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Review of juxtaglomerular cell tumor with focus on pathobiological aspect
Naoto Kuroda, Hiroko Gotoda, Chisato Ohe, Shuji Mikami, Keiji Inoue, Yoji Nagashima, Fredrik Petersson, Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Chin-Chen Pan, Ondrej Hes, Michal Michal, Zoran Gatalica
Diagnostic Pathology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-6-80
Abstract: Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a very rare cause of hypertension that was first described by Robertson et al. in 1967 and the name was coined by Kihara in 1968 [1,2]. To date, approximately 100 cases with JGCT have been reported. Clinically, this tumor is characterized by hypertension, hyperaldosteronism and hypokalemia secondary to excessive renin secretion by tumor cells [3-8]. In this article, we introduce the general overview of JGCT with focus on pathobiological aspects.This tumor affects adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence in the second and third decades of life with a female predominance [8-10]. Haab et al. (1995) detected eight JGCTs among 30,000 patients at a hypertensive clinic [11].Patients with JGCT present with various symptoms including headaches, retinopathy, double vision, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, polyuria and proteinuria [8,12]. Most of these symptoms may be attributed to hypertension or hypokalemia. Clinically, JGCT is subdivided into three categories [13]. The typical variant, which accounts for the majority of JGCT, has characteristically high renin concentration, hyperaldosteronism, hypokalemia and hypertension [4,5]. Second most common presentation is the atypical variant showing hypertension with normal potassium level [8]. The third, non-functioning variant is very rare and is characterized by a normal blood pressure and normal potassium level [14-16]. Clinicians should strongly suspect JGCT if they encounter adolescent or young adult patients with severe or even moderate hypertension associated with an unexplained secondary hyperaldosteronism [6]. JGCT may cause malignant hypertension [17]. A case of JGCT associated with membranous glomerulonephritis was also reported [18].Ultrasonography of the kidneys usually shows a hypoechoic mass [19,20]. Computed tomography (CT) scan is very useful for the detection of renal tumor, even when other imaging analyses is negative [8,21]. CT scan shows finding of low, low-to iso- or
Juxtaglomerular cell tumor as a rare cause of hypertension in adults
L. Chamb?, José;Falci Júnior, R.;M. Lucon, Antonio;
International braz j urol , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382004000200006
Abstract: the juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a cause of secondary hypertension in adults. a 35-year-old female patient suffering from hypertension and low serum potassium had a 3 x 3 cm solid mass at the lower pole of left kidney diagnosed by abdominal sonography. partial nephrectomy was performed and the postoperatory was uneventful. normalization of blood pressure was observed within the first month.
Juxtaglomerular cell tumor as a rare cause of hypertension in adults  [cached]
L. Chamb? José,Falci Júnior R.,M. Lucon Antonio
International braz j urol , 2004,
Abstract: The juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a cause of secondary hypertension in adults. A 35-year-old female patient suffering from hypertension and low serum potassium had a 3 x 3 cm solid mass at the lower pole of left kidney diagnosed by abdominal sonography. Partial nephrectomy was performed and the postoperatory was uneventful. Normalization of blood pressure was observed within the first month.
Nonfunctioning tumor of the Langerhans' islets  [PDF]
Grubor Nikica M.,Micev Marjan,?olovi? Radoje B.
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/aci0201081g
Abstract: About 15% of tumors of Langerhans, islets do not cause any hormon induced syndrom although they sintetise and secrete one or more regulatory peptides. These tumors are most frequently localised in the head and tail of the pancreas. They are usually greater then 5 cm. In diameter and present with pain, jaundice, palpable mass and malaise, rarely with variceal bleeding due to compression of the splenic vein. About 50% of the tumors present with symptoms caused by metastases. We present a 51 year old women in whom during the investigation for paraumbilical pain, predominantely on the left side a tumor of the tail of the pancreas was discovered and subsequently surgically removed. Standard histology showed a neuroendocrine tumor. Irnmunohistochemistry showed generalised immunoreactivity with antibodies against chromographin A, neuron specific enolasa and glucagon in more then 95% of cells. Somatostatin was co -expressed in more then 5% of cells, PP in rare scattered cells. No reactivity was found for the other hormon markers. Ten years after surgery the patient has no signs of tumor recurrency.
Ward Round-A rare tumor of the kidney resulting in hypertension, renal failure and a cerebrovascular accident in a young female
E Broadis, C Ntoto, S Kamiza, E Borgstein
Malawi Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: A 17-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe refractory hypertension evolving over approximately 4 years. Despite not having the resources to identify plasma-renin levels and using standard imaging techniques, a juxtaglomerular cell tumor was suspected and was histologically confirmed after surgical excision. This is a potentially lethal condition if left untreated and surgical excision is curative. The benign nature of the tumor is emphasized and its chemical, radiological and microscopic appearance discussed according to the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient surviving a cerebrovascular accident associated with a juxtaglomerular cell tumor.
Giant cell tumor of skin  [cached]
Y Sunil Kumar,Raghupathi A,Chidananda
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2006,
Abstract: Giant cell tumor of the skin is a rare entity showing gross and histological features similar to those of giant cell tumor of the bone. We report a case of malignant giant cell tumor of the thigh in a 55-year-old man. Histological features showed a biphasic population of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells. The nuclei of the giant cells were similar to those of the mononuclear cells. This tumor should be distinguished from a variety of cutaneous neoplasms that contain multinucleated giant cells.
Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Secretory Mechanisms of Renin from Juxtaglomerular Cells
Aktas,Ranan Gulhan; Karabay,Gulten; Taskinalp,Oguz; Kutlu,A. Kemal;
International Journal of Morphology , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000300011
Abstract: although the structure and the functions of juxtaglomerular cells (jg) have been well defined, there is still a controversy about the secretory mechanisms of renin from these cells. it has been assumed that exocytosis is the main secretory mechanism in these cells in many studies, while others suggest that secretion occurs in a quite different way in these cells. there are several studies suggesting that diacrine secretion, which is very difficult to visualize, might be the other mechanism for secretion of renin. this study is an attempt to find the answers of these questions by identifying the fine structural features of the secretory granules in juxtaglomerular cells. cyclosporin a (cya) has been used in the current experimental study since it has already been reported that this drug increases the number of jg cells and stimulates secretion of renin. twelve female sprague-dawley rats had daily intraperitoneal injections of cya for ten weeks. tissue specimens from the kidneys of these animals were examined by electron microscopy. fine structural characteristics of the secretory granules of juxtaglomerular cells have been examined. considerable amount of granules, which goes to the exocytotic process, have been observed. additionally, several cells, which their granules had been secreting their contents in a different way, were found. this was interpreted as the secretion type of diacrine secretion. in conclusion, this in vivo study presents morphologic evidences demonstrating that both exocytosis and diacrine secretion might occur in jg cells. we also had a chance to observe secretory granule probably exhibiting "diacrine secretion", which is very difficult to visualize, at electron microscope level for the first time. this report also provides morphologic proof which shows that these two distinct secretory mechanisms might occur simultaneously in the same juxtaglomerular cell.
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor  [cached]
Singhaniya Shikha,Barpande Suresh,Bhavthankar Jyoti
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology , 2009,
Abstract: Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.
Regulation of Tumor Immunity by Tumor/Dendritic Cell Fusions  [PDF]
Shigeo Koido,Sadamu Homma,Eiichi Hara,Yoshihisa Namiki,Akitaka Takahara,Hideo Komita,Eijiro Nagasaki,Masaki Ito,Toshifumi Ohkusa,Jianlin Gong,Hisao Tajiri
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/516768
Abstract: The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce antitumor immunity that ultimately will reduce tumor burden in tumor environment. Several strategies involving dendritic cells- (DCs)- based vaccine incorporating different tumor-associated antigens to induce antitumor immune responses against tumors have been tested in clinical trials worldwide. Although DCs-based vaccine such as fusions of whole tumor cells and DCs has been proven to be clinically safe and is efficient to enhance antitumor immune responses for inducing effective immune response and for breaking T-cell tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), only a limited success has occurred in clinical trials. This paper reviews tumor immune escape and current strategies employed in the field of tumor/DC fusions vaccine aimed at enhancing activation of TAAs-specific cytotoxic T cells in tumor microenvironment.
Giant cell tumor of patella  [PDF]
S Paudel,P Kayastha,P Pokhrel,A Shah,RK Ghimire,MA Ansari
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v34i3.8920
Abstract: Giant cell tumor of bone also known as osteoclastoma is a distinct clinical, roentgenographic and pathologic entity with specific characteristics. It is a benign but locally aggressive neoplasm of the epiphyseal or metaphyseal-epiphyseal region of long tubular bones extending to the articular surface. It usually occurs after skeletal maturation and is one of the rare bone tumors that more frequently affects women. We report here a case of giant cell tumor originating from the right patella diagnosed on ne needle aspiration cytology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v34i3.8920 ? Journal of Institute of Medicine, December, 2012; 34:58-60
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