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Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources  [PDF]
F. Richard Yu,Peng Zhang,Weidong Xiao,Paul Choudhury
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.
Mechanism Designs for Stochastic Resources for Renewable Energy Integration  [PDF]
Wenyuan Tang,Rahul Jain
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Among the many challenges of integrating renewable energy sources into the existing power grid, is the challenge of integrating renewable energy generators into the power systems economy. Electricity markets currently are run in a way that participating generators must supply contracted amounts. And yet, renewable energy generators such as wind power generators cannot supply contracted amounts with certainty. Thus, alternative market architectures must be considered where there are aggregator entities who participate in the electricity market by buying power from the renewable energy generators, and assuming risk of any shortfall from contracted amounts. In this paper, we propose auction mechanisms that can be used by the aggregators for procuring stochastic resources, such as wind power. The nature of stochastic resources is different from classical resources in that such a resource is only available stochastically. The distribution of the generation is private information, and the system objective is to truthfully elicit such information. We introduce a variant of the VCG mechanism for this problem. We also propose a non-VCG mechanism with a contracted-payment-plus-penalty payoff structure. We generalize the basic mechanisms in various ways. We then consider the setting where there are two classes of players to demonstrate the difficulty of auction design in such scenarios. We also consider an alternative architecture where the generators need to fulfill any shortfall from the contracted amount by buying from the spot market.
Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Microgrid  [PDF]
Manzar Ahmed, Uzma Amin, Suhail Aftab, Zaki Ahmed
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.71002
Abstract: Microgrid is a new concept in power generation. The Microgrid concept assumes a cluster of loads and micro sources operating as a single controllable system that provides both power and heat to its local area. Not much is known about Microgrid behavior as a whole system. Some models exist which describe the components of a Microgrid. In this paper, model of Microgrids with steady state and their transient responses to changing inputs are presented. Current models of a fuel cell, microturbines, wind turbine and solar cell have been discussed. Finally a complete model built of Microgrid including the power sources, their power electronics, and a load and mains model in MATLAB/Simulink is presented.
Economy of Renewable Resources of Energy Operation  [cached]
Zdenek Hradilek,Martin Vyslouzil
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: Nowadays the renewable resources continue to be more important in the Czech Republic especially thanks to tendency reach of 8 % share of total production of electricity power which the Czech Republic sing on the European Union. This article contains description of various kinds of the renewable resources of energy (water, wind, power cells, biomass, biogas and sun), their present using and possibilities of their expansion. Article follows effect of growing share of the renewable resources of price of electric energy for final consumers. Also describe potentialities of other construction of renewable resources of energy in the Czech Republic with respect to local economic conditions.
Prospects of Renewable Energy in Semi-Arid Region  [PDF]
K. S. V. Swarna, G. M. Shafiullah, Amanullah M. T. Oo, Alex Stojcevski
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.24005
Abstract: Continuous usage of fossil fuels and other conventional resources to meet the growing demand has resulted in increased energy crisis and greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, it is essential to use renewable energy sources for more reliable, effective, sustainable and pollution free transmission and distribution networks. Therefore, to facilitate large-scale integration of renewable energy in particular wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, this paper presents the feasibility analysis for semi-arid climate and finds the most suitable places in North East region of Victoria for renewable energy generation. For economic and environmental analysis, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) was used to investigate the prospects of wind and solar energy considering the Net Present Cost (NPC), Cost of Energy (COE) and Renewable fraction (RF). Six locations are selected from North East region of Victoria and simulations are performed. From the feasibility analysis, it can be concluded that Mount Hotham is one of the most suitable locations for wind energy generation while Wangaratta is the most suitable location for solar energy generation. Mount Hotham is also the best suitable locations in North East region for hybrid power systems i.e., combination of both wind and solar energy generation.
Grid Integration Costs of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources  [PDF]
Jonas Müller,Marcus Hildmann,Andreas Ulbig,G?ran Andersson
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: The grid integration of intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (RES) causes costs for grid operators due to forecast uncertainty and the resulting production schedule mismatches. These so-called profile service costs are marginal cost components and can be understood as an insurance fee against RES production schedule uncertainty that the system operator incurs due to the obligation to always provide sufficient control reserve capacity for power imbalance mitigation. This paper studies the situation for the German power system and the existing German RES support schemes. The profile service costs incurred by German Transmission System Operators (TSOs) are quantified and means for cost reduction are discussed. In general, profile service costs are dependent on the RES prediction error and the specific workings of the power markets via which the prediction error is balanced. This paper shows both how the prediction error can be reduced in daily operation as well as how profile service costs can be reduced via optimization against power markets and/or active curtailment of RES generation.
Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth
Wei-Bin Zhang
Business Systems Research , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10305-012-0019-8
Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector's capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.
Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth  [cached]
Wei-Bin Zhang
Business Systems Research , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.
Cooperation and Storage Tradeoffs in Power-Grids with Renewable Energy Resources  [PDF]
Subhash Lakshminarayana,Tony Q. S. Quek,H. Vincent Poor
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: One of the most important challenges in smart grid systems is the integration of renewable energy resources into its design. In this work, two different techniques to mitigate the time varying and intermittent nature of renewable energy generation are considered. The first one is the use of storage, which smooths out the fluctuations in the renewable energy generation across time. The second technique is the concept of distributed generation combined with cooperation by exchanging energy among the distributed sources. This technique averages out the variation in energy production across space. This paper analyzes the trade-off between these two techniques. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the time average cost of energy exchange within the grid. First, an analytical model of the optimal cost is provided by investigating the steady state of the system for some specific scenarios. Then, an algorithm to solve the cost minimization problem using the technique of Lyapunov optimization is developed and results for the performance of the algorithm are provided. These results show that in the presence of limited storage devices, the grid can benefit greatly from cooperation, whereas in the presence of large storage capacity, cooperation does not yield much benefit. Further, it is observed that most of the gains from cooperation can be obtained by exchanging energy only among a few energy harvesting sources.
Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives  [cached]
Kiseleva S.,Rafikova J.,Shakun V.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20123301003
Abstract: During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.
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