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Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: a clinical practice guideline
Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble, Lisa Zuraw, members of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care
BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-67
Abstract: A systematic review with meta-analysis was developed and clinical recommendations were drafted. External review of the practice guideline report by practitioners in Ontario, Canada was obtained through a mailed survey, and incorporated. Final approval of the practice guideline was obtained from the Practice Guidelines Coordinating Committee.The systematic review was developed and recommendations were drafted, and the report was mailed to Ontario practitioners for external review. Ninety percent of respondents agreed with both the evidence summary and the draft recommendations, while only 69% approved of the draft recommendations as a practice guideline. Based on the external review, a revised document was created. The revised practice guideline was submitted to the Practice Guidelines Coordinating Committee for review. All 11 members of the PGCC returned ballots. Eight PGCC members approved the practice guideline report as written and three members approved the guideline conditional on specific concerns being addressed. After these recommended changes were made, the final practice guideline report was approved.In consideration of the systematic review, external review, and subsequent Practice Guidelines Coordinating Committee revision suggestions, and final approval, the Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group recommends the following:For adult patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer for whom surgery is considered appropriate, surgery alone (i.e., without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy) is recommended as the standard practice.Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. The large and growing number of patients affected, the high mortality rates, the worldwide geographic variation in practice, and the large body of good quality research warrants a clinical practice guideline.This clinical practice guideline was d
Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma
Agarwala Sandeep
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2006,
Abstract: Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53%) of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum. Pathologically RMS is now classified as superior, intermediate and poor outcome histologies. For stratification of treatment and also comparison of results the RMS are now staged both by the clinical grouping and the TNM staging systems. The ultimate outcome depends on the site, extent of disease and histology. Currently, approximately 70% of the patients survive for 5 years or more and are probably cured. This is credited to the use of multi-modal, risk-adapted therapy, refinements in tumor grouping and better supportive care which has emerged out of cooperative studies like Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology studies (SIOP). The treatment involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and organ/function preserving surgery. The gold standard chemotherapy is still vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC) regime with high doses of intensity bone marrow rescue with colony stimulating factors. The NRSTS are rare and of heterogenous histologies and so it has been difficult to arrive at a treatment strategy for these. What is definitely understood is that these are usually immature and poorly differentiated tumors that respond poorly to chemotherapy and so surgical resection forms the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy to prevent local recurrences. In all likelihood, the molecular analysis of RMS will further refine current classification schemes and knowledge of genetic features of the tumors will significantly improve the ability of investigators to identify patients at lower or higher risk of treatment failures, thus paving the way for advances in risk-based therapy.
Preliminary Results of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Intraoperative Chemotherapy as an Adjuvant in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
Antonios-Apostolos K. Tentes,Dimitrios Kyziridis,Stylianos Kakolyris,Nicolaos Pallas,Georgios Zorbas,Odysseas Korakianitis,Christos Mavroudis,Nicolaos Courcoutsakis,Panos Prasopoulos
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/506571
Abstract: Background and Aims. 5-year survival in patients with pancreatic cancer is poor. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative resection. The results of adjuvant treatment either with chemotherapy or with radiotherapy have been contradictory and the incidence of local-regional recurrence remains high. If local-regional recurrence is controlled survival may be expected to increase. Hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) may be used in order to control local-regional recurrences. The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of HIPEC in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing potentially resection. Patients and Methods. From 2007–2011, 21 patients, mean age 69.4±9.5 (50–86) years, underwent tumor resection, and HIPEC with gemcitabine. The hospital mortality and morbidity rate was 9.5% and 33.3%, respectively. 5-year and median survival was 23% and 11 months, respectively. The recurrence rate was 50% but no patient developed local-regional recurrence. No patient was recorded with gemcitabine-induced toxicity. Conclusions. This clinical study of 21 patients is the first to combine an R0 pancreas cancer resection with HIPEC. Increased morbidity and mortality from intraoperative gemcitabine was not apparent. Patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing potentially curative resection in combination with HIPEC may be offered a survival benefit. Data suggested that local-regional recurrences may be greatly reduced. Further studies with greater number of patients are required to confirm these findings.
Adjuvant gemcitabine versus NEOadjuvant gemcitabine/oxaliplatin plus adjuvant gemcitabine in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomized multicenter phase III study (NEOPAC study)
Stefan Heinrich, Bernhard Pestalozzi, Mickael Lesurtel, Frederik Berrevoet, Stéphanie Laurent, Jean-Robert Delpero, Jean-Luc Raoul, Phillippe Bachellier, Patrick Dufour, Markus Moehler, Achim Weber, Hauke Lang, Xavier Rogiers, Pierre-Alain Clavien
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-346
Abstract: This is a prospective randomized phase III trial. Patients with resectable cytologically proven adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head are eligible for this study. All patients must be at least 18 years old and must provide written informed consent. An infiltration of the superior mesenteric vein > 180° or major visceral arteries are considered exclusion criteria. Eligible patients will be randomized to surgery followed by adjuvant gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) for 6 months or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2) followed by surgery and the same adjuvant treatment. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is given four times every two weeks. The staging as well as the restaging protocol after neoadjuvant chemotherapy include computed tomography of chest and abdomen and diagnostic laparoscopy. The primary study endpoint is progression-free survival. According to the sample size calculation, 155 patients need to be randomized to each treatment arm. Disease recurrence will be documented by scheduled computed tomography scans 9, 12, 15, 21 and thereafter every 6 months until disease progression. For quality control, circumferential resection margins are marked intraoperatively, and representative histological sections will be centrally reviewed by a dedicated pathologist.The NEOPAC study will determine the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer for the first time and offers a unique potential for translational research. Furthermore, this trial will provide the unbiased overall survival of all patients undergoing surgery for resectable cancer of the pancreatic head.clinicalTrials.gov NCT01314027Mortality rates of pancreatic surgery have dramatically decreased to less than 2% in experienced centers during the last decades. Despite these improvements in the perioperative outcome, long-term survival of patients with pancreatic cancer remains limited with only 12 months median survival reported from pure surgical series [1].Similar to other g
Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS)
Johan L Dikken, Johanna W van Sandick, HA Maurits Swellengrebel, Pehr A Lind, Hein Putter, Edwin PM Jansen, Henk Boot, Nicole CT van Grieken, Cornelis JH van de Velde, Marcel Verheij, Annemieke Cats
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-329
Abstract: In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine), followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine). Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate.Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00407186In the Western world, most patients with gastric cancer present with advanced stages of disease, leading to a low 5-year survival of around 25% [1,2]. After surgical resection, the majority of patients will develop a locoregional recurrence [3]. Many different strategies have been evaluated to improve the outcome of gastric cancer surgery. Randomized trials investigating the role of a more extended lymph node dissection (D2) in comparison with the standard D1 lymphadenectomy, found no difference in overall survival, while a D2 dissection was associated with increased postoperative mortality and morbidity [4-7].Two Western studies have changed current clinical practice in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 study showed a significant benefit in overall survival with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) consisting of 45 Gy of radiotherapy c
Neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy for resectable esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble, Lisa Zuraw, Members of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care.
BMC Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-2-35
Abstract: A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the impact of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy on resectable thoracic esophageal cancer to inform evidence-based practice was produced.MEDLINE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology were searched for trial reports.Included were randomized trials or meta-analyses of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments compared with surgery alone or other treatments in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer. Outcomes of interest were survival, adverse effects, and quality of life. Either one- or three-year mortality data were pooled and reported as relative risk ratios.Thirty-four randomized controlled trials and six meta-analyses were obtained and grouped into 13 basic treatment approaches.Single randomized controlled trials detected no differences in mortality between treatments for the following comparisons:- Preoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy.- Preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy. Preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate.- Postoperative chemotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy.- Postoperative radiotherapy versus postoperative radiotherapy plus protein-bound polysaccharide versus chemoradiation versus chemoradiation plus protein-bound polysaccharide.Pooling one-year mortality detected no statistically significant differences in mortality between treatments for the following comparisons:- Preoperative radiotherapy compared with surgery alone (five randomized trials).- Postoperative radiotherapy compared with surgery alone (five randomized trials).- Preoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone (six randomized trials).- Preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone (two randomized trials).- Preoperative chemoradiation therapy versus surgery alone (s
Economic Evaluation of First-Line Adjuvant Chemotherapies for Resectable Gastric Cancer Patients in China  [PDF]
Chongqing Tan, Liubao Peng, Xiaohui Zeng, Jianhe Li, Xiaomin Wan, Gannong Chen, Lidan Yi, Xia Luo, Ziying Zhao
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083396
Abstract: Background First-line postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies with S-1 and capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) were first recommended for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2010 and 2011 Chinese NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer; however, their economic impact in China is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX, with S-1 and no treatment after a gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymph-node dissection among patients with stage II-IIIB gastric cancer. Methods A Markov model, based on data from two clinical phase III trials, was developed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of patients in the XELOX group, S-1 group and surgery only (SO) group. The costs were estimated from the perspective of Chinese healthcare system. The utilities were assumed on the basis of previously published reports. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated with a lifetime horizon. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results For the base case, XELOX had the lowest total cost ($44,568) and cost-effectiveness ratio ($7,360/QALY). The relative scenario analyses showed that SO was dominated by XELOX and the ICERs of S-1 was $58,843/QALY compared with XELOX. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential parameter was the utility of disease-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a 75.8% likelihood that the ICER for XELOX would be less than $13,527 compared with S-1. When ICER was more than $38,000, the likelihood of cost-effectiveness achieved by S-1 group was greater than 50%. Conclusions Our results suggest that for patients in China with resectable disease, first-line adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX after a D2 gastrectomy is a best option comparing with S-1 and SO in view of our current study. In addition, S-1 might be a better choice, especially with a higher value of willingness-to-pay threshold.
Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant treatment: which one is better for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?  [cached]
Xu Yaping,Yu Xinmin,Chen Qixun,Mao Weimin
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-173
Abstract: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and especially in some areas of China is the fourth most common cause of death and is of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology in >90% of cases. Surgery alone was the mainstay of therapeutic intervention in the past, but high rates of local and systemic failure have prompted investigation into multidisciplinary management. In this review, we discuss the key issues raised by the recent availability of esophageal SCC treatment with the addition of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy to the surgical management of resectable disease and discuss how clinical trials and meta-analysis inform current clinical practice. None of the randomized trials that compared neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy with surgery alone in esophageal SCC has demonstrated an increase in overall survival in those patients treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been accepted recently for esophageal cancer because such a regimen offers great opportunity for margin negative resection, improved loco-regional control and increased survival. The majority of the available evidence currently reveals that only selected locally advanced esophageal SCC are more likely to benefit from the adjuvant therapy. The focus of future trials should be on identification of the optimum regimen and should aim to minimize treatment toxicities and effect on quality of life, as well as attempt to identify and select those patients most likely to benefit from specific treatment options.
A Study of Zoledronic Acid as Neo-Adjuvant, Perioperative Therapy in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  [PDF]
Dominic E. Sanford, Matthew R. Porembka, Roheena Z. Panni, Jonathan B. Mitchem, Brian A. Belt, Stacey M. Plambeck-Suess, Goldie Lin, David G. DeNardo, Ryan C. Fields, William G. Hawkins, Steven M. Strasberg, Craig Lockhart, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Simon Peter Goedegebuure, David C. Linehan
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.43096
Abstract:

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by abundant granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC = CD45+/Lin/CD33+/CD11b+/CD15+), which infiltrate tumors and suppress anti-tumor immunity. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of PDAC that zoledronic acid (ZA) depletes G-MDSC resulting in decreased tumor growth and improved survival. We report here the results of a phase 1 clinical trial (NCT00892242) using ZA as neo-adjuvant, perioperative therapy in patients with non-metastatic, resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Eligible PDAC patients received ZA (4 mg) IV 2 weeks prior to surgery. Patients then received 2 additional doses of ZA 4 weeks apart. Blood and bone marrow were obtained from patients prior to treatment with ZA and 3 months after surgery for analysis of G-MDSC by flow cytometry. Results: Twenty-three patients received pre-operative ZA with at least 6 months of follow-up. Only 15 PDAC patients had nonmetastatic PDAC, which was amenable to resection. ZA was well tolerated, and all adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most common adverse events were fatigue, abdominal pain/discomfort, anorexia, and arthralgia. Of resected PDAC patients treated with ZA, 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 85.7% and 33.3%, respectively, with a median OS of 18 months. This group had a 1- and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 26.9% and 8.9%, respectively, with a median PFS of 12 months. The prevalence of G-MDSC was unchanged in the blood and bone marrow of PDAC patients pre- and post-treatment with ZA. Conclusion: ZA is safe and well tolerated as neo-adjuvant, peri-operative therapy in PDAC patients. In this small study, we did not observe a difference in OS or PFS compared to historical controls. Also, there was no difference in the prevalence of G-MDSC in the blood and bone marrow of PDAC patients pre- and post-treatment with ZA.

Identification of MicroRNA-21 as a Biomarker for Chemoresistance and Clinical Outcome Following Adjuvant Therapy in Resectable Pancreatic Cancer  [PDF]
Jin-Hyeok Hwang,Johannes Voortman,Elisa Giovannetti,Seth M. Steinberg,Leticia G. Leon,Yong-Tae Kim,Niccola Funel,Joo Kyung Park,Min A. Kim,Gyeong Hoon Kang,Sun-Whe Kim,Marco Del Chiaro,Godefridus J. Peters,Giuseppe Giaccone
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010630
Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis. The high risk of recurrence following surgical resection provides the rationale for adjuvant therapy. However, only a subset of patients benefit from adjuvant therapy. Identification of molecular markers to predict treatment outcome is therefore warranted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether expression of novel candidate biomarkers, including microRNAs, can predict clinical outcome in PDAC patients treated with adjuvant therapy.
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