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Communication Impairments in Patients with Right Hemisphere Damage
Abusamra, Valeria,C?té, Hélène,Joanette, Yves,Ferreres, Aldo
Life Span and Disability , 2009,
Abstract: Right brain damages can manifest deficits of communicative skills, which sometimes cause an important inability.The communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage are distinct from those in aphasia and may affect discursive, lexico-semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic components of communication. It is calculated that this troubles affect almost a 50% of this patients.However, these impairments have essentially been studied separately and their possible coexistence in a same individual is still unknown. Moreover, the clinical profiles of communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage, including their correlation with underlying cognitive deficits, are still unreported. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the verbal communication deficits that can be found in right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. These deficits can interfere, at different levels, with prosody, the semantic processing of words and discourse and pragmatic abilities. In spite of the incapability that they produce, communicational impairments in right brain damaged are usually neglected. Probably, the sub-diagnostic is due to the lack of an appropriate classification or to the absent of adequate assessment tools. In fact, patients with right brain damages might present harsh communicational deficits but perform correctly on aphasia tests because the last ones are not designed to detect this kind of deficit but left brain damaged impairments. Increasing our knowledge about the role of the right-hemisphere in verbal communication will have major theoretical and clinical impacts; it could facilitate the diagnosis of right brain patients in the clinical circle and it will help to lay the foundations to elaborate methods and strategies of intervention.
Accommodating to motor difficulties and communication impairments in people with autism: the MORE intervention model  [PDF]
Anne Emerson,Jackie Dearden
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00045
Abstract: Motor impairment in individuals with autism potentially impacts on their development in all spheres. This paper is particularly concerned with people with severe communication impairments suggesting that recognition of the impact of motor impairments on their lives could lead to more effective interventions being developed. One such intervention is the MORE (Means, Opportunities, Reasons, and Expectations) model, founded on the “least dangerous assumption,” that is assuming competence until otherwise established through long-term observation and assessment. Components of the model include recognizing the importance of having high expectations and linking this to the way people are spoken to; timing within an intervention and over long periods; the importance of eye-hand coordination and teaching independent pointing skills. It is suggested that literacy should be offered as an early step which could significantly enhance communication.
Client Briefing: Eliciting Design Preferences from Building Users with Communication Impairments  [PDF]
Paul Jenkins,Iain Scott,Andy Challen
Buildings , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/buildings2020083
Abstract: This paper reports on recent experience of engaging with building users who have communication difficulties, as a potential part of client briefing. The users were residents of a specialist Scottish Housing Association (HA) providing social housing and care services; the residents having a wide range of complex needs, predominantly learning difficulties. Many of these residents have communication difficulties, ranging from mild to very severe. The challenge presented was to effectively engage with a representative sample of residents to ascertain how they value their living environment. The researchers’ involvement was based on prior research into how different participants engage in the architectural design process.
C-Band VSAT Data Communication System and RF Impairments
T.P. surekha,T. Ananthapadmanabha,C. Puttamadappa
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems , 2012,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of VSAT (very small aperture terminal) data messaging network operating in India at Karnataka with extended C-band. VSATs in Karnataka of KPTCL use VSATS 6.875-6.9465G Hz uplinks and 4.650- 4.7215 GHz downlinks. These frequencies are dedicated to fix services. The Satellite is Intelsat -3A, the hub has a 7.2 m diameter antenna and uses 350W or 600W TWTA (Travelling wave Tube Amplifier). The VSAT’s are 1.2 m with RF power of 1W or 2W depending on their position in the uplink beam with data rate of 64 or 128 K bit/s. The performanceof the system is analysed by the error probability called BER (Bit Error Rate) and results are derived from Earth station to hub and hub to Earth station using satellite Transponder as the media of communication channel. The Link budgets are developed for a single one-way satellite link.
C-Band VSAT Data Communication System and RF Impairments  [PDF]
T. P. Surekha,T. Ananthapadmanabha,C. Puttamadappa
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with modelling and simulation of VSAT (very small aperture terminal) data messaging network operating in India at Karnataka with extended C-band. VSATs in Karnataka of KPTCL use VSATS 6.875-6.9465G Hz uplinks and 4.650- 4.7215 GHz downlinks. These frequencies are dedicated to fixed services. The Satellite is Intelsat -3A, the hub has a 7.2 m diameter antenna and uses 350W or 600W TWTA (Travelling wave Tube Amplifier). The VSAT's are 1.2 m with RF power of 1W or 2W depending on their position in the uplink beam with data rate of 64 or 128 K bit/s. The performance of the system is analysed by the error probability called BER (Bit Error Rate) and results are derived from Earth station to hub and hub to Earth station using satellite Transponder as the media of communication channel. The Link budgets are developed for a single one-way satellite link.
Visuo-Motor Coordination Deficits and Motor Impairments in Parkinson's Disease  [PDF]
Rivka Inzelberg, Edna Schechtman, Shraga Hocherman
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003663
Abstract: Background Visuo-motor coordination (VMC) requires normal cognitive executive functionality, an ability to transform visual inputs into movement plans and motor-execution skills, all of which are known to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Not surprisingly, a VMC deficit in PD is well documented. Still, it is not known how this deficit relates to motor symptoms that are assessed routinely in the neurological clinic. Such relationship should reveal how particular motor dysfunctions combine with cognitive and sensory–motor impairments to produce a complex behavioral disability. Methods and Findings Thirty nine early/moderate PD patients were routinely evaluated, including motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) based assessment, A VMC testing battery in which the subjects had to track a target moving on screen along 3 different paths, and to freely trace these paths followed. Detailed kinematic analysis of tracking/tracing performance was done. Statistical analysis of the correlations between measures depicting various aspects of VMC control and UPDRS items was performed. The VMC measures which correlated most strongly with clinical symptoms represent the ability to organize tracking movements and program their direction, rather than measures representing motor-execution skills of the hand. The strong correlations of these VMC measures with total UPDRS score were weakened when the UPDRS hand-motor part was considered specifically, and were insignificant in relation to tremor of the hand. In contrast, all correlations of VMC measures with the gait/posture part of the UPDRS were found to be strongest. Conclusions Our apparently counterintuitive findings suggest that the VMC deficit pertains more strongly to a PD related change in cognitive-executive control, than to a reduction in motor capabilities. The recently demonstrated relationship between gait/posture impairment and a cognitive decline, as found in PD, concords with this suggestion and may explain the strong correlation between VMC dysfunction and gait/posture impairment. Accordingly, we propose that what appears to reflect a motor deficit in fact represents a multisystem failure, dominated by a cognitive decline.
Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior  [PDF]
Markus W?hr,Florence I. Roullet,Albert Y. Hung,Morgan Sheng,Jacqueline N. Crawley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020631
Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1?/? null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1?/? mice as compared to wildtype Shank1+/+ littermate controls. Shank1?/? pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1?/? males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1?/? mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1?/? males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1?/? mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism.
Plasticity, Permanence, and Patient Performance: Study Design and Data Analysis in the Cognitive Rehabilitation of Acquired Communication Impairments  [PDF]
Patricia E. Cowell,Sandra P. Whiteside,Fay Windsor,Rosemary A. Varley
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00213
Abstract: Communication impairments such as aphasia and apraxia can follow brain injury and result in limitation of an individual’s participation in social interactions, and capacity to convey needs and desires. Our research group developed a computerized treatment program which is based on neuroscientific principles of speech production (Whiteside and Varley, 1998; Varley and Whiteside, 2001; Varley, 2010) and has been shown to improve communication in people with apraxia and aphasia (Dyson et al., 2009; Varley et al., 2009). Investigations of treatment efficacy have presented challenges in study design, effect measurement, and statistical analysis which are likely to be shared by other researchers in the wider field of cognitive neurorehabilitation evaluation. Several key factors define neurocognitively based therapies, and differentiate them and their evaluation from other forms of medical intervention. These include: (1) inability to “blind” patients to the content of the treatment and control procedures; (2) neurocognitive changes that are more permanent than pharmacological treatments on which many medical study designs are based; and (3) the semi-permanence of therapeutic effects means that new baselines are set throughout the course of a given treatment study, against which comparative interventions or long term retention effects must be measured. This article examines key issues in study design, effect measurement, and data analysis in relation to the rehabilitation of patients undergoing treatment for apraxia of speech. Results from our research support a case for the use of multiperiod, multiphase cross-over design with specific computational adjustments and statistical considerations. The paper provides researchers in the field with a methodologically feasible and statistically viable alternative to other designs used in rehabilitation sciences.
What can false memory tell us about memory impairments in Alzheimer’s disease?
Fan Zhang,HaiYan Geng
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-4164-6
Abstract: The range of memory impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been a focus for psychological and clinical researchers for many years. In addition to investigations of AD patients’ veridical memory using traditional recognition memory tasks, a number of recent studies have focused on false memories to reveal the underlying causes of memory impairment in AD. Studies comparing illusory memories between AD patients and healthy older people have revealed various differences in memory deficits between the development of AD and the typical aging processes. Here, we review 3 types of memory illusions tested in AD patients: associative memory illusions, fluency-based false memories and source memory errors. By comparing AD patients with healthy older adults, we sought to analyze the mechanisms underlying AD-related memory impairments at different stages of memory processing, including encoding, retrieval and monitoring. This comparison revealed that AD patients exhibit an impaired ability to establish and utilize gist representations at the encoding stage and impairments in processing on the basis of familiarity and recollection at the retrieval stage. Consequently, patients with AD have access to less information when making memory judgments. As a result, they become more susceptible to the effects of item fluency, which can be manipulated during the retrieval stage. Furthermore, with impaired source memory monitoring abilities, the capacity of AD patients to suppress memory illusions is compromised. Based on these findings, we propose that the study of false memories constitute a critical tool for elucidating the memory impairments involved in AD. Further explorations of these memory impairments will have practical significance for the diagnosis and treatment of AD in the future.
Eye movement impairments in Parkinson's disease: possible role of extradopaminergic mechanisms
Elmar H Pinkhardt, Reinhart Jürgens, Dorothée Lulé, Johanna Heimrath, Albert C Ludolph, Wolfgang Becker, Jan Kassubek
BMC Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-5
Abstract: We investigated reactive, visually guided saccades (RS), smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), and rapidly left-right alternating voluntary gaze shifts (AVGS) by video-oculography in 34 PD patients receiving oral dopaminergic medication (PD-DA), 14 patients with deep brain stimulation of the nucleus subthalamicus (DBS-STN), and 23 control subjects (CTL);In addition, we performed a thorough review of recent literature according therapeuthic effects on oculomotor performance in PD by switching deep brain stimulation off and on in the PD-DBS patients, we achieved swift changes between their therapeutic states without the delays of dopamine withdrawal. In addition, participants underwent neuropsychological testing.Patients exhibited the well known deficits such as increased saccade latency, reduced SPEM gain, and reduced frequency and amplitude of AVGS. Across patients none of the investigated oculomotor parameters correlated with UPDRS III whereas there was a negative correlation between SPEM gain and susceptibility to interference (Stroop score). Of the observed deficiencies, DBS-STN slightly improved AVGS frequency but neither AVGS amplitude nor SPEM or RS performance.We conclude that the impairment of SPEM in PD results from a cortical, conceivably non-dopaminergic dysfunction, whereas patients' difficulty to rapidly execute AVGS might be related to their BG dysfunction.A broad variety of oculomotor alterations have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) such as an increased latency of visually guided reactive saccades, reduced saccadic gain, impaired smooth pursuit and difficulties to inhibit unwarranted reactions [1]. Existing literature mainly focuses on different aspects of saccadic dysfunction and basal ganglia pathology without arriving at a generally accepted view. The substantia nigra and related brainstem areas are suggested to be crucially involved in various types of saccadic eye movements by mediating a dopamine-related descending input from frontal c
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