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The Embryonic Transcriptome of the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta)  [PDF]
Nicholas J. Kaplinsky, Scott F. Gilbert, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Kersti Lillev?li, Merly Saare, Eric Y. Chang, Hannah E. Edelman, Melissa A. Frick, Yin Guan, Rebecca M. Hammond, Nicholas H. Hampilos, David S. B. Opoku, Karim Sariahmed, Eric A. Sherman, Ray Watson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066357
Abstract: The bony shell of the turtle is an evolutionary novelty not found in any other group of animals, however, research into its formation has suggested that it has evolved through modification of conserved developmental mechanisms. Although these mechanisms have been extensively characterized in model organisms, the tools for characterizing them in non-model organisms such as turtles have been limited by a lack of genomic resources. We have used a next generation sequencing approach to generate and assemble a transcriptome from stage 14 and 17 Trachemys scripta embryos, stages during which important events in shell development are known to take place. The transcriptome consists of 231,876 sequences with an N50 of 1,166 bp. GO terms and EC codes were assigned to the 61,643 unique predicted proteins identified in the transcriptome sequences. All major GO categories and metabolic pathways are represented in the transcriptome. Transcriptome sequences were used to amplify several cDNA fragments designed for use as RNA in situ probes. One of these, BMP5, was hybridized to a T. scripta embryo and exhibits both conserved and novel expression patterns. The transcriptome sequences should be of broad use for understanding the evolution and development of the turtle shell and for annotating any future T. scripta genome sequences.
Characterization of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase during Anoxia in the Tolerant Turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans: An Assessment of Enzyme Activity, Expression and Structure  [PDF]
Neal J. Dawson, Kyle K. Biggar, Kenneth B. Storey
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068830
Abstract: One of the most adaptive facultative anaerobes among vertebrates is the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Upon a decrease in oxygen supply and oxidative phosphorylation, these turtles are able to reduce their metabolic rate and recruit anaerobic glycolysis to meet newly established ATP demands. Within the glycolytic pathway, aldolase enzymes cleave fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to triose phosphates facilitating an increase in anaerobic production of ATP. Importantly, this enzyme exists primarily as tissue-specific homotetramers of aldolase A, B or C located in skeletal muscle, liver and brain tissue, respectively. The present study characterizes aldolase activity and structure in the liver tissue of a turtle whose survival greatly depends on increased glycolytic output during anoxia. Immunoblot and mass spectrometry analysis verified the presence of both aldolase A and B in turtle liver tissue, and results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that in the turtle aldolase proteins may exist as an uncommon heterotetramer. Expression levels of aldolase A protein increased significantly in liver tissue to 1.59±0.11-fold after 20 h anoxia, when compared to normoxic control values (P<0.05). A similar increase was seen for aldolase B expression. The overall kinetic properties of aldolase, when using fructose-1,6-bisphosphate as substrate, were similar to that of a previously studied aldolase A and aldolase B heterotetramer, with a Km of 240 and 180 nM (for normoxic and anoxic turtle liver, respectively). Ligand docking of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to the active site of aldolase A and B demonstrated minor differences in both protein:ligand interactions compared to rabbit models. It is likely that the turtle is unique in its ability to regulate a heterotetramer of aldolase A and B, with a higher overall enzymatic activity, to achieve greater rates of glycolytic output and support anoxia survival.
Malondialdehyde Suppresses Cerebral Function by Breaking Homeostasis between Excitation and Inhibition in Turtle Trachemys scripta  [PDF]
Fangxu Li,Zhilai Yang,Yang Lu,Yan Wei,Jinhui Wang,Dazhong Yin,Rongqiao He
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015325
Abstract: The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) are high in the brain during carbonyl stress, such as following daily activities and sleep deprivation. To examine our hypothesis that MDA is one of the major substances in the brain leading to fatigue, the influences of MDA on brain functions and neuronal encodings in red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta) were studied. The intrathecal injections of MDA brought about sleep-like EEG and fatigue-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were found associated with the deterioration of encoding action potentials in cortical neurons. In addition, MDA increased the ratio of γ-aminobutyric acid to glutamate in turtle's brain, as well as the sensitivity of GABAergic neurons to inputs compared to excitatory neurons. Therefore, MDA, as a metabolic product in the brain, may weaken cerebral function during carbonyl stress through breaking the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurons.
Ecología reproductiva y cacería de la tortuga Trachemys scripta (Testudinata: Emydidae), en el área de la Depresión Momposina, norte de Colombia
Bernal Múnera,Marcela; Daza R.,Juan Manuel; P. Páez,Vivian;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: we studied the reproductive ecology of the slider turtle, trachemys scripta callirostris, during the reproductive season of the year 2000, in an area of the mompós depression, northern colombia. we examined the number of nests ovoposited in locations with different characteristics, their hatching success rates and the natural causes of egg mortality. we also determined the effects of exploitation of nesting females, in two populations with different levels of harvesting. the results showed that the majority of nests were laid along bodies of water, in the first 20 m of the shoreline, in sites with substrates of moderate humidity, sand and clayish texture, covered by creeping vegetation. invertebrates produced the greatest mortality in the nests. hatching success was high, compared to other reports for this species. only in the site with the highest hunting pressure, a negative correlation was found, between the harvest rate and the time elapsed since the start of the nesting period, suggesting that the excessive extraction decreased the number of nesting females. also, the females from the highly exploited site were significantly smaller than those from the less exploited site. the females, neonates and nests of the entire area, exhibited sizes below that reported for other tropical populations of the genus. the continued hunting pressure in northern colombia, appears to be a factor that has altered the structure and population dynamics of t. scripta callirostris
Ecología reproductiva y cacería de la tortuga Trachemys scripta (Testudinata: Emydidae), en el área de la Depresión Momposina, norte de Colombia  [cached]
Marcela Bernal Múnera,Juan Manuel Daza R.,Vivian P. Páez
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: Se estudió la ecología reproductiva de la tortuga icotea, Trachemys scripta callirostris, durante la estación reproductiva del 2000, en una localidad de la Depresión Momposina, al norte de Colombia. Se examinó el número de nidos en áreas con características diferentes, el éxito de eclosión y las causas de mortalidad natural de los huevos. Se determinó el efecto de la explotación sobre las poblaciones de hembras anidantes en dos localidades con diferentes tasas de cacería. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor cantidad de nidos se encontraron entre los primeros 20 m, a partir de la orilla de los cuerpos de agua, en sitios con sustratos de humedad moderada y textura limoso-arenosa, cubiertos con vegetación rastrera. Los invertebrados produjeron la mayor mortalidad en las nidadas. El éxito de eclosión de la población estudiada fue mayor en comparación con otros informes de la misma especie. En el sitio que presenta mayor presión de caza se encontró una correlación negativa entre la tasa de cacería y los días transcurridos desde el inicio de la temporada de anidación, lo que probablemente se deba a que la extracción excesiva disminuye la cantidad de hembras anidantes hacia el fin de la temporada. Las hembras del sitio con mayor explotación, presentaron una talla significativamente menor con relación a las del sitio con menor caza. Las hembras, neonatos y nidadas de toda la zona, mostraron menor tama o que las de otras poblaciones tropicales del mismo género. La prolongada presión de caza en el norte de Colombia parece ser un factor de alteración de la estructura y la dinámica poblacional de T. scripta callirostris We studied the reproductive ecology of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta callirostris, during the reproductive season of the year 2000, in an area of the Mompós Depression, northern Colombia. We examined the number of nests ovoposited in locations with different characteristics, their hatching success rates and the natural causes of egg mortality. We also determined the effects of exploitation of nesting females, in two populations with different levels of harvesting. The results showed that the majority of nests were laid along bodies of water, in the first 20 m of the shoreline, in sites with substrates of moderate humidity, sand and clayish texture, covered by creeping vegetation. Invertebrates produced the greatest mortality in the nests. Hatching success was high, compared to other reports for this species. Only in the site with the highest hunting pressure, a negative correlation was found, between the harvest rate and the time elapsed si
First records of 5 allochthonous species and subspecies of turtles (Trachemys scripta troostii, Mauremys caspica, Mauremys rivulata, Pelodiscus sinensis, Testudo horsfieldii) and new records of subspecies Trachemys scripta elegans in Latvia
Mihails PUPINS,Aija PUPINA
Management of Biological Invasions , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the research was to investigate the presence of allochthonous species of turtles in the nature of Latvia, as well as to withdraw them from the nature according to the "Plan on protection of Emys orbicularis in Latvia", officially approved by the Latvian Ministry of Environment (Pupi & Pupi a 2007a). The methods of the research were: 1) information campaign and survey; 2) interviews with inhabitants; 3) field expeditions; 4) laboratory study of viability of found turtles. In course of research, five new allochthonous species and subspecies of the turtles were recorded for the first time, and new data were obtained about finding Trachemys scripta elegans in the nature of Latvia. Most of the registered animals (80%) were removed from the nature. Since allochthonous turtles get there in the result of escape from pet-lovers and, apparently, illegal introduction into nature by their owners, education of population is of great importance.
Infection status of the estuarine turtles Kinosternon integrum and Trachemys scripta with Gnathostoma binucleatum in Sinaloa, Mexico
Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz;de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen;Torres-Montoya, Edith Hilario;Sánchez-Gonzales, Sergio;Delgado-Vargas, Francisco;Nawa, Yukifumi;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: human gnathostomosis, a serious public health issue in mexico, is endemic to sinaloa. the disease is mainly caused by consumption of the raw meat of freshwater or estuarine fishes infected with the advanced third stage larvae (al3) of gnathostoma binucleatum. in the present study, we examined estuarine turtles with a sample consisting of 23 trachemys scripta and 5 kinosternon integrum from sinaloa, mexico for the presence of gnathostoma larvae; such examination was made by the pressing method of skeletal muscles between 2 glass plates. the results showed that both turtles harbored g. binucleatum al3; identification was achieved by morphology and also by pcr/sequencing of the its2 region of ribosomal dna of the larvae. infection prevalence was higher for k. integrum (80%) than for t. scripta (69.6%), but heavy infection (> 10 al3/turtle) was observed in the larger sized individuals of t. scripta. consumption of the raw meat of these turtles represents a risk to acquire the disease.
Vasculariza??o arterial do trato gastrointestinal da Trachemys scripta elegans, Wied, 1838
Rodrigues, Rosangela Felipe;Miglino, Maria Angelica;Melo, Alan Peres Ferraz de;
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-95962003000100007
Abstract: we studied the irrigation of the esophagus, ventricle, pancreas and intestines of 30 turtles of the species trachemys scripta elegans injected with substance latex, where we evidenced two aorta, being right and left aorta, that in 100.00% of the cases it presents a anastomotica tract among them, at the level of the emergency of the celiac artery. the cranial mesenteric artery is responsible for the irrigation of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and transverse colon in (100.00%) of the cases. the caudal mesenteric artery originates from the iliac artery in the right antimere, in 26 preparations (86.60%), and in the left antimere in 03 cases (13,30%). in 01 preparation (3,30%) the caudal mesenteric artery, in the right antimere, arises starting from the right and left iliac arteries.
Infection status of the estuarine turtles Kinosternon integrum and Trachemys scripta with Gnathostoma binucleatum in Sinaloa, Mexico Estado de la infección con Gnathostoma binucleatum de las tortugas estuarinas Kinosternon integrum y Trachemys scripta en Sinaloa, México  [cached]
Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho,María del Carmen de la Cruz-Otero,Edith Hilario Torres-Montoya,Sergio Sánchez-Gonzales
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: Human gnathostomosis, a serious public health issue in Mexico, is endemic to Sinaloa. The disease is mainly caused by consumption of the raw meat of freshwater or estuarine fishes infected with the advanced third stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma binucleatum. In the present study, we examined estuarine turtles with a sample consisting of 23 Trachemys scripta and 5 Kinosternon integrum from Sinaloa, Mexico for the presence of Gnathostoma larvae; such examination was made by the pressing method of skeletal muscles between 2 glass plates. The results showed that both turtles harbored G. binucleatum AL3; identification was achieved by morphology and also by PCR/sequencing of the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA of the larvae. Infection prevalence was higher for K. integrum (80%) than for T. scripta (69.6%), but heavy infection (> 10 AL3/turtle) was observed in the larger sized individuals of T. scripta. Consumption of the raw meat of these turtles represents a risk to acquire the disease. La gnathostomosis humana, un serio problema de salud pública en México, es endémica de Sinaloa. La enfermedad es principalmente ocasionada por el consumo de carne cruda de pescado de agua dulce o salobre infectado con larvas del tercer estadio avanzado (AL3) de Gnathostoma binucleatum. En la presente investigación, se examinaron tortugas estuarinas, 23 Trachemys scripta y 5 Kinosternon integrum, de Sinaloa, México para identificar la presencia de larvas de Gnathostoma; para ello se utilizó el método de compresión del tejido muscular entre 2 placas de vidrio. Los resultados mostraron que ambas especies de tortugas son hospederas de larvas AL3 de G. binucleatum; la identificación específica se basó en la morfología y composición molecular (por PCR/secuenciación de la región ribosomal ITS2) del DNA de las larvas. La prevalencia de la infección fue mayor en K. integrum (80%) que en T. scripta (69.6%), pero la intensidad fue más alta (> 10 AL3/tortuga) en las tortugas de mayor tama o, T. scripta. El consumo de carne cruda de estas tortugas representa un riesgo para adquirir la enfermedad.
Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species  [PDF]
Vojtech Adam,Miroslava Beklova,Jiri Pikula,Jaromir Hubalek,Libuse Trnkova,Rene Kizek
Sensors , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/s7102419
Abstract: Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.
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