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Different presentations of intraretinal fluid collections in optic disc pits: OCT study of 3 cases
Brasil, Oswaldo Ferreira Moura;Brasil, Maria Vitoria Oliveira Moura;Brasil, Oswaldo Moura;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492006000500024
Abstract: the congenital optic disc pit is a rare anomaly that can lead to major visual impairment associated with subretinal fluid accumulation. the authors describe the optical coherence tomography study of three cases of untreated congenital optic disc pits with different levels of visual impairment and its different presentations of intraretinal fluid collections.
The Evolving Treatment Options for Diabetic Macular Edema  [PDF]
Atul Jain,Neeta Varshney,Colin Smith
International Journal of Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/689276
Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults, and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the most common cause of visual impairment in individuals with DR. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, previous treatment paradigms, and emerging treatment options in the management of DME. 1. Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss in working-age adults. In 2002, there were estimated to be just over 13.5 million individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus (DM) in the USA, or about 6% of the population. Since then, revised estimates for 2011 indicate that 25.8 million people have DM in the USA, of which 18.8 million are diagnosed and 7 million cases are undiagnosed [1, 2]. Approximately 28.5% of individuals with DM have some form of retinopathy; 4.4% of individuals are at risk of severe vision loss secondary to advanced disease. Present estimates indicate that the incidences of DM and DR are both significantly increasing with as many as 50 million or more individuals in the USA having DM by the year 2050, of which half are expected to have some form of retinopathy [1–5]. DR can be categorized into two broad groups: (1) nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Within NPDR, patients are classified as mild, moderate, or severe; severe NPDR is based on at least one of the following findings: diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages in all quadrants, venous beading in at least 2 quadrants, or the presence of intraretinal microvascular abnormalities. Of the two broad categories, proliferative disease, while it is less common, results in more severe vision loss. In nonproliferative disease, the most common cause of vision loss is due to diabetic macular edema (DME). At present, individuals with DR in the USA have a prevalence of DME between 3 and 5%, with this percentage increasing with age [6]. A recent meta-analysis of 35 population-based studies pooling data from the USA, Europe, Asia, and Australia found that in individuals with DM the prevalence of any type of DR is 35%, with DME present in 7.5% and PDR present in 7.2% of individuals. These prevalence rates were found to be significantly higher in individuals with type 1 DM compared to type 2 DM [7]. In the USA, over 90% of individuals with DM are type 2 diabetics [8]. Summarizing the above data as it applies to the USA, at present, approximately 1.1 million individuals are at serious risk of sight-threatening vision loss from DR. Of these “at risk” individuals, DME is the major etiology of visual
Serum TNF-Alpha Level Predicts Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Children  [PDF]
Katarzyna Zorena,Jolanta My liwska,Ma gorzata My liwiec,Anna Balcerska, ukasz Hak,Pawe Lipowski,Krystyna Raczyńska
Mediators of Inflammation , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/92196
Abstract: The aim of this study was identification of the immunologic markers of the damage to the eye apparatus at early stages of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 children. One hundred and eleven children with DM type 1 were divided into two groups: those with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and without retinopathy. All the children had their daily urine albumin excretion, HbA1c, C-peptide measured, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, and ophthalmologic examination. Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 in serum were measured by ELISA tests (Quantikine High Sensitivity Human by R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minn, USA). The NPDR children demonstrated a significantly longer duration of the disease in addition to higher HbA1c, albumin excretion rate, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 levels than those without retinopathy. The logistic regression revealed that the risk of NPDR was strongly dependent on TNF-α [(OR 4.01; 95%CI 2.01–7.96)]. TNF-α appears to be the most significant predictor among the analyzed parameters of damage to the eye apparatus. The early introduction of the TNF-α antagonists to the treatment of young patients with DM type 1 who show high serum activity of the TNF-α may prevent them from development of diabetic retinopathy.
Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure
R Avtar, D Tandon
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of our present work is to develop a simple steady state model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution and to investigate the effect of various model parameters on the partial pressure distribution under adapted conditions of light and darkness.. Method: A simple eight-layered mathematical model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution was developed using Fick's law of diffusion, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and oxygen delivery in the inner retina. The system of non-linear differential equations was solved numerically using Runge-kutta Nystroms method. Result: The model predicts that a decrease in the blood flow rate reduces the partial pressure of oxygen in adapted conditions of light and darkness. It was also observed that the partial pressure of oxygen was higher in adapted light conditions than in adapted dark conditions. Conclusion: The partial pressure of oxygen observed in different layers of the retina was reduced by a decrease in the blood flow rate in the inner retina. The pressure becomes minimum when there is no blood flow in the inner retina. This minimum pressure may fall below the critical level of oxygen partial pressure and affect the retinal function. In order to restore normal retinal function, extreme hyperoxia may assist to make the choroid capable of supplying oxygen to the whole retina during total retinal artery occlusion.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made to study stress tolerance amongdiabetics and non diabetics.. Stress Tolerance scale has been used to measure their stresstolerance. This tool was administered to 160 diabetics and 160 non diabetics fromPathanamthitta district in Kerala. The sample mainly consisted of working people. Theresult of the analysis reveals that stress tolerance seems to have a significant effect onnon diabetics compared to diabetics.
Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy among Diabetics: A Hospital Based Study at Ashraff Memorial Hospital, Kalmunai
Mohammed Muzammil Al-Ameen Rizath, Jayasiri Deshapriya Dias, Hameem Mohammed Ismy Mohammed, Mohamed Meerasahib Maroozathul Ilahi, Athambawa Mohamed Razmy
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102230
Abstract: Diabetic Retinopathy and diabetics are two highly associated severe diseases in human. This study assesses the risk of getting Diabetic Retinopathy among the Diabetic patients in the Kalmunai region. In this hospital based cross sectional study, all the diabetic patients who were attending to the diabetic clinic of the Ashraff memorial hospital from January 2014 to December 2014 were screened for Diabetic Retinopathy and their demographic details were recorded. Obtained information was analyzed for estimating the risk for Diabetic Retinopathy among the diabetic patients and it was estimated as 13.16%. No difference in risk of getting Diabetic Retinopathy was observed among different age group, educated level and gender. Risk of getting Diabetic Retinopathy increases with the increase of the duration suffered by the diabetic. The relative risk of getting Diabetic Retinopathy for patients with diabetic for more 12 years is 3.55 times greater compared to the fresh diabetic patients.
Quality of Life among Saudi Diabetics  [PDF]
Fahad S. Al-Shehri
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.43032

Aim of study: To assess QOL among Saudi diabetics and to identify the possible risk factors associated with lower QOL. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 400 diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic at theUniversityDiabetesCenterinRiyadh. They were interviewed using the Audit of Diabetes Dependent QOL (ADDQOL). Results: Most diabetic patients (78.7%) had negative (i.e., unfavorable) ADDQOL scores. Diabetic patients' age, education and occupation were not significantly associated with their QOL. Female patients had significantly worse QOL than male patients (p = 0.026). Married patients had significantly worse QOL compared with non-married patients (p = 0.012). Patients with type 2 diabetes had significantly worse QOL than those with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.029). Duration of diabetes was not significant factors as regard their QOL, with the worst QOL among those with more than 20 years of diabetes. The degree of diabetes control was significantly and directly associated with QOL score (p < 0.001). The worst QOL was expressed among poorly controlled diabetes while the best was among patients with excellent control. QOL of diabetics was less among those who had diabetes complications, i.e., neuropathy (p = 0.03), retinopathy (p < 0.001), and diabetic foot (p = 0.031). However, difference was not significant according to those with nephropathy. Conclusions: QOL of Saudi adult diabetic patients is not favorable. Personal characteristics associated with worse QOL among diabetics include female gender, and being married. Disease characteristics associated with worse QOL include being a type 2 diabetic and those with uncontrolled diabetes. Main complications associated with worse QOL among diabetics include retinopathy, diabetic foot and neuropathy.

Hemorrhagic intraretinal macrocyst: Differential diagnoses and report of an unusual case
Rishi Pukhraj,Rishi Ekta,Sen Pratik,Sharma Tarun
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Retinal ′cysts′ may be single or multiple, ranging from two-to-ten disc diameters in size, and occur in eyes with longstanding retinal detachment. The authors describe a retinal macrocyst larger than ten disc diameters, with a blood-filled cavity, and its ultrasound findings. Improved retinal nourishment following retinal reattachment gradually reverses the process responsible for cystic degeneration, with the eventual collapse of the cyst (within days or weeks). Surprisingly, this giant cyst did not collapse for almost three years despite retinal reattachment. The internal mobile echogenic contents were suggestive of blood. The possible reason of blood in the cyst could be rupture of the retinal blood vessels in the cyst cavity. This could be a recurrent phenomenon, which did not allow the cyst to collapse. The Hemorrhagic Intraretinal Macrocyst needs to be differentiated from mimicking clinical conditions, namely, retinoschisis, choroidal melanoma, subretinal abscess, choroidal hemangioma, and the like. It could take up to a few years to collapse spontaneously, following successful retinal reattachment.
Impact of Exercise on Diabetics Subjects
S.O. Adewale,O.A. Ajala,K.O. Obisesan,O. Adebimpe
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: We revisit the generalized Mathematical model used for study of diabetes mellitus. We note the impact of different levels of physical activities on the stability of the disease. We observed that when we exercise the risk of becoming diabetics reduces.
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made to study subjective wellbeing among diabetics and non diabetics. Subjective well being instrument has been used for this purpose. This tool was administered to 160 diabetics and 160 non diabetics from Pathanamthitta district in Kerala. The sample mainly consisted of working people. The result of the analysis reveals that subjective well being seems to have no significant effect on both diabetics and non diabetics. Whereas non diabetic workers who are doing exercise and non diabetic workers who are not doing exercise differ in their subjective well being.
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