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Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits  [cached]
Giorgia Meineri,Paolo Cornale,Sonia Tassone,Pier Giorgio Peiretti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2010.e10
Abstract: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15%) of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, chemical composition, drip losses of the longissimus dorsi muscle or the initial and ultimate pH of the biceps femoris muscle, but the SHS supplementation increased cooking losses of the rabbit meat. The inclusion of SHS also reduced oxidative stability during meat storage. No adverse effects were observed on the meat quality or customer acceptability. The inclusion of SHS in rabbit diets, which is effective in improving the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids content of meat, increased the lipid oxidation in the hind leg meat. An improvement in tissue oxidative stability could be obtained by feeding rabbits with higher levels of antioxidants.
The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.
Norlaily Mohd Ali,Swee Keong Yeap,Wan Yong Ho,Boon Kee Beh,Sheau Wei Tan,Soon Guan Tan
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/171956
Abstract: With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.
Cruzamiento natural de chia (Salvia hispanica L.)
Hernández-Gómez, J. A.;Miranda-Colín, S.;Pe?a-Lomelí, A.;
Revista Chapingo. Serie horticultura , 2008,
Abstract: mexico has the largest genetic diversity of chia (salvia hispanica l.). recently, chia seed derivates have attracted commercial attention. however, too little is known about its breeding system to define a genetic improvement strategy and to preserve its germplasm. in this study, the percentage of natural outcrossing of s. hispanica was determined in chapingo, mexico. flower color was used as the genetic marker, considering purple flowers dominant over white and blue flowers. two cross-pollination plots were established in 1999. in the first plot, seeds of purple-flowered plants and white-flowered plants of a cultivated genotype from jalisco were sown alternately in each row; in the other, the same cultivar were sown alternately with seeds of purple-flowered cultivated plants and blue-flowered wild plants collected in sinaloa. determination of natural outcrossing rate was based on the percentage of purple-flowered plants in both the f1 progeny of white-flowered cultivated plants and of blue-flowered wild plants. outcrossing was more frequent in the cultivated genotype (22.17%) than in the wild genotype (1.51%), which might indicate that the breeding system was modified under cultivation. since there was no reproductive isolation, the cultivated and wild genotypes should be considered subspecies or races of s. hispanica. the resulting hybrids were vigorous, like the cultivated parent, and had dehiscent fruits, like the wild parent.
Physicochemical characterization of chia (Salvia hispanica) seed oil from Yucatán, México  [PDF]
Maira Rubi Segura-Campos, Norma Ciau-Solís, Gabriel Rosado-Rubio, Luis Chel-Guerrero, David Betancur-Ancona
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.53025

A physicochemical characterization of oil from chia seeds was carried out. Proximate composition analysis showed that fat and fiber were the principal components in the raw chia flour. Physical characterization showed that chia oil has a relative density from 0.9241, a refraction index of 1.4761 and a color with more yellow than red units. Chemical characterization showed that chia oil registered an acidity index of 2.053 mg KOH/g oil, a saponification index of 222.66 mg KOH/g oil, a content of unsaponifiable matter of 0.087%, an Iodine index of 193.45 g I/100 g oil and a peroxide index of 17.5 meq O2/kg oil. Chia oil showed a higher content of α and β linolenic and palmitic acids. Chia oil is the vegetable source with the highest content of essential fatty acids.

Some Quality Components of Four Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Genotypes Grown under Tropical Coastal Desert Ecosystem Conditions
R. Ayerza,W. Coates
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: A chia (Salvia hispanica L.) trial in the Santa Elena Peninsula of Ecuador consisted of 4 genotypes (Tzotzol, Iztac 1, Iztac 2 and Miztic) sown on January 15, 2007 in replicated plots to assess production and composition. Seed yield was affected by genotype, with Miztic and Tzotzol producing significantly (p<0.05) greater yields than the Iztac II genotype, but not more than Iztac I which was not significantly (p<0.05) different from Iztac II. Iztac II had the highest protein content (24.43%), however the difference was significantly (p<0.05) different only from Iztac I. Neither Iztac II nor Iztac I were significantly (p<0.05) different from either the Tzotzol or Miztic genotypes. No significant difference (p<0.05) in lipid content was found among genotypes. Miztic and Iztac II, with 20.23% and 20.03%, respectively had significantly (p<0.05) higher linoleic fatty acid percentages than the 19.23% of the Iztac I genotype. Iztac I had the highest α-linolenic fatty acid percentage (61.73) and this was significantly (p<0.05) different than the 58.37% found for the Iztac II genotype. All of the genotypes showed a similar relationship among compounds, that being caffeic acid>chlorogenic acid> quercetin>kaempherol. In summary, the effect of genotype was more evident on seed yield than protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds, hence yield needs to be the main factor when considering establishment of chia as a crop in the area.
Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis  [PDF]
Maira Rubi Segura Campos,Fanny Peralta González,Luis Chel Guerrero,David Betancur Ancona
International Journal of Food Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/158482
Abstract: Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1?kDa, 3?kDa, 5?kDa, and 10?kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1?kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction’s amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5?kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97?μg/mL; 427–455?mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects the heart and blood vessels and is the principal cause of death worldwide. Considered the primary risk factor for CVD, high blood pressure, or hypertension, consists of a sustained increase in blood pressure levels. In 2000, >25% of the population worldwide (approximately 1 billion) suffered from hypertension, a figure predicted to increase to 1.56 billion by 2025 [1]. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (peptidyl carboxy peptidase, EC, ACE) belongs to the class of zinc proteases that require zinc and chloride for activation. ACE plays an important role in blood pressure regulation via the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinnin system (KKS). In the KKS, ACE inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin, while in the RAS, ACE acts as an exopeptidase cleaving His-Leu from the C-terminal of decapeptide angiotensin I and producing the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II [2]. Use of enzyme technologies for protein recovery and modification has led to production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients and industrial products. Hydrolysis selectivity is commonly manipulated by
Apparent digestibility of mixed feed with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds in rabbit diets  [cached]
G. Meineri,P. G. Peiretti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.778
Abstract: Thirty crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to three groups with ten animals each (five male and five female rabbits each), and kept individually in separate cages. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with increasing levels of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds (SHS) (0, 10, and 15%). The digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and gross energy (GE) were calculated according to standard procedures following the indirect digestibility method, using acid insoluble ash as an internal marker. The results showed that the DM, OM and GE digestibilities of 10% and 15% SHS diets were higher than those of the control diet, while the ADF digestibility of the 15% SHS diet was lower than that of the 10% SHS diet.
Chia (Salvia hispanica) can be used to manufacture sugar-snap cookies with an improved nutritional value
V.A. Barrientos,A. Aguirre,Rafael Borneo
International Journal of Food Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Technologists and nutritionists are always looking for alternative ingredients to use in their formulations to improve functional and nutritional properties. Therefore, cookies using Chia (Salvia hispanica), a grain with high quality nutrients, were prepared. The nutritional value was determined by measuring the chemical composition, mineral content, and the fatty acid composition (saturated, monunsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and linolenic acids). Data obtained from this chemical analysis was used to estimate the nutrients intake and compare them to the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). Cookies supplemented with chia flour contained signicantly more protein, fat, crude fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acid. It was estimated that the supplemented cookies would contribute to the corresponding DRIs in the range of 8.1-13.8% (children) and 6.5-11.0% (males/females) for calcium; and 14.0-18.0% (children) and 6.4-11.3 (males/females) for zinc. The addition of chia flour to the cookies resulted in a product sensorially acceptable with a better fatty acid profile (lower n-6/n-3). Supplemented cookies would contribute to alpha-linolenic DRI in the range of 65.9-134.5% (children), 49.4-100.9% (males), and 53.9-110.0% (females). Dietary intake of protein, fiber, calcium, zinc, and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acid could be increased by the consumption of sugar-snap cookies supplemented with chia flour.
Nir Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose Evaluation on Live Rabbits and on the Meat of Rabbits Fed Increasing Levels of Chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) Seeds
G. Masoero,G. Sala,G. Meineri,P. Cornale,S. Tassone,P.G. Peiretti
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Three groups of ten young rabbits each received a diet enriched with Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds at 0% (C0), 10% (C10) and 15% (C15), respectively. At the end of the experimental period, which lasted 35 days, all the rabbits were slaughtered. The Longissimus Dorsi (LD) muscle and perirenal fat samples were collected 24 h post mortem from each carcass and analysed with a GC method for the Fatty Acid (FA) profiles and their indexes. In vivo Spectroscopy, was conducted using a portable UV-Vis. NIR spectrophotometer (Model LSP LabSpec-Pro; 350-2500 nm). The LD muscle specimens (2 2 cm long) were fixed in 95% ethanol, stored for 3 days and finally scanned after the tissues had been exposed for 2 h. LD muscle samples were also analysed raw and cooked using a ten-MOS Electronic Nose (EN) device (AIRSENSE). Discrimination of the individuals between couple of groups, fitted with 1 or 2 dummy values, was performed through a Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis using WinISI II software. The cross-validated R2 coefficients were retained to compare the matrix distances that were clustered in a Hierarchical Analysis. The in vivo and ethanol LD specimen NIR spectra and EN profiles were calibrated with a set of 81 variables. The average cluster, based on the 81 variables, clearly separated the two treated groups from the control group (av.ge R2 of the matrix = 0.854). The in vivo NIR evaluation was similar to the previous one, but at a low level (R2 = 0.316), while the ethanol muscle specimen highlighted the same pattern, in particular at a higher level (R2 = 0.374). The EN evaluation confirmed the differences for the raw muscle (R2 = 0.443), which were then reduced after cooking (R2 = 0.137). The NIRS applied to the live experimental rabbits showed that this feed experiment produced real differences between the groups. The NIRS applied to the muscle tissues prepared with ethanol showed meat quality traits that were also evaluated by a panel test. In conclusion, EN offer significant knowledge, which normally can only be achieved by a trained panel. The digital spectra can be linked to lipo-oxidation of the intramuscular fat and to a wide set of laboratory analyses, but only for very useful indications and not for purely analytical purposes (0.40
Características preliminares del aceite de semillas de Salvia hispanica L. cultivadas en Cuba Preliminary characteristics of the oil from Salvia hispanica L. seeds grown in Cuba
Roxana Vicente Murillo,Eduardo A Rodríguez Leyes,Víctor L González Canavaciolo,Orestes D López Hernández
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales , 2013,
Abstract: Introducción: en a os recientes, la chía (Salvia hispanica L.) ha cobrado gran interés por el alto contenido del ácido graso alfa-linolénico en el aceite de sus semillas. Aunque esta especie no es nativa de Cuba se ha estado cultivando recientemente en la Estación Experimental "Juan Tomás Roig". Objetivo: determinar las características organolépticas y la composición de ácidos grasos en lotes de aceite obtenidos a partir de semillas de chía cultivadas en Cuba, y su comparación con un aceite obtenido a partir de semillas de Ecuador. Métodos: los aceites obtenidos por extracción con hexano se analizaron organolépticamente y se determinó su composición de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. Resultados: las características organolépticas (líquido aceitoso amarillo claro con olor característico), así como la composición y el contenido de ácidos grasos coincidieron con lo descrito en la literatura para esta especie, con altos contenidos de C18:2 y C18:3 (21 y 58 %, respectivamente). Conclusiones: el aceite obtenido de semillas de chía cultivadas en Cuba fue similar a los obtenidos en otras partes del mundo, entre ellos el aceite de semillas procedentes de Ecuador, por lo que pudieran ampliarse sus estudios con vistas a valorar su posible empleo como suplemento nutricional. Introduction: in recent years, Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has aroused a great interest because of the high content of alpha-linolenic fatty acid in its seed oil. Although this species is not indigenous from Cuba, it has been recently grown at the "Juan Tomás Roig" experimental station. Objectives: to determine the organoleptic characteristics and fatty acid composition in oil batches obtained from Chia seeds grown in Cuba, and to compare them with the oil from Ecuador seeds. Methods: the oils, extracted with hexane, were organoleptically analyzed and their fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Results: their organoleptic characteristics (light yellow oily liquid with peculiar odor) as well as the composition and the fatty acid content matched those described in the literature for this species, being high the contents of C18: 2 and C18: 3 (21 and 58 % respectively). Conclusions: the oil from chia seeds grown in Cuba was similar to those obtained in other parts of the world, including seed oil from Ecuador; therefore, further studies can be conducted with a view to assessing their possible use as nutritional supplement.
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