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The use of fatty acid supplementation for seizure management  [cached]
David I. Mostofsky,Sharon Rabinovitz,Shlomo Yehuda
Neurobiology of Lipids , 2004,
Abstract: Impressive research demonstrates the importance of essential fatty acids (FA) for many physiological and behavioral mechanisms, in both humans and animals. In humans, essential fatty acids must be supplied via the diet. The genesis, maintenance, exacerbation, and treatment for many chronic health conditions are often related to deficiencies in omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid), and their derivatives. In animal studies, providing supplementation of these FA changes chemical, immune, and structural properties of the brain, including the fluidity of the neuronal membrane. Of particular interest to epilepsy, pre-treatment of a ratio of the FA omega-3 / omega-6 resulted in altering the threshold for seizures following administration of convulsant agents that reliably induce epileptic activity. This report reviews the human and animal clinical and experimental data and theoretical considerations that support the promise for FA supplementation for use by seizure patients.
Is the month of Ramadan marked by a reduction in the number of suicides?  [PDF]
Bertrand M. Roehner
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: For Muslims the month of Ramadan is a time of fasting but during the evenings after sunset it is also an occasion for family and social gatherings. Therefore, according to the Bertillon-Durkheim conception of suicide (that is based on the strength of social ties), one would expect a fall in suicide rates during Ramadan. Is this conjecture confirmed by observation? That is the question addressed in the present paper. Surprisingly, the most tricky part of the investigation was to find reliable monthly suicide data. In the Islamic world Turkey seems to be the only country whose statistical institute publishes such observations. The data reveal indeed a fall of about $15\%$ in suicide numbers during the month of Ramadan (with respect to same-non-Ramadan months). As the standard deviation is only $4.7\%$ this effect has a high degree of significance. This observation, along with the fact that other occasions of social gathering such as Thanksgiving or Christmas are also marked by a drop in suicides, adds further credence to the B-D thesis.
REDUCTION OPERATION ON MARKED T-GRAPH WITH WEIGHTS
带标识加权T-图的化简

Xu Anguo,Jiang Changjun,
许安国
,蒋昌俊

电子与信息学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Firstly, some reduction operations of marked T-graph with weights are given in this paper. Then the conditions for preserving liveness of marked T-graph with weights after these operations are discussed. Obtained conclusions have important significance in analysis and synthesis of marked T-graph with weights.
Transient reduction of tinnitus intensity is marked by concomitant reductions of delta band power
Nina Kahlbrock, Nathan Weisz
BMC Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-6-4
Abstract: In the present study the relation between tinnitus sensation and spontaneous brain activity was investigated using residual inhibition (RI) to reduce tinnitus intensity and source-space projected magnetencephalographic (MEG) data to index brain activity. RI is the sustained reduction (criteria: 50% for at least 30 s) in tinnitus loudness after cessation of a tonal tinnitus masker. A pilot study (n = 38) identified 10 patients who showed RI. A significant reduction of power in the delta (1.3–4.0 Hz) frequency band was observed in temporal regions during RI (p ≤ 0.001).The current results suggest that changes of tinnitus intensity induced by RI are mediated by alterations in the pathological patterns of spontaneous brain activity, specifically a reduction of delta activity. Delta activity is a characteristic oscillatory activity generated by deafferented/deprived neuronal networks. This implies that RI effects might reflect the transient reestablishment of balance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal assemblies, via reafferentation, that have been perturbed (in most tinnitus individuals) by hearing damage. As enhancements have been reported in the delta frequency band for tinnitus at rest, this result conforms to our assumption that a normalization of oscillatory properties of cortical networks is a prerequisite for attenuating the tinnitus sensation. For RI to have therapeutic significance however, this normalization would have to be stabilized.Tinnitus – the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources – poses a significant problem for millions of people in the world. Estimations range from 4–15% for prevalence of chronic tinnitus [1,2]. The underlying physiological mechanisms that lead to this phantom sensation are still largely unknown. From a clinical perspective, this means that no therapy reliably abolishes, or even reduces in a significant manner, the tinnitus sensation. Tinnitus seems to not be solely produced in the periphery of t
Marked Increase in PROP Taste Responsiveness Following Oral Supplementation with Selected Salivary Proteins or Their Related Free Amino Acids  [PDF]
Melania Melis, Maria Carla Aragoni, Massimiliano Arca, Tiziana Cabras, Claudia Caltagirone, Massimo Castagnola, Roberto Crnjar, Irene Messana, Beverly J. Tepper, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059810
Abstract: The genetic predisposition to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) varies among individuals and is associated with salivary levels of Ps-1 and II-2 peptides, belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). We evaluated the role of these proteins and free amino acids that selectively interact with the PROP molecule, in modulating bitter taste responsiveness. Subjects were classified by their PROP taster status based on ratings of perceived taste intensity for PROP and NaCl solutions. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of Ps-1 and II-2 proteins in unstimulated saliva were performed by HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Subjects rated PROP bitterness after supplementation with Ps-1 and II-2, and two amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) whose interaction with PROP was demonstrated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. ANOVA showed that salivary levels of II-2 and Ps-1 proteins were higher in unstimulated saliva of PROP super-tasters and medium tasters than in non-tasters. Supplementation of Ps-1 protein in individuals lacking it in saliva enhanced their PROP bitter taste responsiveness, and this effect was specific to the non-taster group.1H-NMR results showed that the interaction between PROP and L-Arg is stronger than that involving L-Lys, and taste experiments confirmed that oral supplementation with these two amino acids increased PROP bitterness intensity, more for L-Arg than for L-Lys. These data suggest that Ps-1 protein facilitates PROP bitter taste perception and identifies a role for free L-Arg and L-Lys in PROP tasting.
Reduction of Seizure Occurrence from Exposure to Auditory Stimulation in Individuals with Neurological Handicaps: A Randomized Controlled Trial  [PDF]
Mark Bodner, Robert P. Turner, John Schwacke, Christopher Bowers, Caroline Norment
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045303
Abstract: Background The purpose of this work was to determine in a clinical trial the efficacy of reducing or preventing seizures in patients with neurological handicaps through sustained cortical activation evoked by passive exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (particular music). The specific type of stimulation had been determined in previous studies to evoke anti-epileptiform/anti-seizure brain activity. Methods The study was conducted at the Thad E. Saleeby Center in Harstville, South Carolina, which is a permanent residence for individuals with heterogeneous neurological impairments, many with epilepsy. We investigated the ability to reduce or prevent seizures in subjects through cortical stimulation from sustained passive nightly exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (music) in a three-year randomized controlled study. In year 1, baseline seizure rates were established. In year 2, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group subjects were exposed during sleeping hours to specific music at regular intervals. Control subjects received no music exposure and were maintained on regular anti-seizure medication. In year 3, music treatment was terminated and seizure rates followed. We found a significant treatment effect (p = 0.024) during the treatment phase persisting through the follow-up phase (p = 0.002). Subjects exposed to treatment exhibited a significant 24% decrease in seizures during the treatment phase, and a 33% decrease persisting through the follow-up phase. Twenty-four percent of treatment subjects exhibited a complete absence of seizures during treatment. Conclusion/Significance Exposure to specific auditory stimuli (i.e. music) can significantly reduce seizures in subjects with a range of epilepsy and seizure types, in some cases achieving a complete cessation of seizures. These results are consistent with previous work showing reductions in epileptiform activity from particular music exposure and offers potential for achieving a non-invasive, non-pharmacologic treatment of epilepsy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01459692
GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION DID NOT BENEFIT ATHLETES DURING SHORT-TERM WEIGHT REDUCTION  [cached]
Kevin J. Finn,Robin Lund,Mona Rosene-Treadwell
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: The purpose was to determine if glutamine supplementation would prevent a loss of lean mass in athletes during a 12-day weight reduction program. It was hypothesized that supplementation would spare lean body mass. Subjects (n=18) exercised and dieted to create a 4186kJ·day-1 energy deficit and a 8372 kJ·day-1 energy deficit on days 1-5, days 6-12, respectively. The glutamine (GLN) group (n=9) ingested 0.35 g·kg-1 body mass of glutamine while a placebo was administered to the remaining subjects. Body mass (BM), lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM), were measured at days 0, 6, and 12. GLN and placebo groups both lost significant amounts of BM, LBM and FM. There were no significant differences between groups. The findings indicate little benefit for retention of lean mass with supplementation of glutamine during a short-term weight reduction program.
Reduction of the nutritional values of diets for hens through supplementation with phytase
Lima, Matheus Ramalho de;Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo;Givisiez, Patrícia Emília Naves;Silva, José Humberto Vilar da;Sakomura, Nilva Kazue;Lima, Denise Fontana Figueiredo;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010001000016
Abstract: the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the reduction on nutritional levels of diets for semi-heavy hens during the laying peak on performance, egg quality and bone parameters. a total of eight diets were evaluated, each one with five repetitions of eight birds: 1) control: formulated to supply requirements by the birds; 2) control + 0.03% or 600 ftu; 3) 15% crude protein; 2,800 kcal me; 3.8% ca and 0.28% ap; 4) diet 3 + 0.03% or 600 ftu; 5) 14% crude protein; 2,750 kcal me; 3.4% ca and 0.23% ap; 6) diet 5 + 0.03% or 600 ftu; 7) 13% crude protein; 2,700 kcal me; 3.0% ca and 0.18% ap; and 8) diet 7 + 600 ftu. the reduction of the nutritional levels harmed the performance of the birds, particularly egg production and egg mass, which improved by the inclusion of phytase in the diets. however, the parameters for egg quality did not change as the level was reduced down to 15% crude protein; 2,800 kcal me/kg; 3.80% ca and 0.280% ap, which was not repeated in the levels with lower nutritional density. reduction of nutritional levels did not affect the evaluated bone parameters, except for resistance, which improved as phytase was added at the level 600 ftu. reduction on the diet nutritional levels to 15% crude protein; 2,800 kcal me/kg; 3.80% ca and 0.280% ap with the addition of 600 ftu of phytase does not impair egg production neither egg mass and improve the bone health of birds.
Reduction of nosocomial pneumonia after major burns by trace element supplementation: aggregation of two randomised trials
Mette M Berger, Philippe Eggimann, Daren K Heyland, René L Chioléro, Jean-Pierre Revelly, Andrew Day, Wassim Raffoul, Alan Shenkin
Critical Care , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/cc5084
Abstract: Two consecutive, randomised, double-blinded, supplementation studies including two homogeneous groups of 41 severely burned patients (20 placebo and 21 intervention) admitted to the burn centre of a university hospital were combined. Intervention consisted of intravenous trace element supplements (copper 2.5 to 3.1 mg/day, selenium 315 to 380 μg/day, and zinc 26.2 to 31.4 mg/day) for 8 to 21 days versus placebo. Endpoints were infections during the first 30 days (predefined criteria for pneumonia, bacteraemia, wound, urine, and other), wound healing, and length of ICU stay. Plasma and skin (study 2) concentrations of selenium and zinc were determined on days 3, 10, and 20.The patients, 42 ± 15 years old, were burned on 46% ± 19% of body surface: the combined characteristics of the patients did not differ between the groups. Plasma trace element concentrations and antioxidative capacity were significantly enhanced with normalisation of plasma selenium, zinc, and glutathione peroxidase concentrations in plasma and skin in the trace element-supplemented group. A significant reduction in number of infections was observed in the supplemented patients, which decreased from 3.5 ± 1.2 to 2.0 ± 1.0 episodes per patient in placebo group (p < 0.001). This was related to a reduction of nosocomial pneumonia, which occurred in 16 (80%) patients versus seven (33%) patients, respectively (p < 0.001), and of ventilator-associated pneumonia from 13 to six episodes, respectively (p = 0.023).Enhancing trace element status and antioxidant defences by selenium, zinc, and copper supplementation was associated with a decrease of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill, severely burned patients.Although the incidence of non-pulmonary infections has decreased in severely burned patients [1], nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality [2,3]. During critical illness, oxidative stress is proportional to the severit
Analysis of Turn-off Failure in MCT
MCT关断失效分析

ZHANG He,|ming,DAI Xian,|ying,WANG Wei,
张鹤鸣
,戴显英,王伟

半导体学报 , 2000,
Abstract: The mechanism of turn\|off failure in MCT has been simulated and verified by test.It is shown that the nonuniform temperature distribution in the device and the unequal gate resistance between cells cause current crowding in part of the MCT cells and result in the device failing to turn\|off.
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