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The Application of Problem Based Learning in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Strategy for Curriculum Reform  [PDF]
Tan Kan Ku, Michael Ha
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.46008
Abstract:
Background: Problem based learning (PBL) is an innovative way of delivering instruction in which problems are used as the basis of learning. Problem based learning was developed in the 1960s by Harold Barrows at McMaster University Medical School in Canada. Since then, PBL had been im-plemented as a teaching method in other reputable education institutions internationally, includ-ing nursing education. Curriculum reform is proposed through PBL in conjunction with patient simulation in undergraduate nursing education. The first author, Tan Kan Ku, PhD Candidate, MHS (Transcultural Mental Health—by Research) worked as a Registered Nurse for more than two decades internationally in England, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia and Australia, where she worked as a Case Manager in Community Mental Health Rehabilitation Program. Since 2001, she focused on nurse education and research into the stigma of mental illness from a cross-cultural perspective. Currently, she teaches Mental Health, Cultural Diversity and Research in the Diploma of Nursing course at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia, while completing her PhD thesis for examination at Charisma University. The second author, Dr. Michael Ha, FSA, MAAA, CFA, CPA (Australia) FRM, PRM, LLM, is the Founding Director of the MSc Financial Mathematics programme at Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University. He was previously Vice President of Strategic Business In-itiatives Units at ING Life Insurance in its Taiwan operation. Ninety percent of his students are enrolled in the Financial Mathematics programme. They learn not only mathematics and statistics theories but also their applications in the Finance and Investment areas, especially Portfolio Con-struction and Financial Risk Management. Creating a real-world Finance work environment in university lecture-halls embracing theories and practice, Dr. Ha strongly believes the PBL method can be employed in the Financial Mathematics training agenda so students can be better-prepared for work. Students are no longer instructed-learners but active thinkers and problem-solvers. Conclusion: Educators in fields such as Medical, Nursing, Engineering, Financial Mathematics, Ac-counting, Computing, etc., need to be prepared to change their teaching philosophy from didactic to problem solving for PBL to be implemented. Constructive alignment is recommended for curri-culum reform.
A aprendizagem baseada em problemas na promo o da educa o continuada com a equipe de enfermagem = The problem-based learning promoting the continuing education with the nursing team  [cached]
Jefferson Nery Correia,Mileni Francisca Gomes Souza
Acta Scientiarum : Education , 2011,
Abstract: A educa o para capacitar de maneira crítica e reflexiva a equipe de enfermagem no seu processo de trabalho motivou este estudo. O objetivo foi analisar a percep o dos profissionais de enfermagem sobre a viabilidade da utiliza o da aprendizagem baseada em problemas no contexto da educa o continuada. Utilizou-se uma oficina sobre educa o continuada com uma equipe de enfermagem, percorrendo a proposta metodológica do ‘Arco de Marguerez’, em que a realidade/problema foi a realiza o de uma técnica de curativo na unidade de saúde. Os dados foram obtidos com o auxílio de um roteiro semiestruturado, aplicado após a oficina, pelo método de grupo focal, em que os participantes com o auxílio do pesquisador expuseram suas percep es sobre a estratégia proposta. Os conteúdos dos diálogos foram gravados e posteriormente transcritos para análise de conteúdo. Os resultados sugerem repensar as estratégias na educa o continuada para enfermagem, de maneira a proporcionar que cada profissional seja capaz de identificar os desafios na sua realidade a serem superados e contribuir para a mudan a no ambito pessoal e social. Infere-se a necessidade da constante atualiza o dos profissionais de enfermagem o que pode ser alcan ado pela educa o continuada com a equipe, em que a aprendizagem baseada em problemas mostrou-se satisfatória. The education to enable critically and reflectively the nursing team during work process motivated this study. The objective was to analyze the perception of nursing professionals on the feasibility of using problem-based learning in the context of continuing education. We used a workshop on continuing education with a nursing team, covering the methodological proposal of the ‘Arc of Marguerez’, where the reality/problem was to hold a healing technique in the health unit. Data was obtained with the aid of a semi-structured script, applied after the workshop, through the focus group method, in which participants along with the help of the researcher presented their perceptions on the proposed strategy. The dialogue contents were recorded and later transcribed for content analysis. The results suggest rethinking strategies in continuing education for nursing, so as to provide that each professional is able to identify the real challenges to be overcome and contribute for the change in the personal and social scope. In conclusion, there is a need for constant updating of nursing professionals, which can be achieved through continuing education with the team, where the problem-based learning was satisfactory.
Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education
Annali E Fichardt,Paula P du Rand
Health SA Gesondheid , 2000, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v5i2.26
Abstract: In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Motivations for the Use of Problem-Based Learning (PBL)for Preparation of Undergraduate Nursing Students for Professional Competences: A Literature Review
International Journal of Nursing Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.nursing.20120205.02
Abstract: Traditional nursing education as characterized byclassroom approaches inter alia the lectures, where students are merely passive listeners and more concern about the final grade than learningtends to produce graduate with information to memorize while unable to apply knowledge into practicefor problem solving. Thus the intensive basic lectures, followed by equally exhausting clinical teaching has proven ineffective in preparing professional nurses who are problem-solvers. These factors dictate the need for a shift from a focus on teaching to a focus on learning by adoptinga problem-based, student-centered and self-directed learning approach in a form of problem-based learning for both classroom and clinical teaching context. As opposed to the traditional reductive lecturing method of teaching, Problem-Based Learning approach is more inductive; students learn contents as they try to solve the problems. Problem-Based Learning approach therefore facilitates the development of disciplinary knowledge bases, skills and problem solving strategies by placing the students in the active role of problem solvers for the problems that are aligned with real-life situation.
The problem-based learning integrated with simulation to improve nursing students’ self-efficacy  [PDF]
Min Sohn, Youngmee Ahn, Mijin Lee, Heami Park, Narae Kang
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31012
Abstract:

Introduction: The purposes of this study were to describe the simulation integrated with problem-based learning (SIM-PBL) module to educate the nursing process for clients with hypertension and to evaluate its effectiveness on nursing students’ self-efficacy (SE). Methods: This study was a one group pre- and post-test design. Twenty five students received a 5-hour SIM-PBL program focused on nursing care of clients with hypertension. A newly developed self-report questionnaire was used to assess SE in four areas of the nursing process with a scale of 0 (not at all confident) to 10 (totally confident). The four areas were subjective data assessment, physical examination, prioritizing nursing care and health promotion advices. Results: At baseline, students’ SE ranged from 5.5 ± 1.4 (prioritizing nursing care) to 7.6 ± 1.4 (subjective data assessment). After SIM-PBL education, all areas of nursing process presented statistically significant improvements of SE. The improvements were most noticeable in prioritizing nursing care. Conclusion: The SIM-PBL module was effective in improving the students’ self-efficacy in the nursing process for patients with hypertension. Further studies are recommended in developing SIM-PBL modules for diverse nursing topics and evaluating their effectiveness in various aspects of students’ competency.

Nursing diagnosis: educational strategy based on problem-based learning
Lira, Ana Luisa Brand?o de Carvalho;Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692011000400012
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a teaching strategy on nursing diagnoses based on problem-based learning in the performance of clinical reasoning and diagnostic trial of undergraduate students. experimental study conducted in two phases: content validation of problems and implementation of educational strategy. the results showed improvement in the data pooling ability of students in the experimental group. it is concluded that the strategy put in practice exerted a positive influence.
NURSING PROCESS: A PROPOSAL OF TEACHING THROUGH THE PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING.  [PDF]
Adélia Yaeko Kiosen Nakatani
Revista Eletr?nica de Enfermagem , 2002,
Abstract: The way that teaching has been organized at the schools can represent na obstacle for the acquisition of theabilities to think, to reflect and to make decisions, influencing the coping with practical problems during the NursingProcess. The goal of the present study is to analyze the implementation of a proposal of teaching Nursing Processthrough the Problematical method, particularly through the Arch Method. This is an action-research project,developed at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Goiás, during 1998 and 1999. The subjects weresecond year students of Nursing, attending the course Methodology of Nursing Assistence . To collect the data weuse activity and self-evaluation reports from students, field data and instruments of cognitive, affective andpsychomotor evaluation. The evaluation of the reports was done following the established guidelines for teaching ineach phase, and most of the scores obtained were medium to high (3 to 5), with the exception of the nursingassistance phase evaluation, with scores between 1 and 2. In the affective evaluation the majority of the studentsmentioned that the implementation of the nursing process phases, does not happen as the literature suggests, andmanifested the importance of the Nursing Process to improve the quality of assistance and the desire of use itduring the professional practical. The psychomotor evaluation was performed through physical lunge exam and theimplementation of technical procedures. More than 50% of the students had scores between 4 and 5 in the items ofinspection and auscultation, presenting difficulties to perform the abilities of palpation and percussion. The scoreobtained in the evaluation of procedures implementation ranged from 4 to 5. The cognitive evaluation of theNursing Process phases was realized through a write test with mean grades between 33,4 and 51,4, with amaximum of 100 points. The differences between written evaluation and reports may be due to the type of domainmeasured and/or the strategy of the evaluation. The guidelines made for teaching, the strategies for teaching andfor evaluation, the facilities and difficulties and perceptions pointed out by the research participants in relation to thethematic may be useful to trigger discussions about teaching the Nursing Process. Although we cannot extend theresults of these experiences to others groups, we expect this investigation to be a contribution for professionalsand professors that want to adopt the Problem-based Learning, triggering discussions about the pedagogic project.
E-learning and problem based learning integration in cardiology education  [cached]
Erol Gürp?nar,Ne?e Zayim,?brahim Ba?ar?c?,Filiz Gündüz
Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine students’ satisfaction with an e-learning environment which is developed to support classical problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education and its effect on academic achievement. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, students were provided with a web-based learning environment including learning materials related to objectives of the subject of PBL module, which could be used during independent study period. The study group comprised of all of the second year students (164 students) of Akdeniz University, Medical Faculty, during 2007-2008 education period. In order to gather data about students’ satisfaction with learning environment, a questionnaire was administered to the students. Comparison of students’ academic achievement was based on their performance score in PBL exam. Statistical analyses were performed using unpaired t test and Mann Whitney U test.Results: Findings indicated that 72.6% of the students used e-learning practice. There is no statistically significant difference between mean PBL performance scores of users and non-users of e-learning practice (103.58 vs. 100.88) (t=-0.998, p=0.320). It is found that frequent users of e-learning application had statistically significant higher scores than non-frequent users (106.28 vs. 100.59) (t=-2.373, p=0.01). In addition, 72.6% of the students declared they were satisfied with the application. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the most of the students use e-learning application and are satisfied with it. In addition, it is observed that e-learning application positively affects the academic achievement of the students. This study gains special importance by providing contribution to limited literature in the area of instructional technology in PBL and Cardiology teaching.
The Value of Peer Learning in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Robyn Stone,Simon Cooper,Robyn Cant
ISRN Nursing , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/930901
Abstract: The study examined various methods of peer learning and their effectiveness in undergraduate nursing education. Using a specifically developed search strategy, healthcare databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles, with studies involving peer learning and students in undergraduate general nursing courses (in both clinical and theoretical settings) being included. The studies were published in English between 2001 and 2010. Both study selection and quality analysis were undertaken independently by two researchers using published guidelines and data was thematically analyzed to answer the research questions. Eighteen studies comprising various research methods were included. The variety of terms used for peer learning and variations between study designs and assessment measures affected the reliability of the study. The outcome measures showing improvement in either an objective effect or subjective assessment were considered a positive result with sixteen studies demonstrating positive aspects to peer learning including increased confidence, competence, and a decrease in anxiety. We conclude that peer learning is a rapidly developing aspect of nursing education which has been shown to develop students’ skills in communication, critical thinking, and self-confidence. Peer learning was shown to be as effective as the conventional classroom lecture method in teaching undergraduate nursing students. 1. Introduction Nursing education studies have often focused on traditional teaching methods such as classroom lecture learning, a behaviourism-based teaching method based on passive learning [1]. More effective student-centric learning methods are now being utilized to encourage active student participation and creative thinking [2–4]. One of these methods is peer learning, in which peers learn from one another, involving active student participation and where the student takes responsibility for their learning. Despite being used for many years, one of the barriers to advancement of peer learning is a lack of consistency in its definition [5]. It is known by different interchangeable titles such as “cooperative learning,” “mentoring,” “peer review learning,” “peer coaching,” “peer mentoring,” “problem-based learning,” and “team learning.” Peer learning has been used in education to address critical thinking, psychomotor skills, cognitive development, clinical skills, and academic gains [6–9]. One type of peer learning is problem-based learning (PBL) which is characterized by students learning from each other and from independently sourced
The Pedagogical Enhancement of Open Education: An Examination of Problem-Based Learning  [cached]
Seth Gurell,Yu-Chun Kuo,Andrew Walker
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2010,
Abstract: Open education, as embodied in open educational resources (OER) and OpenCourseWare (OCW), has met and dealt with several key problems. The movement now has a critical mass of available content. Leveraging no small amount of funding and associated development, open education has the tools to collect, disseminate, and support the discovery of open materials. Now that the foundation for openness has been laid, practitioners are experimenting with new kinds of education and pedagogies associated with open content (Weller, 2009; di Savoia, 2009). Problem-based learning is one of many progressive pedagogies that might be combined with open education. This paper defines problem-based learning in the context of open education. Unique challenges are presented and discussed alongside possible solutions, realistic limitations, and calls for implementation in the future to test validity.
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