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Coordinating supply chain of Stackelberg game model based on evolutionary game with GA-RL
基于GA-RL的进化博弈求解主从博弈结构的供应链协调问题

ZHAO Han-ping~,
赵晗萍
,蒋家东,冯允成

系统工程理论与实践 , 2010,
Abstract: Problems of coordinating supply chain are based on Stackelberg game model,but if research object is complex supply chain,it is difficult to find equilibrium of Stackelberg game,so evolutionary game theory was introduced.According to characteristics of leaders and followers in Stackelberg game model,learning mechanism is designed for each player respectively.An algorithm of reinforcement learning combined with genetic searching is proposed for leaders(manufacturers),and a learning model of best-reply is desi...
Supply chain management problems at South African automotive component manufacturers
MJ Naude, JA Badenhorst-Weiss
Southern African Business Review , 2011,
Abstract: The problems that automotive component manufacturers (ACMs) experience in automotive supply chains is an important contemporary issue. The role of ACMs in the competitiveness and survival of the automotive industry has never been as pronounced. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, also known as automotive assemblers) face pressure from government to drastically increase local content (components and services they purchase from local ACMs). The problem is that local ACMs are not as competitive as suppliers from India and China. The improvement and extension of the local ACM supplier base is therefore important. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that investigated supply chain management problems of ACMs and the extent of these problems. Supply chain problems may cause ineffi ciencies that impact on the competitiveness of ACMs. The study was exploratory in nature, and consisted mainly of a survey among ACMs in South Africa. It was found that of the 75 identifi ed problems, the most signifi cant problems were internal process problems, followed by customerrelated problems. The most signifi cant problems lie in the demand management area in the supply chain.
DECISION MAKING IN SUPPLY CHAINS AND VALUE NETWORKS: THE BEER GAME EVOLUTION  [PDF]
Paolo Spagnoletti,Edoardo D’Atri,Alessandro D’Atri
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7903/ijecs.1113
Abstract: New trends in inter-organization configurations are challenging the traditional concept of supply chain. Concepts such as Virtual Enterprise were introduced to describe scenarios in which manufacturers operate as nodes within a network of suppliers, customers, engineers, and other specialized service functions. Our aim is to build a simulation tool based on the rules of the Beer Game that includes the variables of a virtual enterprise, VirtuE in particular, and risk management in order to understand the strategies underlying the subject’s behavior in the face of risk within a means-end chain. The simulation tool will contribute to understanding the complexity of managing decision making in supply chains and networks. This study presents the tests carried out on the original game, the new variables introduced, and the simulation results.
Research on Protection of the Agricultural Products Quality Safety based on Evolution Game from the Perspective of the Supply Chain
Ying Ma,Yuanyuan Zhang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study firstly introduces the research status quo to protect the agricultural products quality safety. Secondly, the game model is established to ensure the agricultural products quality safety, respectively, analyzed from the horizontal relations and the vertical relationships in the supply chain of agricultural products. Finally, on the basis of the analysis model, measures to protect the agricultural products quality safety are proposed, the study shows that increasing government regulations of enterprises in the supply chain of agricultural products and giving full play to the supervision and guidance role of the media and consumers will help to ensure the agricultural products quality safety.
Introducing a model for competitiveness of suppliers in supply chain through game theory approach  [PDF]
Hengameh Cighary Deljavan,Fariba Sadeghi
Decision Science Letters , 2012, DOI: 10.5267/j.dsl.2012.08.001
Abstract: Cighary Deljavan and Fariba Sadeghi PDF (300 K)Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to introduce a model for competitiveness of suppliers in supply chain through game theory approach in one of the automobile companies of Iran. In this study, the game is based on price and non-price factors and this company is going to estimate the real profit obtained from collaboration with each of supply chain members. This happens by considering the governing competitive condition based on game theory before entering a bit for purchase of α piece as spare part among 8 companies supplying this piece as the supply chain members. According to experts in this industry, the quality is the main non-price competitiveness factor after price. In the current research models, the model introduced by Lu and Tsao (2011) [Lu, J.C., Tsao, Y.C., & Charoensiriwath, C. (2011). Competition Under manufacturer Service and retail price. Economic Modeling, 28,1256-1264.] with two manufacturers- one distributer, being appropriate for the research data, has been considered as the basis and implemented for case study and then it has been extended to n-manufacturers-one common retailer. Following price elasticity of demand, potential size of market or maximum product demand, retailer price, production price, wholesale price, demand amount, manufacturer and retailer profit are estimated under three scenario of manufacturer Stackelberg, Retailer Sackelberg and Vertical Nash. Therefore, by comparing them, price balance points and optimum level of services are specified and the better optimum scenario can be determined. Sensitivity analysis is performed for new model and manufacturers are ranked based on manufacture profit, Retailer profit and customer satisfaction. Finally, in this research in addition to introducing-person game model, customer satisfaction, which has been presented in the previous models as a missed circle are analyzed.
A dynamic game on Green Supply Chain Management  [PDF]
Mehrnoosh Khademi,Massimiliano Ferrara,Bruno Pansera,Mehdi Salimi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we establish a dynamic game to allocate CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) to the members of a supply chain. We propose a model of three-tier supply chain in decentralized state that is including supplier, manufacturer and retailer. For analyzing supply chain performance in decentralized state and the relationships between the members of supply chain, we use Stackelberg game and we consider in this paper a hierarchical equilibrium solution for a two-level game. Specially, we formulate a model that crosses through multi-periods by a dynamic discreet Stackelberg game. We try to obtain an equilibrium point at where both the profits of members and the level of CSR taken by supply chains are maximized.
Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game
T. Chinna Pamulety,V. Madhusudanan Pillai
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations , 2012,
Abstract: Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI) sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S) policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.
The Establishment of Supply Chain with Game Model of Competition and Cooperation  [cached]
Xianwu Hu
Journal of Software , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.7.3.670-677
Abstract: The relationship between competition and cooperation in supply chain enterprises is not only affected by the factors inside the chain, but also by the competition chain. We choose two-level supply chain in this article, and discuss the four competition and cooperation states of manufacturer and retailer under the same market structure with reference chain, that is, cooperation-cooperation, competition-competition, competition-competition, cooperation-competition, competition-cooperation to establish models and solve. The result of analysis shows that the supply chain utility of cooperation-competition is effective, designing and analyzing the operation mechanism of cooperation-competition model. When the market profit rate is high, the satisfaction proceeds value of manufacturers is small, the cooperation proceeds distribution mechanism of manufacturer and retailers is easily determined.
WAL-MART AS A LEADING RETAILER IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN
Jin-Li Hu,Tsung-Fu Han,Fang-Tai Tseng
Australian Journal of Business and Management Research , 2011,
Abstract: The Wal-Mart effect has a dramatic impact on upstream manufacturers in a supply chain. This study applies a game-theoretic approach to analyze the effects of the leading retailer in a supply chain. We propose three models relating to the interactions between upstream duopolistic manufacturers and a downstream retailer: The first model represents that both manufacturers react simultaneously and independently to the retailer s price decision. The second model describes both manufacturers reacting to the retailer s decision in a leader-follower price competitive condition. The third model is a traditional upstream-dominating situation, which will be employed to contrast with the first two downstream-dominating models. By changing the degree of substitutability of the two products made by these two manufacturers, there are some findings: (i) As a downstream leader in the supply chain, the retailer profit is more than the sum of the two duopolistic manufacturers. (ii) If the duopolistic manufacturers also play the leader-follower game, the leader manufacturer s profit is greater than the follower manufacturer s profit. (iii) When comparing to the manufacturer-dominating model, the retailer-dominating models have the lower retail price and an increase in sale quantities. (iv) Compared to the manufacturer-dominating model, the retailer-dominating models producer surplus, consumer surplus, and social welfare are improved.
Political Connections, Local Interests and Environmental Performance  [PDF]
Sheng Yao, Haotian Liang
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2014.23011
Abstract: Though there are studies on the relation between political connections and financial performance in the current literature, few have addressed the issue of political connections within the context of the environment. Thus, the goal of this study was to prove, in theory, that political connections and local interests negatively affect the environmental performance in the short and long run under the conditions faced by China.
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