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Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Leucas aspera (Willd.) link on inflammatory markers in complete freund′s adjuvant induced arthritic rats
Kripa K,Chamundeeswari D,Thanka J,Reddy C
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The plant Leucas aspera is claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic potential by traditional practitioners. The aim of this study is to validate the traditional claim. The hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of L. aspera (HAELA) was orally tested at a dose of 100 mg/kg bodyweight for anti-arthritic effect in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Group I rats served as vehicle control group [0.2% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) p.o.]. The test groups were injected with 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the subplantar region of right hind paw. Group II animals served as disease control, while the group III and group IV arthritic rats were treated with standard drug diclofenac sodium (0.3 mg/kg) and HAELA (100 mg/kg) for 21 days. Activities of inflammatory markers such as tumour necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, interleukin-2, cathepsin D and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in plasma/haemolysate and tissue of control and arthritic animals. Histopathological analysis of knee joints was also performed. Statistical analysis of the biochemical parameters was performed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software package. Results were expressed as mean±SEM for six rats in each group. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. HAELA showed significant anti-inflammatory (P<0.001) and antioxidant activity (P<0.001) at the specified dose. It did not show mortality up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Histopathological studies confirmed cartilage regeneration and near normal joint in HAELA treated rats. It can thus be concluded that HAELA possesses significant antioxidant and anti-arthritic potential.
Anti-arthritic effects of Musa paradisiaca sapientum L. and Aloe vera L. in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats  [PDF]
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: Anti-arthritic effects of Musa paradisiaca sapientum L. and Aloe vera L. on the index responses of arthritic were investigated using adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. M. paradisiaca sapientum and A. vera pulp were blended into juice then the juices were administered orally on 17-30th day. To evaluate anti-arthritic effect of the juice, an arthritic rat model was developed using Complete Freund Adjuvant on 1-16th day. In addition, the research was divided into groups (n=5) including normal control groups, positive control groups, negative control groups, 3 groups were treated by M. paradisiaca juice at 50, 100, 200 mg/kgBW doses and the other groups were treated by A. vera juices at 1, 2 and 4 mg/kgBW doses. The indexes of arthritic were determined on 17th and 31st days then analyzed using ANOVA test and t test (p<0.05). The result showed that the indexes of arthritic rats were evidently decreased by either M. sapientum or A. vera juice. Moreover, indexes of arthritic to be closely restored to the normal levels through M. paradisiaca treatment at 50 mg/kg BW dose. In conclusion, both of juice is found to be effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.
Trupti Tuse,A.A. Bidkar,S.A. Bhale,R.D. Patankar
International Journal of Pharmacological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.v1i1.147
Abstract: Helminth infections are among the most widespread infections in humans. Ficus benghalensis L. (Moraceae) is traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated using worms as experimental models. Test sample of Ficus benghalensis aerial roots extracts was prepared at the concentration 10, 25, 50mg/ml in normal saline solution. Standard drug used Albendazole (20mg/ml). Time for death of worms were recorded after ascertaining that worms neither moved when shaken vigorously nor when dipped in warm water (50o c). Phytochemical constituents such as Phenolics, tannins, saponins, mucilage and alkaloids may be responsible for the anthelmintic activity. It may be concluded that methanolic extract of Ficus benghalensis possesses significant anthelmintic property.
Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model
Sanmugapriya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Venkataraman Subramanian
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-56
Abstract: The present study states the effect of the aqueous extract (SPE) and the whole seed powder (SPP) of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds on the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritic rat paw edema, body weight changes and alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Histopathology of proximal interphalangeal joints and radiology of hind legs were studied.In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume and decrease in body weight increment, whereas SPP and SPE treated groups, showed significant reduction in paw volume and normal gain in body weight. The altered haematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR) and biochemical parameters (blood urea, serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal by the SPP and SPE treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg/p.o in both developing and developed phases of arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies revealed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE by indicating fewer abnormalities in these groups when compared to the arthritic control group.In conclusion, both SPP and SPE at the specified dose level of 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed reduction in rat paw edema volume and it could significantly normalize the haematological and biochemical abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats in both developing and developed phases of FCA induced arthritis. Further the histopathological and radiological studies confirmed the antiarthritic activity of SPP and SPE.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. The disease is characterized by articular inflammation and by the formation of an inflammatory and invasive tissue, rheumatoid pannus that eventually leads to the destruction of joints. Analgesia (painkillers) and anti-inflammatory drugs, including steroids are used to suppress the symptoms, while disea
In Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats, Acupuncture Analgesic Effects Are Histamine Dependent: Potential Reasons for Acupoint Preference in Clinical Practice
Meng Huang,Di Zhang,Zhe-yan Sa,Ying-yuan Xie,Chen-li Gu,Guang-hong Ding
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/810512
Abstract: This study investigated whether immediate acupuncture effects in the acupoint are histamine dependent. Both histamine injection and manual acupuncture stimulation increased the pain threshold (PT) after treatment compared with the model group (), producing an analgesic effect. After pretreatment with clemastine, an H1 receptor antagonist and an antipruritic, the increase in the animals’ pain threshold after acupuncture was suppressed compared with the Acu group (); however, there was no interference with the acupuncture-induced degranulation of mast cells. Pretreatment with disodium cromolyn did not suppress the increase in PT induced by the histamine injection at Zusanli (ST-36). We conclude that in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, acupuncture analgesic effects are histamine dependent, and this histamine dependence determines the acupoint preference of acupoints away from the target site in acupuncture practice.
Anti-Arthritic Effects of Palisota hirsuta K. Schum. Leaf Extract in Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats  [PDF]
E. Woode,E. Boakye-Gyasi,C.A. Danquah,C. Ansah
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: The anti-arthritic effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a plant used locally in Ghana for various painful inflammatory conditions was assessed, using the Freund’s adjuvant induced-arthritis model in rats. Palisota hirsuta Extract (PHE) as well as dexamethasone and methotrexate, used as positive controls, showed significant dose-dependent anti-arthritic properties prophylactically, curatively and also in combination therapy. PHE (30-300 mg k-1) significantly reduced the arthritic edema in the ipsilateral paw with the highest dose used giving a maximum inhibition of 13.02±8.77%. PHE 300 mg k-1 also significantly prevented the spread of the edema from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paw indicating inhibition of systemic spread. Dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg k-1) and methotrexate (0.1-1.0 mg k-1) significantly and in a dose dependent manner also inhibited polyarthritis edema as well as completely preventing the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. PHE in combination with methotrexate did not show any significant effect, however, there was a significant inhibition of arthritis in both the acute and the polyarthritis phases when PHE was combined with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone in combination with methotrexate gave the greatest inhibition of both phases with an extreme level of significance as expected. Overall, the present results demonstrate that PHE has anti-arthritic effect which could be similar to that exhibited by methotrexate.
Gas Exchange Characteristics of Aerial Root and Affecting Factors of Ficus microcarpa L. f.

LIU Li-ying,FU Xiang-zhao,LUO Zhi-qiang,Guo Xin-xiang,

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: The gas exchange characteristics of aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa L. f. were measured by using LI-6400XT portable photosynthesis system. The results showed that the aerial roots had obvious respiration and transpiration function. The effect factors on respiration were in order of root age > air temperature >light intensity > relative humidity by orthogonal experiment, and root age > relative humidity > air temperature > light intensity for transpiration. The young aerial root had higher respiration and transpiration rates than the old roots, which highly lignified old aerial roots had low respiratory rate, their transpiration turned to absorption of moisture from air. On the basis of single-factor-analysis, the CO2 exchange rate and H2O exchange rate of young aerial root had linear relationship with temperature and relative humidity, respectively. The higher of temperature, the higher of the CO2 exchange rate, the the stronger of the respiration, the higher of relative humidity, the smaller of the H2O exchange rate, the lower of transpiration. The H2O exchange rate of old mature aerial root had linear relationship with air relative humidity, the higher of relative humidity, the smaller of the H2O exchange rate, the lower of transpiration.
Anti-arthritic potential of the plant Justicia gendarussa Burm F
Paval, Jaijesh;Kaitheri, Srinivasan Keloth;Potu, Bhagath Kumar;Govindan, Sreejith;Kumar, Raju Suresh;Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil;Moorkoth, Sudheer;
Clinics , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322009000400015
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the anti-arthritic potential of the plant justicia gendarussa using two different rat models. materials and method: the anti-arthritic potential of the alcoholic extract of the plant justicia gendarussa was evaluated using the freund's adjuvant-induced and collagen-induced arthritic rat models. the rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of justicia gendarussa and with standard aspirin. results: the ethanolic extract of justicia gendarussa showed significant anti-arthritic activity that was statistically similar to that of aspirin. our results suggest that the alcoholic extract of justicia gendarussa exhibits significant anti-arthritic potential.
Quantitative gait analysis as a method to assess mechanical hyperalgesia modulated by disease-modifying antirheumatoid drugs in the adjuvant-induced arthritic rat
Shabana Simjee, Huma Jawed, Javeria Quadri, Sheikh Saeed
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/ar2290
Abstract: Chronic pain, a devastating and widespread problem, is a syndrome that cuts across traditionally defined disciplinary boundaries within the health sciences. Patients with chronic pain, compared with all other medical conditions, suffer dramatic reductions in physical, psychological and social wellbeing [1-3]. Within this group of patients, arthritis is the second largest self-reported cause of pain [4]. Although there is no rheumatoid arthritis cure, there are effective treatments that can alleviate the symptoms and improve the quality of life. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids are largely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in spite of their systemic, gastric and renal toxicities [5-11]. These currently available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are clearly not adequate therapy. In addition to these classical available therapies, there are several reports regarding the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), which act as potentially effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis [12,13]. DMARD treatment is currently based on symptomatic relief of pain and inflammation associated with arthritis to increase joint function and mobility.In order to study the effects of DMARDs in the progression of disease, we have used the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in the rat. This model has biochemical and pathological features similar to rheumatic disease in human, and merits investigation [14-19]. In this model, disease is characterized by joint pain, joint stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness, and muscle wasting leading to weight loss [20-22]. The aim of the present study was to identify the antiarthritic and antinociceptive effects of the DMARDs azothioprine (AZ), chloroquine (CQ), D-penicillamine (D-PEN), sodium aurothiomalate (gold salt (GS)) and methotrexate (MTX), and to measure any effect of these drugs on gait. Gait analysis allows highly sensitive, noninvasive detection and evaluation of many pathophysiological
Evaluation of Anti-Arthritic activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cleome rutidosperma  [PDF]
Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The various extracts of Cleome rutidosperma were investigated for its anti-arthritic activity in male albino rats. The evaluation of anti-arthritic activity was carried out using cotton pellet granulomamethod and Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model. Prednisolone (5 mg/kg bw) was used as a standard drug. The ethanolic extract of Cleome rutidosperma exhibited significant anti-arthritic activity as compared to other extracts. The doses of 200 mg/kg bw of the ethanolic extract of Cleome rutidosperma, in chronic model of granuloma pouch in rats produced 48.0% and in arthritis model produced 44.0 % inhibition respectively with that of the standard drug Prednisolone (5 mg/kg) which produced 58.5% and 59% inhibition.
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