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Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Elementary School Children of South Khorasan Province (East Iran)
Azita Fesharakinia,Asghar Zarban,Gholam-Reza Sharifzadeh
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: Zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and can affect growth of children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its effect on growth in elementary school children of South Khorasan province.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 908 9-11 year-old school children of South Khorasan province (East Iran) from October to December 2007. The subjects were chosen by multi-stage cluster random sampling method from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric measurements were made following standard techniques. Children were considered Stunting, underweight and wasting as height-for-age and weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-score below or equal -2 standard deviation using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population. Serum zinc level was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS statistical package using t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA.Findings: Totally, 474 subjects (52.2%) were girls and 697 subjects (76.8%) resided in city. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting was 13.2%, 6.8% and 5.5%, respectively. The mean value of zinc plasma level was 87.7 (±32.7) μg/dl; it was significantly higher in girls and in urban areas. There were no significant differences in mean serum zinc in school children with normal growth and subjects that were stunted, underweight or wasted. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 28.1% and it was significantly higher in rural areas. The prevalence of zinc-deficiency was significantly higher in stunted school children than non-stunted children.Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is common in elementary school children of South Khorasan province, so searching studies for underlying factors of zinc deficiency and supplementation of zinc, especially in stunted students is recommended
Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran  [PDF]
Afsaneh Yaghobi,Ali Ghorbani
Audiology , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001), (r=0.8). This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001), (r=0.7).Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.
Predictors of hearing loss in school entrants in a developing country  [cached]
Olusanya Bola,Okolo A,Adeosun A
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Hearing loss is a prevalent and significant disability that impairs functional development and educational attainment of school children in developing countries. Lack of a simple and practical screening protocol often deters routine and systematic hearing screening at school entry. Aim: To identify predictors of hearing loss for a practical screening model in school-aged children. Settings and Design: Community-based, retrospective case-control study of school entrants in an inner city. Methods: Results from the audiologic and non-audiologic examination of 50 hearing impaired children in randomly selected mainstream schools were compared with those of a control group of 150 normal hearing children, matched for age and sex from the same population. The non-audiologic evaluation consisted of medical history, general physical examination, anthropometry, motor skills, intelligence and visual acuity while the audiologic assessment consisted of otoscopy, audiometry and tympanometry. Statistical Analysis: Multiple logistic regression analysis of significant variables derived from univariate analysis incorporating student t-test and chi-square. Results: Besides parental literacy (OR:0.3; 95% CI:0.16-0.68), non-audiologic variables showed no association with hearing loss. In contrast, most audiologic indicators, enlarged nasal turbinate (OR:3.3; 95% CI:0.98-11.31), debris or foreign bodies in the ear canal (OR:5.4; 95% CI:1.0-36.03), impacted cerumen (OR:6.2; 95% CI:2.12-14.33), dull tympanic membrane (OR:2.2; 95% CI:1.10-4.46), perforated ear drum (OR:24.3; 95% CI:2.93-1100.17) and otitis media with effusion OME (OR:14.2; 95% CI:6.22-33.09), were associated with hearing loss. However, only parental literacy (OR:0.3; 95% CI:0.16-0.69), impacted cerumen (OR:4.0; 95% CI:1.66-9.43) and OME (OR:11.0; 95% CI:4.74-25.62) emerged as predictors. Conclusion: Selective screening based on the identification of impacted cerumen and OME will facilitate the detection of a significant proportion of hearing impaired school entrants.
Frequency of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Major Beta-Thalassemias in Southern Iran
Abolhassan Faramarzi,Mehran Karimi,Seyed-Taghi Heydari,Mahmoud Shishegar
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010,
Abstract: Objective:The thalassemias are among the most common genetic disorders worldwide, occurring more frequently in the Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to determined frequency of sensory-neural hearing loss in major - thalassemias transfusion dependent patients in south of Iran. Methods:A cross sectional study on 308 cases of major beta-thalassemia patients referring to Thalassemia Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2006-2007 years. The diagnosis of - thalassemia major was based on clinical history, complete blood count and hemoglobine electrophoresis. Clinical data such as serum ferritin level, deferoxamine (DFO) dose, mean daily doses of DFO (mg/kg) and audiometric variables was recorded. Findings:Out of 308 cases, 283 (96.5%) had normal hearing and 10 (3.5%) sensorineural hearing loss. There was no statically significant difference between two groups regarding mean age, weight, age at the first blood transfusion, age at the first DFO infusion. Conclusion:We found the lowest incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in a large population of patients suffered from major thalassemia who received DFO. We show that DFO is not ototoxic at a low dose. When considering all related literature, as a whole there has been much critical misrepresentation about DFO ototoxicity.
Language Characteristics of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss in Tehran, Iran  [PDF]
Dr. Younes Lotfi,Talieh Zarifian,Saeideh Mehrkian,Dr. Mehdi Rahgozar
Audiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Hearing impairment affects all aspect of individual life, specially language and communication skills. When hearing impairment is congenital or occurs early in life, the child’s ability to learn optimally through audition, will be affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate linguistic skills of preschool hearing impaired children and compare these skills with normal peers.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 38 preschool hearing impaired children that the main handicap was severe to profound hearing loss with ability to communicate orally and 28 normal children with the same cultural and social context. Twenty four non linguistic variables including age, gender, the age of entrance of preschool center, number of hearing aids, etc. were obtained by filling a questionnaire and fifteen linguistics variables including number of utterance, morphemes, correct utterance, noun phrase, ambiguous utterance, correct sentences, compound sentences, etc. were collected by some part of TOLD-P-3 test and three complementary questions. Then we compared the data from two groups.Results: There were significant differences between number of utterance, number of correct mean length utterance, number of well-formed sentences in normal and hearing impaired group (p<0.000). There were no significant difference between unintelligible utterances, repetitive utterances and bad-formed sentences between two groups(p>0.05).Conclusion: This study showed a severe deficit in linguistic skills in preschool hearing impaired children.
Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran
Ashraf Mohammadzadeh,Mohsen Jafarzade,Ahmad Shah Farhat,Rana Amiri
Acta Medica Iranica , 2011,
Abstract: Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight) and NBW (Normal Birth Weight) was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015). Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001). According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.
Fungal flora of hearing aid moulds and ear canal in hearing aid wearers in school children in Ahvaz, Iran (2008)  [PDF]
Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi,Hassan Abshirini,Rozita Rahimi
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of study was to determine the presence and nature of fungal flora on hearing aid ear moulds and ear canal in hearing aid wearers. Only ‘behind the ear’ (BTE) acrylic hearing aid moulds were included in this study. Hearing aid ear moulds and ear canal were swabbed and samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the mycoflora present. Seventeen out of 120 (14.2%) BTE wearers had different fungi in their hearing aids or ear canal. The most common fungi were Aspergillus niger (eight cases) followed by A. flavus (three cases), Rhizopus (three cases), Penicillium (two cases) and C. albicans (three cases). BTE wearers have a varied fungal flora on their ear moulds and ears canal. The fungal flora, including recognized pathogen that colonizes ear canal may lead to otomycosis.
Study the Age of Hearing Loss Diagnosis and the Related Factors in a Group of School-Age Children in Baghch-e-Ban School of Hard of Hearing
Mahnaz Ahmadi
Audiology , 1996,
Abstract: Background: Estimation of the age of hearing loss diagnosis in every society is recommended to be compared with standard criteria to establish common dirth in management and rehabilitation. This study was conducted in order to determine the age of hearing loss diagnosis with respect to common criteria in Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing children in Tehran.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 445 children in stages 2, 6 and 10 of Baghche-Ban school of hard of hearing participated. the research was performed by means of the three-stages questionaires that children filled with help of their parents.Results: The mean age of detection of hearing loss in both acquired and congenital hearing loss in children was 3.5 year-old. while the age in which hearing loss was doubted was 1.8 year-old. In another word the mean age of hearing loss detection decreased as the hearing loss increases(in moderate- profound hearing loss)(P<0.01). Conclusion: among the refrence sources for refering children with hearing loss the least refering was related to physicians. Adversly the mean age of doubting and detection of hearing loss increased in children with family history of hearing loss.(P<0.01). Meanwhile no relationship was detected between the age of diagnosis of hearing loss and the number of deaf members in the family(P<0.02).
Sensorineural hearing loss in high school teenagers in Mexico City and its relationship with recreational noise
Martínez-Wbaldo, María del Consuelo;Soto-Vázquez, Claudia;Ferre-Calacich, Ivonne;Zambrano-Sánchez, Elizabeth;Noguez-Trejo, Lucía;Poblano, Adrián;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001200003
Abstract: the aim of this study was to measure the frequency of hearing loss in a sample of typical public high-school students exposed to recreational noise, and determine associated risk factors. the sample was made up of 214 teenagers from a high-school in mexico city; subjects were selected randomly per strata. we applied a questionnaire to identify risk factors for hearing loss and performed a battery of audiologic tests consisting of otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone audiometry. the mean age of the sample was 16 ± 1.07 years; 73% were male and 27%, female. hearing loss was found in 21% of students. the main hearing loss-related risk factor was exposure to recreational noise: frequent attendance at discotheques and pop-music concerts; use of personal stereos; and noise exposure in school workshops. the high frequency of hearing loss in high school students from one mexico city school (nearly one fifth of the sample) was found to be related to noise exposure mainly during recreational activities.
Autosomal Recessive and Sporadic Non Syndromic Hearing Loss and the Incidence of Cx26 Mutations in a Province of Iran
M Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori,M Montazer Zohour,L Hoghooghi Rad,H Pour-Jafari
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2006,
Abstract: Despite the enormous heterogeneity of genetic hearing loss, mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26) gene located on “DFNB1” locus (13q12) account for up to 50% of cases of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in some populations. This study describes the analysis of 100 autosomal recessive and sporadic nonsyndromic hearing loss individuals from 79 families each having at least one deaf child in Chehar Mahal va Bakhtiari province in west of Iran. We have investigated the prevalence of the connexin 26 gene mutations using nested PCR strategy to screen the predominant 35delG mutation and subsequent direct sequencing to detect other Cx26 mutations. Seven different genetic variants were detected from which one novel variant was including 363delC. The 35delG was the most common mutation found in 5 of 79 families (6.3%). Cx26 related deafness mutations (35delG, [V27I; E114G]) and R127H) were found in 12 of 158 chromosomes studied (7.8%). We conclude that the association of Cx26 mutations with deafness in Chehar Mahal va Bakhtiari province is low and looks like most other populations of Iran.
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