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Biology and Future Clinical Perspectives of Adipose-tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

MA Yong-jiang,LI Yu-gu,DOU Zhong-ying,

中国生物工程杂志 , 2006,
Abstract: Adipose-tissue mesenchymal stem cells, is one kind of multipotent stem cells, can differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic cells and so on in vitro and in vivo. Human adipose tissue is plentiful, easily harvested in large quantity with little patient discomfort. Adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells may be an alternative stem cell source for mesenchymal tissue regeneration and engineering without ethical consideration of embryonic stem cells and severe pain resulted by bone marrow procurement. The research work on adipose-tissue mesenchymal stem cells and future clinical perspectives were reviewed.
Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin
Huang S, Beevers C
Botanics: Targets and Therapy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BTAT.S17244
Abstract: rmacological and clinical properties of curcumin Review (4655) Total Article Views Authors: Huang S, Beevers C Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:1 Pages 5 - 18 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BTAT.S17244 Christopher S Beevers1, Shile Huang2 1Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA Abstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.
New insights on cholangiocarcinoma  [cached]
Manuela Gatto,Domenico Alvaro
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2010,
Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating cancer arising from the neoplastic transformation of the biliary epithelium. It is characterized by a progressive increase in incidence and prevalence. The only curative therapy is radical surgery or liver transplantation but, unfortunately, the majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, which is not amenable to surgical therapies. Recently, proposed serum and bile biomarkers could help in the screening and surveillance of categories at risk and in diagnosing CCA at an early stage. The molecular mechanisms triggering neoplastic transformation and growth of biliary epithelium are still undefined, but significant progress has been achieved in the last few years. This review deals with the most recent advances on epidemiology, biology, and clinical management of CCA.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: in this paper, we argue for a taxonomy of approaches to function based on different epistemological perspectives assumed with regard to the treatment of this central concept in the life sciences. we distinguish between etiological and organizational perspectives on function, analyzing distinct theories: wright's selectionist etiological approach and godfrey-smith's modern history theory of functions, in the case of the etiological perspective; and cummins' functional analysis and collier's interactivist approach to function, among organizational accounts. we explain differences and similarities between these theories and the broader perspectives on function, arguing for a particular way of understanding the consensus without unity in debates about function. while explaining the accounts of function, we also deal with the relationship between this concept and other important biological concepts, such as adaptation, selection, complexity, and autonomy. we also advance an argument for the limits and prospects of the explanatory role of function in evolution. by arguing that changes in functionality are always grounded on changes in systems' organization, we show that function can never explain the origins of traits. nevertheless, it can explain the spread of traits in populations, but only when we are dealing with functionally novel traits. finally, we stress that organizational accounts of function are needed to understand how new functions appear by means of changes in systems' organization.
Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models
Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn, Vithoon Viyanant, Veerachai Eursitthichai, Porntipa Picha, Piengchai Kupradinun, Arunporn Itharat, Kesara Na-Bangchang
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-23
Abstract: The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification.Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic (CUR and AL), antihypertensive (ZO and AL), and anti-ulcer (CUR, ZO, and AL) activities.Plants used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments may provide reservoirs of promising candidate chemotherapeutics for the treatment of CCA.Cholan
Challenges and Perspectives of Chemical Biology, a Successful Multidisciplinary Field of Natural Sciences  [PDF]
Fernando A. Rojas-Ruiz,Leonor Y. Vargas-Méndez,Vladimir V. Kouznetsov
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16032672
Abstract: Objects, goals, and main methods as well as perspectives of chemical biology are discussed. This review is focused on the fundamental aspects of this emerging field of life sciences: chemical space, the small molecule library and chemical sensibilization (small molecule microassays).
Memantine: Pharmacological properties and clinical uses
Kumar Sudhir
Neurology India , 2004,
Abstract: Memantine is a relatively new drug specially developed for use in moderate-to-severe dementia. It is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and reduces glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Though Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the commonest cause of dementia in the world, there is no 'cure' available for the same. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil and rivastigmine have been shown to provide symptomatic relief in patients with AD but have no effect on disease progression or survival. Moreover, they are not helpful in more severe stages of dementia. Memantine has been shown to cause modest improvement in clinical symptoms in severe stages of AD and may retard the disease progression. Moreover, it has been shown to be useful in various forms of dementia including AD, vascular dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff psychosis. It is also the first drug to cause complete disappearance of pendular nystagmus due to multiple sclerosis. The current review focuses on the pharmacological properties of memantine and examines the recent evidence in favor of memantine.
Diagnosis and initial management of cholangiocarcinoma with obstructive jaundice  [cached]
Takashi Tajiri, Hiroshi Yoshida, Yasuhiro Mamada, Nobuhiko Taniai, Shigeki Yokomuro, Yoshiaki Mizuguchi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic cancer. Despite advances in diagnostic techniques during the past decade, cholangiocarcinoma is usually encountered at an advanced stage. In this review, we describe the classification, diagnosis, and initial management of cholangiocarcinoma with obstructive jaundice.
Multiple cells of origin in cholangiocarcinoma underlie biological, epidemiological and clinical heterogeneity
Vincenzo Cardinale,Guido Carpino,Lola Reid,Eugenio Gaudio
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.4251/wjgo.v4.i5.94
Abstract: Recent histological and molecular characterization of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) highlights the heterogeneity of this cancer that may emerge at different sites of the biliary tree and with different macroscopic or morphological features. Furthermore, different stem cell niches have been recently described in the liver and biliary tree, suggesting this as the basis of the heterogeneity of intrahepatic (IH)- and extrahepatic (EH)-CCAs, which are two largely different tumors from both biological and epidemiological points of view. The complexity of the organization of the liver stem cell compartments could underlie the CCA clinical-pathological heterogeneity and the criticisms in classifying primitive liver tumors. These recent advances highlight a possible new classification of CCAs based on cells of origin and this responds to the need of generating homogenous diagnostic, prognostic and, hopefully, therapeutic categories of IH- and EH-CCAs.
The expression of HSP27 is associated with poor clinical outcome in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
Antonello A Romani, Pellegrino Crafa, Silvia Desenzani, Gallia Graiani, Costanza Lagrasta, Mario Sianesi, Paolo Soliani, Angelo F Borghetti
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-232
Abstract: Thirty-one paraffin-embedded samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods using HSP27 and HSP72 monoclonal antibodies. Proliferation rate was assessed in the same specimens by using monoclonal antibody against phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3). Fisher's exact test was used to assess the hypothesis of independence between categorical variables in 2 × 2 tables. The ANOVA procedure was used to evaluate the association between ordinal and categorical variables. Estimates of the survival probability were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log rank test was employed to test the null hypothesis of equality in overall survival among groups. The hazard ratio associated with HSP27 and HSP72 expression was estimated by Cox hazard-proportional regression.The expression of HSP27 was related to mitotic index, tumor greatest dimension, capsular and vascular invasion while the expression of HSP72 was only related to the presence of necrosis and the lymphoid infiltration. Kaplan-Maier analysis suggested that the expression of HSP27 significantly worsened the patients' median overall survival (11 ± 3.18 vs 55 ± 4.1 months, P-value = 0.0003). Moreover HSP27-positive patients exhibited the worst mean survival (7.0 ± 3.2 months) in the absence of concomitant HSP72 expression.The expression of HSP27, likely increasing cell proliferation, tumor mass, vascular and capsular invasion, might promote aggressive tumor behaviour in IHCCA and decrease patients' survival. Immunohistochemical detection of HSP27 on routine sections may provide a reliable prognostic marker for IHCCA able to influence the therapeutic strategies for this cancer.Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor derived from the bile duct epithelium and the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer, after hepatocellular carcinoma[1]. Cholangiocarcinoma remains a relatively rare disease, accounting for <2% of all human malignancies [2]. Despite aggressive screening, most patients thought to ha
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