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Immunization with DAT fragments is associated with long-term striatal impairment, hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility in mice  [cached]
Adriani Walter,Koot Susanne,Columba-Cabezas Sandra,Romano Emilia
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-8-54
Abstract: Background Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Levels of brain dopamine transporter (DAT) have been implicated in several impulse-control disorders, like attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we assessed the interplay between DAT auto-immunity and behavioural / neurochemical phenotype. Methods Male CD-1 mice were immunized with DAT peptide fragments (DAT-i), or vehicle alone (VEH), to generate elevated circulating levels of DAT auto-antibodies (aAbs). Using an operant delay-of-reward task (20 min daily sessions; timeout 25 sec), mice had a choice between either an immediate small amount of food (SS), or a larger amount of food after a delay (LL), which increased progressively across sessions (from 0 to 150 sec). Results DAT-i mice exhibited spontaneous hyperactivity (2 h-longer wake-up peak; a wake-up attempt during rest). Two sub-populations differing in behavioural flexibility were identified in the VEH control group: they showed either a clear-cut decision to select LL or clear-cut shifting towards SS, as expected. Compared to VEH controls, choice-behaviour profile of DAT-i mice was markedly disturbed, together with long-lasting alterations of the striatal monoamines. Enhanced levels of DA metabolite HVA in DAT-i mice came along with slower acquisition of basal preferences and with impaired shifting; elevation also in DOPAC levels was associated with incapacity to change a rigid selection strategy. This scarce flexibility of performance is indicative of a poor adaptation to task contingencies. Conclusions Hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility are patterns of behaviour consistent with enduring functional impairment of striatal regions. It is yet unclear how anti-DAT antibodies could enter or otherwise affect these brain areas, and which alterations in DAT activity exactly occurred after immunization. Present neuro-behavioural alterations, coming along with an experimentally-induced rise of circulating DAT-directed aAbs, open the issue of a potential role for auto-immunity in vulnerability to impulse-control disorders.
Inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant symptoms and school failure
Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia;Mattos, Paulo;Regalla, Maria Angélica;Souza, Isabella de;Paix?o, Cristiane;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2008000600010
Abstract: background: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) is associated with school failure. inattention has been mainly implicated for this association. oppositional-defiant disorder's (odd) impact on academic performance remains controversial, because of the high comorbidity between odd and adhd. objective: to understand the role of inattention (in), hyperactivity (h/i) and odd in school failure. method: parents and teachers filled out snap-iv questionnaires for 241 / 6th grade students. the associations of the scores of oppositional-defiant (op), h/i and in symptoms with school year failure were calculated. results: in was strongly correlated with school failure. h/i and op were not associated with school failure, when controlled for in. conclusion: op and h/i symptoms do not play an important role in school failure, when controlled for in symptoms. our study supports the cross-cultural role of in as a major predictor of school failure.
Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children  [cached]
Gruber R,Michaelsen S,Bergmame L,Frenette S
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2012,
Abstract: Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, H pital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls), aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, healthy school-aged children
Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children
Gruber R, Michaelsen S, Bergmame L, Frenette S, Bruni O, Fontil L, Carrier J
Nature and Science of Sleep , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S24607
Abstract: rt sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children Original Research (2896) Total Article Views Authors: Gruber R, Michaelsen S, Bergmame L, Frenette S, Bruni O, Fontil L, Carrier J Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 33 - 40 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S24607 Received: 28 July 2011 Accepted: 18 October 2011 Published: 07 March 2012 Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, H pital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, Italy Purpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children. Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls), aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale. Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident. Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.
More to ADHD than meets the eye: Observable abnormalities in search behaviour do not account for performance deficits on a discrimination task
Edmund JS Sonuga-Barke, Sarah Elgie, Martin Hall
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-1-10
Abstract: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; [1]) is a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterised by a pattern of extreme, pervasive, persistent and debilitating inattention, overactivity and impulsiveness. Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers to experience educational under-achievement, social isolation and anti-social behaviour during the school years and to go on to have significant difficulties in the post-school years. Children with ADHD often perform poorly on tasks requiring the sustained and systematic allocation of attention over periods of extended time [2]. This appears to be true of tasks that require vigilance for rare targets amongst consecutively presented distractors (e.g., Continuous Performance Task; CPT – [3]). It is also true of more complex tasks that require self-directed and controlled search for targets amongst multiple concurrently presented distractors (e.g., Matching Familiar Figures Task; [4]).In trying to explain the causes of this commonly observed pattern of performance deficit a range of different mechanisms operating at different levels of analysis have been invoked. For instance, cognitive accounts link deficits in performance to impairments in covert processes such as information encoding and retrieval as well as the 'holding in mind' of targets and their systematic comparison to distractors [5-7]. Such analyses fall firmly within the domain occupied by contemporary models of ADHD which emphasise its cognitive character [[8-10] for a discussion] and appear to receive considerable support from experimental studies of cognitive performance: ADHD children perform poorly on tasks thought to tap a range of executive and non-executive cognitive skills such as working and spatial memory, planning, attentional flexibility and inhibition [11-17].Despite this strong body of evidence for the existence of cognitive deficits and the compelling nature of the cognitive deficit account, performance on complex discriminat
Patterns of inattention in children: Findings from the inattention checklist for teachers
Ma gorzata wi cicka , Andrzej Matuszewski , Ma gorzata Wo niak
Polish Psychological Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10059-008-0003-x
Abstract: This study concerns construction of a checklist for teachers designed to find out types of attention disorders in children. Inattention is not a homogenous phenomenon. Patterns of coexistence of inattention signs and other behavioral symptoms could reflect different psychological mechanisms. In first study teachers described 242 children aged 9 to 10 using Inattention Checklist for Teachers (ICT). In second study teachers described 361 children aged 8 to 10 using modified version of the ICT. Factor analysis conducted in the first study resulted in extraction of five factors (withdrawal of attention, distractibility and tiredness, impulsivity and hyperactivity, high emotional control, low emotional control). In the second study previously extracted factors were validated by cluster analyses and profiles referring to co-occurring behavioral symptoms were developed. Analysis of profiles has shown that attention disorders comprise at least two groups of inattention symptoms (distractibility and tiredness, and withdrawal of attention) that in relation to other factors and learning difficulties constitute different patterns of inattention. It is suggested that these patterns reflect differences between attention disorders caused by cognitive malfunctioning, impaired behavioral or emotional control.
Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? evidence from three European cohorts
Alina Rodriguez, Marjo-Riitta J?rvelin, Carsten Obel, Anja Taanila, Jouko Miettunen, Irma Moilanen, Tine Henriksen, Katri Pietil?inen, Hanna Ebeling, Arto J Kotimaa, Karen Linnet, J?rn Olsen
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-327
Abstract: Data come from three population-based cohorts from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, which are part of the Nordic Network on ADHD. The combined sample size was 13,087 children who were studied at ages 7–8 or 10–12 years. Teachers rated children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills.There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related to a two to tenfold increase in scholastic impairment. Prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms was similar across the three cohorts, but inattention was lowest among children from the Finnish cohort, after stratification on living conditions.These results extend previous reports of scholastic impairment among children with clinically diagnosed ADHD to non-referred population samples from three European countries. Surveillance policies should be implemented in school systems to catch children in need of behavioral or scholastic support early.Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents. ADHD is associated with impairment in all aspects of a child's life, i.e. family, social, and academic [1,2]. Children with ADHD often follow a sustained negative developmental trajectory [3] and impairments can continue into adulthood [4]. ADHD is a concern for public health and policy makers not only due to the wide ranging associated difficulties, but also because it is a substantial economic burden for society in terms of medical treatment [5] and indirect costs related to high risk behaviors [6,7] and their consequences. Early identification of possible cases would be helpful in the planning of public services.ADHD is characterized by inattention and hyperactivity symptoms inappropriate for age or developmental level and diagnosis requires symptoms to be associated with considerable impairment
Sense of humour and adolescents’ cognitive flexibility
KGF Esterhuyse, N Nortjé, A Pienaar, RBI Beukes
South African Family Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Objective: There is a lack of research on humour among adolescents in South Africa. This article examines cognitive flexibility and humour. The objective was to investigate the roles of gender and language as possible moderating variables in the relationship between adolescents’ cognitive flexibility and sense of humour. Design: A correlational research design was used in which pupils were asked to complete the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale to assess their sense of humour. In order to determine the cognitive flexibility of the sample group, Martin and Rubin’s Cognitive Flexibility Scale was applied. Setting and subjects: The initial sample comprised 1 203 adolescents (Grade 11 and 12 pupils) randomly selected from the Eastern Cape, Gauteng and Mpumalanga. Of these, a final 392 adolescents qualified after eliminating criteria had been applied. Results: No significant correlations were found between the total group or for the two genders. Significant positive correlations were found between cognitive flexibility and two of the scores for humour (creating and expressing humour), as well as for the total score for Afrikaans-speaking participants. Significant negative correlations were found between cognitive flexibility and all five of the scores for humour for the Nguni language speakers. Conclusion: This study recommends that culturally sensitive measuring instruments should be developed.
Correlations of gene expression with ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in tourette syndrome: a pilot study  [cached]
Tian Yingfang,Stamova Boryana,Ander Bradley P,Jickling Glen C
BMC Medical Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-5-49
Abstract: Background Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the primary behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies showed that peripheral blood gene expression signatures can mirror central nervous system disease. Tourette syndrome (TS) is associated with inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms over 50% of the time. This study determined if gene expression in blood correlated significantly with IA and/or HI rating scale scores in participants with TS. Methods RNA was isolated from the blood of 21 participants with TS, and gene expression measured on Affymetrix human U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. To identify the genes that correlated with Conners’ Parents Ratings of IA and HI ratings of symptoms, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed, controlling for age, gender and batch. Results There were 1201 gene probesets that correlated with IA scales, 1625 that correlated with HI scales, and 262 that correlated with both IA and HI scale scores (P<0.05, |Partial correlation (rp)|>0.4). Immune, catecholamine and other neurotransmitter pathways were associated with IA and HI behaviors. A number of the identified genes (n=27) have previously been reported in ADHD genetic studies. Many more genes correlated with either IA or HI scales alone compared to those that correlated with both IA and HI scales. Conclusions These findings support the concept that the pathophysiology of ADHD and/or its subtypes in TS may involve the interaction of multiple genes. These preliminary data also suggest gene expression may be useful for studying IA and HI symptoms that relate to ADHD in TS and perhaps non-TS participants. These results will need to be confirmed in future studies.
Cognitive Cycle in Mind Model CAM  [PDF]
Zhongzhi Shi, Xiaofeng Wang, Jinpeng Yue
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2011.12004
Abstract: Cognitive cycle is a basic procedure of mental activities in cognitive level. Human cognition consists of cascading cycles of recurring brain events. This paper presents a cognitive cycle for the mind model CAM (Consciousness And Memory). Each cognitive cycle perceives the current situation, through motivation phase with reference to ongoing goals, and then composes internal or external action streams to reach the goals in response. We use dynamic description logic which is an extended description logic with action to formalize descriptions and algorithms of cognitive cycle. Two important algorithms, including hierarchical goal and action composition, is proposed in the paper.
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