farming which involves both cul
Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status  [PDF]
Spencer Moore,Justin N. Hall,Sam Harper,John W. Lynch
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/514674
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between socioeconomic factors and weight status across 53 countries. Methods. Data are cross-sectional and from the long version of the World Health Survey (WHS). There were 172,625 WHS participants who provided self-reported height and weight measures and sociodemographic information. The International Classification of adult weight status was used to classify participants by body mass index (BMI): (1) underweight (<18.5), (2) normal weight (18.5–24.9), (3) overweight (25.0–29.9), and (4) obese (>30.0). Multinomial regression was used in the analyses. Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8%) and obesity (9.3%) most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status.
Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974-2007
Monteiro,Carlos Augusto; Benicio,Maria Helena D'Aquino; Conde,Wolney Lisboa; Konno,Silvia; Lovadino,Ana Lucia; Barros,Aluisio JD; Victora,Cesar Gomes;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862010000400017
Abstract: objective: to assess trends in the prevalence and social distribution of child stunting in brazil to evaluate the effect of income and basic service redistribution policies implemented in that country in the recent past. methods: the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z score below ?2 using the child growth standards of the world health organization) among children aged less than 5 years was estimated from data collected during national household surveys carried out in brazil in 1974-75 (n = 34 409), 1989 (n = 7374), 1996 (n = 4149) and 2006-07 (n = 4414). absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. findings: over a 33-year period, we documented a steady decline in the national prevalence of stunting from 37.1% to 7.1%. prevalence dropped from 59.0% to 11.2% in the poorest quintile and from 12.1% to 3.3% among the wealthiest quintile. the decline was particularly steep in the last 10 years of the period (1996 to 2007), when the gaps between poor and wealthy families with children under 5 were also reduced in terms of purchasing power; access to education, health care and water and sanitation services; and reproductive health indicators. conclusion: in brazil, socioeconomic development coupled with equity-oriented public policies have been accompanied by marked improvements in living conditions and a substantial decline in child undernutrition, as well as a reduction of the gap in nutritional status between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic quintiles. future studies will show whether these gains will be maintained under the current global economic crisis.
Household food insecurity associated with stunting and underweight among preschool children in Antioquia, Colombia
Hackett,Michelle; Melgar-Qui?onez,Hugo; álvarez,Martha Cecilia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892009000600006
Abstract: objective: to assess criterion validity of a household food security scale through its associations with child health status in participants of the colombian plan for improving food and nutrition in antioquia (mejoramiento alimentario y nutricional de antioquia (mana)). methods: a 12-item household food security survey (colombian household food security scale, chfss) was applied to a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 2 784 low-income households with preschool children receiving mana food supplements in antioquia, colombia. anthropometrics and health status of the children were also assessed. chi-square tests were used to initially compare child health status and household food security status. logistic regression models were further developed to assess this relationship in bivariate and multiple regression models. results: statistically significant associations were found between household food insecurity and diagnoses of children's diarrhea, respiratory infections, and parasitosis (p < 0.0001). the risk for child stunting and underweight increased in a dose-response way as food insecurity became more severe. conclusions: our research establishes an important link between household food insecurity and child nutritional status in participants of a food assistance program. the results affirm the criterion validity of the chfss, establishing the proposed instrument as a valid measure for food insecurity with high-risk populations.
Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status  [PDF]
Spencer Moore,Justin N. Hall,Sam Harper,John W. Lynch
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/514674
Abstract: Objective. To examine the association between socioeconomic factors and weight status across 53 countries. Methods. Data are cross-sectional and from the long version of the World Health Survey (WHS). There were 172,625 WHS participants who provided self-reported height and weight measures and sociodemographic information. The International Classification of adult weight status was used to classify participants by body mass index (BMI): (1) underweight (<18.5), (2) normal weight (18.5–24.9), (3) overweight (25.0–29.9), and (4) obese (>30.0). Multinomial regression was used in the analyses. Results. Globally, 6.7% was underweight, 25.7% overweight, and 8.9% obese. Underweight status was least (5.8%) and obesity (9.3%) most prevalent in the richest quintile. There was variability between countries, with a tendency for lower-income quintiles to be at increased risk for underweight and reduced risk for obesity. Conclusion. International policies may require flexibility in addressing cross-national differences in the socio-economic covariates of BMI status. 1. Introduction Overweight and obesity have been defined as abnormal or excessive accumulations of fat in the body that may impair health [1]. Overweight and obesity results from an energy imbalance in the amount of calories consumed and the amount of calories expended [1]. The rise of overweight and obesity globally has been attributed primarily to a twofold process: (1) a global shift toward a diet richer in caloric sweeteners, animal source foods, and fats, and (2) decreased physical activity patterns due to changes in the nature of work, modes of transportation, and urbanization [2, 3]. Overweight and obesity have been found to be major risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, and some forms of cancer [1]. Although higher levels of overweight and obesity and, by extension, chronic diseases have generally characterized developed countries such as the United States, the rates of overweight and obesity are increasing much faster in the developing world [4, 5]. Undernutrition is due to food intake that is continuously insufficient or poorly absorbed and retained in the body to meet and maintain energy requirements [6]. Undernutrition is epidemic in parts of the developing world with its occurrence generally associated with high rates of infectious diseases [2] and has been estimated to contribute to the deaths of 5-6 million children under 5 each year [7]. Undernutrition affects all age groups and is especially common among the poor and
Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Affecting Body Mass Index of Adolescents Students Aged 10-19 in Ambo (a Rural Town) in Ethiopia  [cached]
Mesert Yetubie,Jemal Haidar,Hailu Kassa,L. Fleming Fallon Jr.
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used anthropometric measurement to estimate the level of nutritional indices (underweight/overweight) of adolescents and adults. Knowledge of the factors affecting BMI is essential for developing intervention programs. This study was conducted to measure BMI and determine the socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting the relative weight of adolescents living in rural districts in Ethiopia. Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study of 425 adolescent students living in the Ambo region of Ethiopia was conducted. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the socioeconomic and demographic status of the participants. BMI (weight/height2, kg/m2) was measured and used as index of relative weight. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15. A stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the major determinant abnormal weight of the adolescents while controlling for co-linearity. Results: The prevalence of underweight was 27.2% with male preponderance. The proportion of normal weight females was higher than that of males. There was no significant difference in the proportion of overweight males and females. Age, number of meals, parental education level, source of food, and number of cattle owned were correlated with being underweight. After adjusting for confounding variables only being a member of the younger age group (AOR=1.99; 95% CI=1.01 to 3.57), source of food (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.24 to 4.74), and a greater number of cattle owned (AOR=4.9; 95% CI=1.27 to 19.28 were positively correlated with being underweight. Conclusion: Younger age adolescents, those who come from homes with no or few cattle, and their parents purchased food were likely to be underweight. This study will help local governments, educators and community groups develop programs to assist underweight adolescents attending schools.
Assessment of Quality of Health Care in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia
W Beyene, C Jira, M Sudhakar
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Quality of care is an important aspect of health care delivery system that is given a priority. Quality is a multidimensional concept that has been defined in various ways. Variation in quality of care between different health care facilities is thought to reflect differences in efficiency and other organizational factors. There was no adequate study related to quality of health care in Jimma zone. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess quality of health care in Jimma zone. METHODS: A cross sectional quantitative study design was employed to assess the quality of care with respect to structure, care process and customer satisfaction involving 640 patients and 96 care providers in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and observation checklist devised by the investigators. RESULTS: The study showed that, on average, the studied institutions fulfilled 153(70.4%) of the health human power need. They also fulfilled 86(62.8%) of major equipment requirement against the national standard. The composite average satisfaction level of patients was 89.1% and that of the care providers was 86.7%. Nevertheless, the respect given to patients by care providers was rated as poor. A significant proportion, 39(48.2%) of the care providers were assessed as low performance. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of study subjects rated the overall quality of care as “good”. However the observation revealed that the human aspect of care was “poor”. In addition, the health institutions were facing shortage of human and material resources. Thus it was recommended that the responsible bodies at the 3 levels should take actions for improving institutional capacity and performance of care providers in order to improve quality of care. KEY WORDS: Quality of care, Jimma Zone, Southwest, Ethiopia
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.