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Routing Protocols for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network: A Survey  [PDF]
Mohammed Abazeed,Norshiela Faisal,Suleiman Zubair,Adel Ali
Journal of Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/469824
Abstract: Multimedia applications have become an essential part of our daily lives, and their use is flourishing day by day. The area of wireless sensor network is not an exception where the multimedia sensors are attracting the attention of the researchers increasingly, and it has shifted the focus from traditional scalar sensors to sensors equipped with multimedia devices. The multimedia sensors have the ability to capture video, image, audio, and scalar sensor data and deliver the multimedia content through sensors network. Due to the resource constraints nature of WSN introducing multimedia will add more challenges, so the protocols designed for multimedia wireless sensor network should be aware of the resource constraints nature of WSN and multimedia transmission requirement. This paper discusses the design challenges of routing protocols proposed for WMSN. A survey and comprehensive discussion are given for proposed protocols of WMSN followed by their limitations and features. 1. Introduction Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) are a newly developed type of sensor network which has the sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones, and other sensors producing multimedia data content. The development towards the wireless multimedia sensor network has been the result of progress in the CMOS technology which leads to development of single chip camera modules that could be easily integrated with senor nodes. This integration between multimedia sources and cheap communication devices motivates the researches in wireless sensor network. WMSN enhances existing WSN applications and enables a new large range of applications, like multimedia surveillance, traffic management, automated assistance, environmental monitoring, and industrial process control. WMSNs have more additional features and requirements than WSN, such as high bandwidth demand, bounded delay, acceptable jitter, and low packet loss ratio. These characteristics impose more resource constraints that involve energy consumption, memory, buffer size, bandwidth, and processing capabilities [1]. Meeting the quality of service requirements for multimedia data within aforementioned constraints is a real challenge. These mentioned characteristics, challenges, and requirements of designing WMSNs open many research issues and future research directions to develop protocols, algorithms, architectures, devices, and test beds to maximize the network lifetime while satisfying the quality of service requirements of the various applications. Routing protocols designed for WSMN must take into consideration
An Adaptive Opportunistic Network Coding Mechanism in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Hang Shen,Guangwei Bai,Lu Zhao,Zhenmin Tang
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/565604
Abstract: The network coding technique is promising for improving the performance of video communication in wireless multimedia sensor networks. However, some special characteristics of existing wireless network coding mechanisms degrade the performance of video data delivery. This work begins with a thorough investigation and understanding of the performance limitations of existing wireless network coding mechanisms. On this basis, we propose an Adaptive Opportunistic Network Coding mechanism (AONC) to improve the transmission quality of video stream in wireless multimedia sensor networks. First, we propose a novel asymmetric coding method to process the video data of different lengths. The aim is to improve data exchange gain. Second, we design an opportunistic forwarding strategy based on dynamic priority to ensure that packets have a better chance to be coded and transmitted, thus achieving much higher throughput. Finally, we present a traffic-aware data scheduling algorithm, working together with the above network coding mechanism, to reduce the loss of potential coding opportunities. Our simulation results demonstrate that, compared with the existing typical network coding mechanisms, AONC can greatly enhance video transmission quality and efficiently utilize bandwidth and energy resources. 1. Introduction As the bandwidth of wireless channels increases and low-cost hardware device such as CMOS cameras appears, wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), that is, networks of wireless embedded devices that allow retrieving video and audio streams in real time from the physical environment, have drawn tremendous attention from academia and industry [1–3]. WMSNs can enhance a lot of potential applications such as video surveillance, traffic enforcement, control systems, remote health monitoring, and industrial process control. Multimedia sensors in WMSNs have severe resource constraints including bandwidth, energy, storage, processing capability, and achievable data rate [4], while the delivery of multimedia data is resource demanding. These constraints and challenges, in combination with the transmission reliability required by video applications, make video communication in such environment a challenging proposition. Network coding is one of the most important achievements on the theory of information processing and transmission. The concept is first proposed for achieving the min-cut capacity in the context of multicast communication [5]. Since then, there are various studies concerning theoretical limitations and practical applications of network coding.
Effect of Obstacles in the formation of FoV based Clusters in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network  [PDF]
Dipika Gupta,Sneh Lata Aswal,Sandip K Chaurasiya
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless multimedia sensor network (WMSN) uses multimedia nodes to sense the area that are uncorrelated to the areas sensed by the neighboring sensors. Because of the extensive amount of dataproduced in wireless multimedia sensor network, clustering schemes eligible in wireless sensor network are not suitable for WMSN. For this very purpose, a number of clustering schemes are available in the literature and a clustering scheme based on overlapping FoVs of multimedia nodes is one of them. This paper analyzes the formation of obstructed clusters because of the obstacle encountered by the node as it is an inherent consideration to be brought while designing a routing scheme in WMSN. The main aim of this work is to analyze the effect of obstacles lying in front of multimedia nodes and thus forming the clusters accordingly.
Multimedia Streaming for Ad Hoc Wireless Mesh Networks Using Network Coding  [PDF]
Basil Saeed, Chung-Horng Lung, Thomas Kunz, Anand Srinivasan
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.65024

Over the past years, we have witnessed an explosive growth in the use of multimedia applications such as audio and video streaming with mobile and static devices. Multimedia streaming applications need new approaches to multimedia transmissions to meet the growing volume demand and quality expectations of multimedia traffic. This paper studies network coding which is a promising paradigm that has the potential to improve the performance of networks for multimedia streaming applications in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), latency and jitter. This paper examines several network coding protocols for ad hoc wireless mesh networks and compares their performance on multimedia streaming applications with optimized broadcast protocols, e.g., BCast, Simplified Multicast Forwarding (SMF), and Partial Dominant Pruning (PDP). The results show that the performance increases significantly with the Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) scheme.

An Advanced Wireless Sensor Network for Health Monitoring
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a system architecture for smart healthcare based on an advanced Wireless Sensor Network(WSN). It specifically targets assisted-living residents and others who may benefit from continuous, remote health monitoring .It presents best practices in wireless sensor network design for health care applications. Based on the most important aspects like power efficiency and security which guide the development of a wireless sensor network based applications.
Network-aware Adaptation with Real-Time Channel Statistics for Wireless LAN Multimedia Transmissions in the Digital Home  [PDF]
Dilip Krishnaswamy,Shanyu Zhao
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper suggests the use of intelligent network-aware processing agents in wireless local area network drivers to generate metrics for bandwidth estimation based on real-time channel statistics to enable wireless multimedia application adaptation. Various configurations in the wireless digital home are studied and the experimental results with performance variations are presented.
Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring  [cached]
P. S. Pandian,K. P. Safeer,Pragati Gupta,D. T. Shakunthala
Journal of Networks , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.3.5.21-29
Abstract: Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acquisition hardware by wires woven into the fabric. The drawbacks associated with these systems are the cables woven in the fabric pickup noise such as power line interference and signals from nearby radiating sources and thereby corrupting the physiological signals. Also repositioning the sensors in the fabric is difficult once integrated. The problems can be overcome by the use of physiological sensors with miniaturized electronics to condition, process, digitize and wireless transmission integrated into the single module. These sensors are strategically placed at various locations on the vest. Number of sensors integrated into the fabric form a network (Personal Area Network) and interacts with the human system to acquire and transmit the physiological data to a wearable data acquisition system. The wearable data acquisition hardware collects the data from various sensors and transmits the processed data to the remote monitoring station. The paper discusses wireless sensor network and its application to wearable physiological monitoring and its applications. Also the problems associated with conventional wearable physiological monitoring are discussed.
A Tutorial of the Mobile Multimedia Wireless Sensor Network OMNeT++ Framework  [PDF]
Zhongliang Zhao,Denis Rosario,Torsten Braun,Eduardo Cerqueira
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this work, we will give a detailed tutorial instruction about how to use the Mobile Multi-Media Wireless Sensor Networks (M3WSN) simulation framework. The M3WSN framework has been published as a scientific paper in the 6th International Workshop on OMNeT++ (2013). M3WSN framework enables the multimedia transmission of real video sequence. Therefore, a set of multimedia algorithms, protocols, and services can be evaluated by using QoE metrics. Moreover, key video-related information, such as frame types, GoP length and intra-frame dependency can be used for creating new assessment and optimization solutions. To support mobility, M3WSN utilizes different mobility traces to enable the understanding of how the network behaves under mobile situations. This tutorial will cover how to install and configure the M3WSN framework, setting and running the experiments, creating mobility and video traces, and how to evaluate the performance of different protocols. The tutorial will be given in an environment of Ubuntu 12.04 LTS and OMNeT++ 4.2.
Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Maturity Stage of Fruit  [PDF]
M. Krairiksh, J. Varith, A. Kanjanavapastit
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.39034
Abstract: In this letter, we present a wireless sensor network for monitoring the maturity stage of fruit. A dual-polari- zation coupled patch sensor, which is robust to environmental changes, was designed to operate at 2.45 GHz. It was attached to a Durian fruit for a period of days to measure the magnitude of mutual coupling corresponding mainly to the starch concentration of its pulp. Signal was transmitted from a sensor node, via tree nodes, to a master node that displays the variations occurring in the period. The maximum mutual coupling occurred at the maturity stage of 60% whereas the minimum occurred at 70%. These results demonstrate that this wireless sensor network can enable fruit growers to harvest their Durians at an appropriate time, providing a reliable quality control for export.
A Simple Monitoring Network System of Wireless Sensor Network  [cached]
Shengjun Su,Shuozhong Wang
Buletin Teknik Elektro dan Informatika , 2012,
Abstract: A SSNS (simple sensor network sniffer) is used to analyze and evaluate the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) effectively. SSNS is designed to monitor IEEE 802.15.4 protocol frame, which based on the Ethernet. Unlike the existed monitoring system, our design is much simpler and needs less resource. It is analyzed in this paper that the monitor network framework, time synchronization, and analysis program design. The results show that SSNS works stably, and can real-time display the frame monitored and reflect the dynamic change of WSN.
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