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Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity  [PDF]
Karine Andreau,Melanie Leroux,Aida Bouharrour
Biochemistry Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/493894
Abstract: Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively. 1. Introduction The air is fundamental and essential for living beings but epidemiological studies provide evidences of the harmful impacts of air pollution by increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality as well as reproductive disorders and cancers [1, 2]. Some air toxics are released from natural sources but most are originated from anthropogenic sources, such as road traffic, construction, industrial, and agricultural activities [3]. Among almost two hundred hazardous air pollutants—mainly corresponding to suspended particulate matter and gases—only six are monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which sets the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) for air particles, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead (Table 1). In addition, some other air pollutants are subjected to a specific attention because of their deleterious health impacts, like asbestos, mercury, chlorofluorocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [4]. Table 1: Air pollutants. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) are set by the Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act and define the maximum allowable concentrations of outdoor air pollutants in the USA. Units of NAAQS are parts per million (ppm) by volume, parts per billion (ppb-1 part in 1,000,000,000) by volume, milligrams per cubic meter of air (mg/m 3), and micrograms per cubic meter of air ( μg/m 3). Average time refers to time for which the values of NAAQS should not be exceeded in the ambient air [ 14– 16]. At the present time, air pollution is considered as a
Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity  [PDF]
Karine Andreau,Melanie Leroux,Aida Bouharrour
Biochemistry Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/493894
Abstract: Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively.
四川宜宾城区周边工业污染源及其对空气质量的影响
A Study on Industrial Pollution Sources and Their Impacts on Air Quality of Yibin Urban Area in Sichuan Province
 [PDF]

徐致和, 唐亚, 刘本洪, 杨齐寿, 赵曦琳, 张岭江, 杜双韬, 杨基智
Advances in Environmental Protection (AEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/AEP.2014.44020
Abstract:
良好的城市大气环境是居民健康生活的重要保证。本文研究了四川宜宾城区周边工业污染源、城区空气质量现状及变化趋势。结果显示,影响宜宾市城区大气环境最主要的污染物是烟尘、粉尘和二氧化硫,其次是氮氧化物、挥发性有机物等,其中烟尘、粉尘对于大气环境的影响呈不断增大的趋势。主要由于气候原因,大气污染易发生在11月至次年3月,2012年秋季起由可吸入颗粒物主导的大气污染日益严重。针对宜宾城区大气环境这些变化应当采取积极有效的应对措施。
Air quality is essential for human health but intensive industrial activities have caused air pollution and placed human health at high risk. To understand the impacts of industrial activities on urban air quality, a case study was carried out in Yibin, a city located in southern Sichuan province, China. Potential air pollutants from various industries in surrounding Yibin were listed and their potential effects on air quality were analyzed. Smoke, dust and sulfur dioxide were identified as the pollutants that determine the air quality, and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds can also considerably influence air quality. Increasing particulate matters from smoke and dust were the major cause of heavy air pollution. Seasonally, air pollution was high during the period from November to March and low during summer from June to August. As wind is rare and wind is small in the area, rainfall plays an important role in cleaning air. Since the autumn of 2012, air pollution dominated by particulate matters has increased, mainly due to increased use of coal. To reduce air pollution, restructure of industrial sectors with reduced need for coal will be required. 

An Integrated Agent-Based Framework for Assessing Air Pollution Impacts  [PDF]
David Newth, Don Gunasekera
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329132
Abstract: Air pollution has considerable impact on human health and the wellbeing. Thus many regions of the world have established air pollution standards to ensure a minimum level of air quality. Precise assessment of the health and socio-economic impacts of air pollution is, however, a complex task; indeed, methods based within an epidemiological tradition generally underestimate human risk of exposure to polluted air. In this study, we introduce an agent-based modeling approach to ascertaining the impact of changes in particulate matter (PM10) on mortality and frequency of hospital visits in the greater metropolitan region of Sydney, Australia. Our modeling approach simulates human movement and behavioral patterns in order to obtain an accurate estimate of individual exposure to a pollutant. Results of our analysis indicate that a 50% reduction in PM10 levels (relative to the baseline) could considerably lower mortality, respiratory hospital admissions and emergency room visits leading to reduced pressure on health care sector costs and placing lower stress on emergency medical facilities. Our analysis also highlights the continued need to avoid significant increases in air pollution in Sydney so that associated health impacts, including health care costs, do not increase.
Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges
Cizao Ren, Shilu Tong
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-56
Abstract: It is well known that exposure to high levels of air pollution can adversely affect human health. A number of air pollution catastrophes occurred in industrial countries between 1950s and 1970s, such as the London smog of 1952 [1]. Air quality in western countries has significantly improved since the 1970s. However, adverse health effects of exposure to relatively low level of air pollution remain a public concern, motivated largely by a number of recent epidemiological studies that have shown the positive associations between air pollution and health outcomes using sophisticated time-series and other designs [2].This review highlights the key findings from major epidemiological study designs (including time-series, case-crossover, panel, cohort, and birth outcome studies) in estimating the associations of exposure to ambient air pollution with health outcomes over the last two decades, and identifies future research opportunities. We do not intend for this to be a formal systematic literature review or meta-analysis, but to discuss issues we feel are vitally important based on the recent literature and our own experience. This paper is divided into two parts: firstly to summarize recent findings from major epidemiological studies, and secondly to discuss key methodological challenges in this field and to identify research opportunities for future air pollution epidemiological studies.There are a large number of time-series studies on the short-term health effects of air pollution, with the emphasis on mortality and hospital admissions by means of fitting Poisson regression models at a community level or ecological level. This type of time-series design is a major approach to estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in epidemiological studies for the last two decades. Many studies have found associations between daily changes in ambient particulate air pollution and increased cardiorespiratory hospital admissions [3-6], along with cardiorespiratory mort
The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System  [PDF]
Sermin Genc,Zeynep Zadeoglulari,Stefan H. Fuss,Kursad Genc
Journal of Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/782462
Abstract: Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. 1. Introduction Air pollution collectively describes the presence of a diverse and complex mixture of chemicals, particulate matter (PM), or of biological material in the ambient air which can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. The sources of air pollution can either be natural (e.g., volcanic eruptions) or manmade (e.g., industrial activities), and air pollution emerges as a serious health problem especially in rapidly growing countries. Millions of people worldwide are chronically exposed to airborne pollutants in concentrations that are well above legal safety standards [1]. Therefore, morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continue to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Air pollution ranks eighth among the leading risk factors for mortality and accounts for 2.5% of all deaths in developed countries [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution is responsible for over 3 million premature deaths each year [3]. Epidemiological and observational studies identified a strong link between the exposure to contaminants in the ambient air and adverse health outcomes, such as
The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbak r 24.12.2004)  [PDF]
Hasan Bayram,Zeynep D?rtbudak,Fatma Evyapan Fi?ek?i,Murat Karg?n
Dicle Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbak r, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbak r, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.
Description of industrial pollution in Spain
Javier García-Pérez, Elena Boldo, Rebeca Ramis, Marina Pollán, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Nuria Aragonés, Gonzalo López-Abente
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-40
Abstract: All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values.The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt.A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such substances. Information obtained through publication of EPER data means that the possible consequences of reported pollutant foci on the health of neighbouring populations can now be studied.Toxic substances, which are released constantly into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industrial activities, include a long list of products and pollutants that until now have never been quantified in Spain. Evidence as to the health risk posed by residing in the vicinity of such polluting industries is limited, with cancer and congenital malformations being the most widely studied health problems in the
The Contribution Values of Energy Consumptions from the Different Industrial Sectors on the Air Quality in Ningbo  [cached]
Pingsha Huang,Lihua Teng,Pei Shi
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to prived an overview of energy consumption in different industrial sectors in Ningbo for furture adjusting the local industry construction and relateive layout in terms of energy saving and air quality improvment. With the Bayesian network theory, combined the energy consumptions of unit production and indicators of air quality, energy consumption on the contribution to air quality from the various industrial sectors were analyzed in Ningbo. The results showed that the energy consumptions from five industrial sectors and GDP/capital directly affected on comprehensive air pollution index, while there was a direct causal relationship between GDP/capital and energy consumptions in five industrial sectors. The results implied that, for comprehensive air pollution index, the contribution from the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was larger. The sectors of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes and NOX from vehicle made more contributions on the NO2. Meanwhile, the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes and chemical raw materials and chemical products sectors gave more contributions on the SO2. For the TSP and acid rain rate, the sector of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was key contributor. It could be said the sector of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was the most important industrial sector which impacts on local air quality in Ningbo.
Potential sources of bias in the use of individual's recall of the frequency of exposure to air pollution for use in exposure assessment in epidemiological studies: a cross-sectional survey
Paul R Hunter, Karen Bickerstaff, Maria A Davies
Environmental Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-3-3
Abstract: This was a postal cross-sectional study of 3402 households in England in a mixed rural and urban area adjacent to a large industrial complex. Respondents were asked about their social and demographic characteristics, the presence of respiratory symptoms and frequency of exposure to a range of pollution types.There were strong associations (p < 0.01) with the presence of a person in the home with respiratory symptoms, the belief that industrial pollution was harming their health, social class, living in rented accommodation and reporting noise from neighbours and other people's smoke. Smoking behaviour did not affect reporting.We did not find any evidence of bias that would substantially invalidate mean population reporting of air pollution severity as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies, though care may be needed in interpreting results where those factors found to be significant in this study vary substantially between areas.In recent years, there have been many publications addressing the relationship between various types of air pollution and adverse health outcomes in human populations [1-6]. One of the problems faced by many of the studies covered by the reviews referred to in the previous sentence was accurately determining the degree of environmental exposure [7]. Getting accurate measures of exposure to airborne pollutants is especially problematic in large populations over prolonged time periods [7,8]. Individual reporting of the severity of exposure has been used in a very few studies [9], though analysis of individual perception of pollution is open to recall bias [8,10]. A recent paper has provided convincing evidence that population mean perception is a good indicator of air pollution [8].Recent work has shown that population means of personal perception of exposure to various pollutants is highly correlated with actual exposure as measured by chemical monitoring and may even give a better estimate of exposure levels when there are relative
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