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Monitoring the sensitivity of selected crops to lead, cadmium and arsenic  [PDF]
Pir?elová B.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2011,
Abstract: Heavy metals are highly toxic environmental pollutants. In plants, these compounds cause numerous slighter or stronger toxic effects. They inhibit root and shoot growth and yield production, affect nutrient uptake and homeostasis, and are frequently accumulated by agriculturally important crops. Effects of heavy metals on five selected species of agricultural crops were monitored. We focused our attention to general and commonly used stress indicators such as seed germination, weight and length of roots and shoots. Each of these characteristics was dependent on the tested plant species and tested heavy metals. Dosage of lead (500 mg/l) had little effect on seed germination, cadmium (300 mg/l) significantly affected seed germination of pea and barley, arsenic (100 mg/l) caused total inhibition of seed germination in all tested plant species. Plants grow in soil contaminated with heavy metals showed several symptoms of metal toxicity (chlorosis, necrosis of leaf tips, blackening of roots). In general, the highest tolerance to tested metal ions was observed in both varieties of bean, and the lowest sensitivity was observed in soybean plants. The highest degree of toxicity was shown to have tested doses of cadmium and arsenic, the lowest the doses of lead. In general, the lowest tolerance indexes were determined based on the decrease in fresh weight of roots.
Differences of cadmium absorption and accumulation in selected vegetable crops
Ni Wu-Zhong,Yang Xiao-E,Long Xin-Xian,
Ni WZ
,Yang XE,Long XX

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2002,
Abstract: A pot experiment and a sandy culture experiment grown with three vegetable crops of Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis L., cv. Zao-Shu 5), winter greens (B. var. rosularis Tsen et Lee, cv. Shang-Hai-Qing) and celery (A. graveolens L. var. dulce DC., cv. Qing-Qin) were conducted, respectively. The initial soil and four incubated soils with different extractable Cd (0.15, 0.89, 1.38, 1.84 and 2.30 mg Cd/kg soil) were used for the pot experiment. Five treatments were designed (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 mg Cd/L) in nutrient solution in the sandy culture experiment. Each treatment in pot and sandy culture experiments was trireplicated. The objectives of the study were to examine Cd accumulation in edible parts of selected vegetable crops, its correlation with Cd concentrations in vegetable garden soil or in nutrient solution, and evaluate the criteria of Cd pollution in vegetable garden soil and in nutrient solution based on the hygienic limit of Cd in vegetables. Cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the three selected vegetable crops were as follows: 0.01-0.15 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.02-0.17 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.02-0.24 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment, and 0.1-0.4 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.1-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.05-0.5 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment (except no-Cd treatment). The order of the three test vegetable crops for cadmium accumulation in the edible parts was celery > winter greens > Chinese cabbage in both the pot experiment and the sandy culture experiment. Cadmium accumulation in edible parts or roots of the vegetable crops increased with increasing of cadmium concentration in the medium (soil or nutrient solution). And cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the test vegetable crops were significantly linearly related to the Cd levels in the growth media (soil and nutrient solution). Based on the regression equations established and the limit of cadmium concentration in vegetable products, the thresholds of Cd concentration in the growth medium evaluated was as follows: 0.5 mg/kg soil of extractable Cd for soil and 0.02 mg/L for nutrient solution. The high capacity for cadmium accumulation in the edible parts of different vegetable crops together with the absence of visual symptoms implies a potential danger for humans.
Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops  [PDF]
Zdravkovi? Jasmina,Pavlovi? Nenad,Girek Zdenka,Zdravkovi? Milan
Genetika , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1002223z
Abstract: The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.
Immobilization of arsenic in soils by stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron sulfide (FeS), and magnetite (Fe3O4) particles
MeiYi Zhang,Yu Wang,DongYe Zhao,Gang Pan
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0703-4
Abstract: Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in soils and groundwater. While various iron-based materials have been studied for immobilizing arsenic in contaminated soils, the feasibility of stabilized iron-based nanoparticles has not been reported. This study investigates the effectiveness of using three types of starch-stabilized iron-based nanoparticles, including zero-valent iron (ZVI), iron sulfide (FeS), and magnetite (Fe3O4), for immobilization of arsenic in two representative As-contaminated soils (an orchard soil and a fire range soil). To test the effect of the nanoparticles on the arsenic leachability, As-contaminated soils were amended with the nanoparticles at various Fe/As molar ratios (5:1–100:1) and contact time (3 and 7 d). After three days’ treatments of a field-contaminated sandy soil, the PBET-based bioaccessibility of As decreased from an initial (71.3±3.1)% (mean±SD) to (30.9±3.2)% with ZVI, (37.6±1.2)% with FeS, and (29.8± 3.1)% with Fe3O4 at an Fe/As molar ratio of 100:1. The TCLP-based leachability of arsenic in a spiked fire range soil decreased from an initial (0.51±0.11)% to (0.24±0.03)%, (0.27±0.04)% and (0.17±0.04)% by ZVI, FeS, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles appeared to be more effective (5% or more) than other nanoparticles for immobilizing arsenic. When the two soils were compared, the treatment is more effective on the orchard soil that has a lower iron content and higher initial leachability than on the range soil that already has a high iron content. These results suggest that these innocuous iron-based nanoparticles may serve as effective media for immobilization of As in iron-deficient soils, sediments or solid wastes.
Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region
Antonio Elia,Pietro Santamaria
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2013.e4
Abstract: The biodiversity in vegetable crops is composed by the genetic diversity, as species diversity (interspecific diversity) and as diversity of genes within a species (intraspecific diversity) referring to the vegetable grown varieties, and by the diversity of agro-ecosystems (agrobiodiversity). Intraspecific diversity is very ample in vegetable crops and is not reflected, at least not to the same extent, in other groups of crops. The labour operated by farmers over centuries of selection has led to the creation of a plurality of local varieties, following domestication of cultivated forms, and wide agro-biodiversity, a precious heritage both from a genetic and a cultural-historical point of view. The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) takes into account in its annual survey about forty vegetable crops. Intraspecific diversity in vegetables can also be analyzed by examining the information contained in the common catalogue of varieties of vegetable species. The 27 EU Countries as a whole had entered 19,576 varieties of vegetables in the common catalogue as of August 2011. The Netherlands, which represents 8% of total vegetable production in the EU, has registered 7826 varieties. Italy and Spain, which predominate in Europe for the production of vegetables, have registered only 8% (1513) and 9% (1672) of the total varieties, respectively. As a whole 54% of the European varieties entered in the catalogue are hybrids. Puglia, which contributes with about 22% to the Italian vegetable growing area, is among the leading regions for the productions of broccoli raab, celery, parsley, processing tomato, artichoke, endive and escarole, cabbage, fennel, lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower and broccoli, early potato, and asparagus (all with more than 20% of the national area). The region is particularly rich in local vegetable varieties, obtained by farmers themselves after repeated simple selection procedures generation after generation. The local varieties for which there is a strong link with the Puglia traditions and which are described in this review are: carota di Polignano (Polignano carrot) and carota di sant’Ippazio (Saint Ippazio carrot) (Apiaceae), cipolla di Acquaviva delle Fonti (Acquaviva delle Fonti onion) and cipolla bianca di Margherita (Margherita white onion) (Liliaceae), cima di rapa (broccoli raab) (Brassicaceae), unripe melon - carosello, barattiere, meloncella, etc. (Cucurbitaceae), catalogna chicory - cicoria di Molfetta e cicoria di Galatina (Molfetta’s chicory and Galatina’s chicory) (Asteraceae).
Effect of Intercropping Jatropha Curcas on Growth and Yield of Arable Crops (Maize and Vegetable)
OA Geply, RA Baiyewu, GT Salaudeen, TO Adeleke, IA Adegoke, BV Oladoja
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: This research study was carried out to investigate the effect of Jatropha curcas plant on the growth and yield of Arable crops (maize and vegetable) at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) Arboretum, Jericho, Ibadan. This research study involves six (6) experimental plots of Jatropha curcas interplanted with vegetable and maize in both Mono and Agro-forestry plot respectively. Relative comparison in Jatropha curcas plant agronomic parameter such as plant height, stem girth and number of leaves, planted in Mono and Agro-forestry plots were determined and analysed using factorial experimental design in Randomised Completely Block Design (RCBD). The result of analysis of variance conducted shows significant difference in the major treatments and weeks on the parameter assessed while non existence of significant difference was recorded in the combination factor of treatment and weeks. The mean results of the parameters for plant height, stem girth, number of leaves were assessed 4.560g, 4.515g, 3.725g for maize and 127g, 96g, 72g for vegetable plant. Based on the agronomic result obtained in this study can therefore be concluded that Jatropha curcas plant could be successfully incorporated in both mono and agro-forestry practices to yield positive effect.
A Mitigation Approach to Alleviate Arsenic Accumulation in Rice through Balanced Fertilization  [PDF]
S. M. Imamul Huq,Selina Sultana,Ganga Chakraborty,M. T. A. Chowdhury
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/835627
Abstract: Pot experiments with boro and aman season rice on the same soils treated with arsenic contaminated irrigation water and using balanced fertilizer or not revealed that balance fertilization could be a strategy to mitigate arsenic accumulation in rice grain. The study also revealed that there is a carryover effect of As applied through irrigation in the boro season to the subsequent aman season rice. This carryover effect too, could be minimized with balanced fertilization. 1. Introduction Groundwater contamination by As in Bangladesh has been termed as one of the worst calamities of the history [1]. The majority of the extracted groundwater (~85%) is used for irrigation [2]. About 40 percent of the net cultivable area of the country is under irrigation and the major recipient (60%) of the irrigation water is the boro rice (dry season rice) along with wheat and some other vegetable crops [3]. Irrigation with arsenic-contaminated groundwater is leading to elevated levels of arsenic in paddy soils [4], which may lead to increased concentrations of arsenic in rice [5–10], wheat [7, 8], vegetables [7, 8], and other agricultural products [11]. According to Imamul Huq et al. [8], the total arsenic loading in irrigated soils for a boro rice requiring 1000?mm of irrigation water per season ranges from 1.36 to 5.5?kg/ha/yr. Arsenic thus accumulated in the topsoil becomes available to the next crop of rice cultivated during the aman (wet) season, even if the crop is cultivated with arsenic free irrigation water or with rainwater [10, 12]. The carryover effects of irrigation on the subsequent accumulation of arsenic by different varieties of rice in arsenic affected areas, and its mitigation possibilities need to be properly addressed. A number of mitigation approaches have been tried to control arsenic accumulation in plants [1, 13–15]. Use of balanced fertilizers in soil could be an approach to alleviate the accumulation of As in different varieties of rice plants. Balanced fertilization is the key to efficient fertilizer use for sustainable high yields. Field crops receiving arsenic through irrigation water might show yield differences and accumulation of the toxic element that could be avoided by proper nutrient balance in the growth medium. The present study aims at finding the effect of balanced fertilization in the possible mitigation of arsenic accumulation in different varieties of rice in the boro season and the carryover effect of As in the aman season. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Sampling Site Soil samples were collected from a farmer’s field in
Utilization and Feasibility of Retting Effluent as Fertilizer in Vegetable Crops Production
Firoza Akhter,Zakaria Ahmed,Hasina Banu,M. Shamsul Haque
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Jute retting was conducted in the corner of rice filed by making artificial ditches. Retting could be efficiently conducted in the rice field. The fibres produced there of were also of good quality and as the ribbons were retted, the percentage of cutting in the basal parts were also very nominal. The fertilizer value of the retting effluent was tested on three vegetable crops of cabbage, brinzzal and tomato. In all the cases, retting effluent showed better yield than the control. The tithe of the soil was also increased.
The Use of High Tunnels to Produce Fruit and Vegetable Crops in North America  [PDF]
Rhonda R. Janke, May Elfar Altamimi, Mumtaz Khan
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.87052
Abstract: High tunnels have been used in the United States for more than 50 years, and growers are encouraged to use them more frequently through government cost-share programs. Research on fruits and vegetable production systems has focused on high value crops such as tomato, salad greens, and several fruit crops. Maintaining soil quality and controlling insects and diseases are all issues that growers face. This review looks at current research on these issues as well as economic considerations addressed in the scientific literature. Global statistics and reports are also reviewed that complement the North American studies. Gaps in our understanding are identified, and directions for future research are suggested.
Effect of three different nitrogen fertilizers on several vegetable crops  [PDF]
WIDIATI HADI ADIL,NOVIANTI SUNARLIM,IKA ROOSTIKA
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: Applications of three different sources of N fertilizers (urea, compost from slaughter house and chicken manure compost) on vegetable crops (tomato, okra and spinach) were conducted in the green house of Research Institute for Food Crop Biotechnology, Bogor from August of 1999 to April of 2000. Treatments consisted of: (i) without fertilizer, (ii) 5 g N/pot of urea, (iii) 10 g N/pot of slaughter house compost, (iv) 10 g N/pot of chicken manure compost, (v) 5 g N/pot of urea + 10 g N/pot of slaughter house compost, and (vi) 5 g N/pot of urea + 10 g N/pot of chicken manure compost. Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates was used in the experiments. In the first experiment, tomatoes were planted in the first season, following by okra in the second season. In the second experiment, spinach was planted for 6 times. Urea and compost were applied only once at the beginning of the experiment. Results of the experiments showed that for the first experiment
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