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Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency disrupts endocytosis, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial protein pathways in the mouse hippocampus  [PDF]
Jane A. English,Akiko Harauma,Melanie F?cking,Kieran Wynne,Caitriona Scaife,Gerard Cagney,Toru Moriguchi
Frontiers in Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00208
Abstract: Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) deficiency is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, yet characterization of the consequences of deficiency at the protein level in the brain is limited. We aimed to identify the protein pathways disrupted as a consequence of chronic n-3 deficiency in the hippocampus of mice. Fatty acid analysis of the hippocampus following chronic dietary deficiency revealed a 3-fold decrease (p < 0.001) in n-3 FA levels. Label free LC-MS/MS analysis identified and profiled 1008 proteins, of which 114 were observed to be differentially expressed between n-3 deficient and control groups (n = 8 per group). The cellular processes that were most implicated were neuritogenesis, endocytosis, and exocytosis, while specific protein pathways that were most significantly dysregulated were mitochondrial dysfunction and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). In order to characterize whether these processes and pathways are ones influenced by antipsychotic medication, we used LC-MS/MS to test the differential expression of these 114 proteins in the hippocampus of mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic agent haloperidol. We observed 23 of the 114 proteins to be differentially expressed, 17 of which were altered in the opposite direction to that observed following n-3 deficiency. Overall, our findings point to disturbed synaptic function, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial function as a consequence of dietary deficiency in n-3 FA. This study greatly aids our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which n-3 deficiency impairs normal brain function, and provides clues as to how n-3 FA exert their therapeutic effect in early psychosis.
Membrane Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency as a Preventable Risk Factor for Comorbid Coronary Heart Disease in Major Depressive Disorder  [PDF]
Robert K. McNamara
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/362795
Abstract: Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA
Adherence to depot versus oral antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients during the long-term therapy  [PDF]
Stankovi? ?ana,Ille Tatjana
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1303267s
Abstract: Background/Aim. There is a high rate of schizophrenic patients who do not adhere to their prescribed therapy, despite the implementation of antipsychotic long-acting injections and the introduction of atypical antipsychotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic, clinical and medication adherence variables between the two groups of schizophrenic patients on maintenance therapy with depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate and oral antipsychotics only as well as a correlation between the medication adherence and other examined variables. Methods. A total of 56 patients of both genders, aged < 60 years, with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20) (ICD-10, 1992) clinically stable for at least 6 months were introduced in this cross-sectional study. The patients from the depot group (n = 19) were on classical depot antipsychotic fluphenazine decanoate administering intramuscularly every 4 weeks (with or without oral antipsychotic augmentation) and the patients from the oral group (n = 37) were on oral therapy alone with classical or atypical antipsychotics, either as monotherapy or combined. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptom severity. Item G12 of the PANSS was used to assess insight into the illness. The patients completed the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) was used to assess adherence to the therapy. A higher MARS score indicates behavior [Medical Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ subscale)] and attitudes toward medication [Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI subscale)] that are more consistent with treatment adherence. The exclusion criteria were determined. The Pearson's χ2 test was used to compare categorical variables, Student's t-test to compare continuous variables and Pearson's correlation to test the correlation significance; p = 0.05. Results. Significant betweengroup differences in age, illness duration, chlorpromazine equivalents, PANSS score and DAI subscore were found. Item G12 of the PANSS subscore and MARS score correlated significantly negatively. A significant positive correlation between receiving depot antipsychotic and DAI subscore as well as between illness duration and both DAI subscore and MARS score were also found. Conclusion. Schizophrenic patients on classical depot antipsychotic maintenance therapy might present subpopulation of patients with significantly longer illness duration, more favorable medication attitude and outcome in relation to those on oral antipsychotics alone.
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency during Brain Maturation Reduces Neuronal and Behavioral Plasticity in Adulthood  [PDF]
Harsharan Singh Bhatia, Rahul Agrawal, Sandeep Sharma, Yi-Xin Huo, Zhe Ying, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028451
Abstract: Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS). DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.
Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  [PDF]
Artemis P. Simopoulos
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5082901
Abstract: Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.
Early Life Stress Interacts with the Diet Deficiency of Omega-3 Fatty Acids during the Life Course Increasing the Metabolic Vulnerability in Adult Rats  [PDF]
Juliana R. Bernardi, Charles F. Ferreira, Gabrielle Senter, Rachel Krolow, Bianca W. de Aguiar, André K. Portella, Márcia Kauer-Sant'Anna, Flávio Kapczinski, Carla Dalmaz, Marcelo Z. Goldani, Patrícia P. Silveira
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062031
Abstract: Early stress can cause metabolic disorders in adulthood. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) deficiency has also been linked to the development of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether an early stressful event such as maternal separation interacts with the nutritional availability of n-3 PUFAs during the life course on metabolic aspects. Litters were randomized into: maternal separated (MS) and non-handled (NH). The MS group was removed from their dam for 3 hours per day and put in an incubator at 32°C on days 1° to 10° postnatal (PND). On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets that were adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFAs, and this intervention was applied during the subsequent 15 weeks. Animal's body weight and food consumption were measured weekly, and at the end of the treatment tissues were collected. MS was associated with increased food intake (p = 0.047) and weight gain (p = 0.012), but no differences were found in the NPY hypothalamic content between the groups. MS rats had also increased deposition of abdominal fat (p<0.001) and plasma triglycerides (p = 0.018) when compared to the NH group. Interactions between early life stress and n-3 PUFAs deficiency were found in plasma insulin (p = 0.033), HOMA index (p = 0.049), leptin (p = 0.010) and liver PEPCK expression (p = 0.050), in which the metabolic vulnerability in the MS group was aggravated by the n-3 PUFAs deficient diet exposure. This was associated with specific alterations in the peripheral fatty acid profile. Variations in the neonatal environment interact with nutritional aspects during the life course, such as n-3 PUFAs diet content, and persistently alter the metabolic vulnerability in adulthood.
Influence of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status on the Way Rats Adapt to Chronic Restraint Stress  [PDF]
Marie Hennebelle,Laure Balasse,Alizée Latour,Gaelle Champeil-Potokar,Stéphanie Denis,Monique Lavialle,Pascale Gisquet-Verrier,Isabelle Denis,Sylvie Vancassel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042142
Abstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF) activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM), the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test) and entries into the open arms (EPM). Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.
Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study
Ashley Irish, Gursharan Dogra, Trevor Mori, Elaine Beller, Stephane Heritier, Carmel Hawley, Peter Kerr, Amanda Robertson, Johan Rosman, Peta-Anne Paul-Brent, Melissa Starfield, Kevan Polkinghorne, Alan Cass
BMC Nephrology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-10-1
Abstract: The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding.This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that clopidogrel is effective in safely preventing primary AVF thrombosis, but ineffective at increasing functional patency. Our study presents significant differences in the anti-platelet agents used, the study design, and surgical and patient demographics that should contribute further evidence regarding the efficacy of anti-platelet agents.Australia & New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN12607000569404).The incidence and prevalence of severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing due to ageing of the population and co-morbid conditions such as diabetes. Haemodialysis is the chosen renal replacement therapy for 70% of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in Australia. However
ácidos graxos ?mega 3 e tratamento da esquizofrenia
Zemdegs, Juliane Costa Silva;Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte;Priel, Margareth Rose;
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-60832010000500007
Abstract: background: schizophrenia is a complex and debilitating psychiatric disorder, whose primary pharmacological intervention is the use of antipsychotics. there is, however, growing evidence that dietary supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids (n-3) may be beneficial in several psychiatric conditions. objective: to review the efficacy of n-3 as a treatment for schizophrenia. methods: electronic searches of the following databases were performed: medline, lilacs e scielo. the search strategy also included cited reference searching. all relevant randomized controlled trials were included in the review. results: to date, five out of six randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled studies obtained improvement in the symptoms of the psychosis. besides, an advantage in the intake of eicosapentaenoic fatty acid (epa) in relation to docosahexaenoic fatty acid was designated. essentially, the intake of 2 g/day of epa in addition to the standard medication was effective in decreasing the symptoms of schizophrenia. discussion: the nutritional therapy with epa revealed to be useful as coadjutant in the treatment of schizophrenia. therefore, we suggest that the schizophrenic patients should be encouraged to consume balanced and healthy meals rich in epa and, if the ideal amount is not reached by the diet, the supplementation is likely to be beneficial.
Differential Regulation of Hepatic Transcription Factors in the Wistar Rat Offspring Born to Dams Fed Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 Deficient Diets and Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids  [PDF]
Akshaya Meher, Asmita Joshi, Sadhana Joshi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090209
Abstract: Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at ?80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the offspring.
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