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Alzheimer’s disease causation by copper toxicity and treatment with zinc  [PDF]
George J. Brewer
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00092
Abstract: Evidence will be presented that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) epidemic is new, the disease being very rare in the 1900s. The incidence is increasing rapidly, but only in developed countries. We postulate that the new emerging environmental factor partially causal of the AD epidemic is ingestion of inorganic copper from drinking water and taking supplement pills, along with a high fat diet. Inorganic copper can be partially directly absorbed and elevate the serum free copper pool. The Squitti group has shown that serum free copper is elevated in AD, correlates with cognition, and predicts cognition loss. Thus, our inorganic copper hypothesis fits well with the Squitti group data. We have also shown that AD patients are zinc deficient compared to age-matched controls. Because zinc is a neuronal protective factor, we postulate that zinc deficiency may also be partially causative of AD. We carried out a small 6 month double blind study of a new zinc formulation and found that in patients age 70 and over, it protected against cognition loss. Zinc therapy also significantly reduced serum free copper in AD patients, so efficacy may come from restoring normal zinc levels, or from lowering serum free copper, or from both.
Serum Selenium, Zinc, and Copper in Early Diagnosed Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris
MH Javanbakht,M Daneshpazhooh,C Chams-Davatchi,MR Eshraghian
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is a life threatening, blistering skin disease.It is an autoimmune abnormality.Due to involvement of oral cavity and pharynx,patients are at risk of nutrients deficiency.The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of selenium, copper, and zinc in these patients.Methods:In a case-control study, 43 newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris patients were compared with 58 healthy people from 2009 to 2010. The severity of the disease was estimated according to Harman's scores.Serum selenium was measured with atomic absorption but serum zinc and copper concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically. Data were compared with independent t test. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson correlation test.Results: Both groups were the same based on sex, age, and weight and body mass index.The mean duration of disease was 5.6 month. The oral and skin severities were 1.79 and 2.3 respectively, based on Harman's scores. Serum selenium of pemphigus patients was significantly less than that of healthy people (P<0.001).Serum copper was negatively correlated with duration of disease in males (P=0.02, r=-0.5).Conclusions: Pemphigus vulgaris negatively affects on serum selenium, copper and zinc.It seems that serum selenium, copper and zinc decrease as the disease lasts longer.
Serum zinc and copper levels in psoriasis
Saxena Namita,Sharma R,Singh V,Sharma N
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1990,
Abstract: Serum zinc and copper levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 40 patients having psoriasis. The serum zinc levels were significantly low in psoriasis patients as compared ;o normal subjects (92.1 ± 17.27, p is less than 0.01), while the serum copper levels were significantly increased (162.0 ± 24.45, p is less than 0.001).
Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in Malnourished Pre-School Age Children in Jos, North Central Nigeria
E.I. Ugwuja,K. O. Nwosu,N. C. Ugwu,M. Okonji
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: Serum zinc and copper were determined in thirty (30) malnourished pre-school-age children (age, 0-60 months) and thirty (30) age-and sex-matched apparently healthy well nourished controls to evaluate the effect of protein-energy malnutrition on serum zinc and copper. Mean serum zinc and copper were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in malnourished than in well-nourished children. While serum total protein was significantly lower (p<0.05) in malnourished than the controls, and comparable (p>0.05) among kwashiorkor and marasmus, serum albumin was significantly lower (p<0.05) in kwashiorkor than in marasmus. Mean haemoglobin concentration was significantly (p<0.05) lower in malnourished than in the controls while total white blood cell count (TWBC) did not differ significantly (P>0.05). This study shows that malnourished children have deficient serum zinc and copper with anaemia and leucopenia. For effective management of protein-energy malnutrition, zinc and copper supplementation should be part of treatment regimen, however, in order to prevent zinc and copper deficiency and its health implications in pre-school age children, food fortification should be promoted.
Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006
De la Cruz-Góngora,Vanessa; Gaona,Berenice; Villalpando,Salvador; Shamah-Levy,Teresa; Robledo,Ricardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000200009
Abstract: objetive: to describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ensanut 2006. materials and methods: the sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, stfr, crp, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. results: the overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. conclusions: there is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.
Zinc and Copper Status in Children with Beta-Thalassemia Major
Abolfazl Mahyar,Parviz Ayazi,Ali-Asghar Pahlevan,Hoshyar Mojabi
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.Methods: In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients) were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran) in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.Findings: The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35±20.38 and 152.42±24.17 μg/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65%) of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 μg/dl (hypozincemia). None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3).Conclusion: This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.
Nutritional assessment and serum zinc and copper concentration in leukemic children
Sgarbieri, Ursula Rohr;Fisberg, Mauro;Tone, Luis Gonzaga;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801999000100003
Abstract: context: malnutrition in childhood cancer is commonly a serious problem. changes in blood zinc and copper have also been found in malignant diseases. objective: to describe the protein-energy nutritional status and serum zinc and copper of children with newly diagnosed leukemia. design: cross-sectional study. setting: university referral center. participants: 23 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphocytic leukemia (all) or acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (anll) between the ages of 1and 10 years. the control subjects were 31 healthy school children of similar age from local schools. main measures: anthropometric measurements of height/age and weight/height, food intake and serum levels of zinc and copper. results: almost the entire group of children were eutrophic. zinc and copper intake were below the recommended values. serum zinc levels were significantly lower and serum copper levels were significantly higher in the leukemic group when compared to normal children. conclusion: at the time of diagnosis the children suffering from leukemia were not overtly malnourished but blood analysis showed alterations in concentrations of the trace elements zinc and copper.
Nutritional Interaction Effect of Zinc and Coffee on Serum Lipid Profile and Copper in Rats
Hanaa, M. Abd El-Fattah
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background :Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. The present work was designed to study the effect of dietary coffee and zinc on serum lipid profile , zinc and copper in serum and liver Material and Methods : Forty two adult male albino rats were divided into six groups and fed on different diets ad libitum for 7 weeks as follows: Group (1) fed on standard basal diet , group (2) fed on standard diet supplemented with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at dose of (20 mg/kg diet) , groups ( 3and 4 ) fed on standard diet supplemented with boiled coffee at two doses ( 15 g and 30 g / kg diet ) respectively , groups (5 and 6 ) fed on the previous two diets respectively but in combination with ZnCl2 (20 mg/kg diet) . At the end of the experiment some biochemical analyses were measured in serum and liver . Results: The results showed significant elevation of serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant decrease of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) in rats fed diet supplemented with low or high dose of coffee. When rats fed zinc with low or high dose of coffee, improvement in lipid parameters were observed. Also serum lipid peroxides as malondialdehyde (MDA) showed significant increase while blood glutathione (GSH) showed significant decrease in rats fed zinc, coffee (low or high dose) or zinc plus coffee (low or high dose). Diet supplemented with zinc caused significant increase in serum and liver zinc , on the other hand significant decrease in serum and liver copper were recorded. Moreover, the high dose of coffee led to significant decrease in liver zinc. On feeding zinc and coffee together resulted in significant elevation of serum and liver zinc levels, but serum and liver copper decreased significantly. Conclusion: So zinc may be able to overcome the adverse effects of coffee also administration of zinc plus coffee could decrease lipid peroxidation
Evaluation of the Zinc and Copper content in women's serum who are taking LD
Sadeghipoor H,Vosooghi M,Mirnoori Langroody M
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Due to the important role of the trace elements (i.e. zinc and copper) in the biochemical processes of body and the effects of exogenous and endogenous hormones in distribution, absorption and excretion of these elements, we decided to determine the rate of the zinc and copper content of serum in women taking (LD) OCPs. Our finding indicates that the rate of the zinc content decreased significantly (P<0.001), whereas the copper content of women serum during this period showed a significant increase (P<0.001). In regard to previous months, the process of increasing were lasting for six months. Therefore, we would like to suggest that the serum content of these two elements should be monitored during the period of medication with OCPs, to avoid the deleterious effect of flactuation rates of these elements in serum.
Evaluation of Serum Levels of Zinc, Copper, Iron, and Zinc/Copper Ratio in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
F Pourfallah,S Javadian,Z Zamani,R Saghiri
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc/ cop-per ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran."nMethods: Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 60 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the control group of 100 healthy volunteers from the same area who were not exposed to cutane-ous leishmaniasis."nResult: There were no statistically significant differences in age and body mass index between the two groups. Se-rum Zn (P< 0.001) and Fe (P< 0.05) levels were lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than the control group. We also found serum Cu concentration (P< 0.05) in the patient group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, zinc/ copper ratio (P< 0.001) was lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than in the control group."nConclusion: Our data indicated that Zn/Cu ratio was significantly lower in patients with CL as compared to the con-trols. Earlier reports suggest that, this ratio imbalance could be a useful marker for immune dysfunction in leishma-niasis. There was also strong association of Zn, Cu and Fe with CL. It suggests the use of blood zinc, copper, iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio (Zn/Cu), as a means for estimating the prognosis of CL. Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Zn, Cu, Fe. Zn/Cu ratio, Iran
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