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The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) as a tool for animal health applications
Gianluca Franceschini,Timothy P. Robinson,Karl Morteo,Dario Dentale
Veterinaria Italiana , 2009,
Abstract: Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA) has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS). GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA), disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.
Mapping the global distribution of trachoma
Polack,Sarah; Brooker,Simon; Kuper,Hannah; Mariotti,Silvio; Mabey,David; Foster,Allen;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005001200013
Abstract: objective: we aimed to summarize and map the existing global population-based data on active trachoma and trichiasis. detailed distribution maps of various infectious diseases have proved a valuable tool in their control. such maps play an important role in assessing the magnitude of the problem, defining priority areas for control, monitoring changes, and advocacy. until now, information on trachoma prevalence at within country levels has not been systematically collated, analysed and reported. methods: we gathered the last 18 years' worth of reported data on active trachoma in children aged less than 10 years, and the last 25 years of reported trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and over from 139 population-based surveys in 33 countries. we collated these data into one database using the "district" (second administrative level) as the standard unit of reporting. we used geographical information systems as a database and cartographic tool to generate a global map of the prevalence of trachoma and trichiasis. findings: we obtained data on active trachoma and trichiasis from 18 countries in the who african region, 6 in the eastern mediterranean region, 3 in the south-east asia region, 3 in the western pacific region and 2 in the region of the americas. in 23 countries suspected of having endemic trachoma no reliable district-level population-based data were available. in china and india, data were limited to a few districts. the data highlighted important regional differences and marked national variations in prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis. conclusion: this is the first attempt to summarize and map the existing population-based data on active trachoma and trichiasis. the lack of data in many countries remains an important obstacle to trachoma control efforts.
Global Climate Change: Role of Livestock  [cached]
S.M.K. Naqvi,V. Sejian
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG) are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related) activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector account for about 25.5% of total global radiative forcing and over 60% of anthropogenic sources. Animal husbandry accounts for 18% of GHG emissions that cause global warming. Reducing the increase of GHG emissions from agriculture, especially livestock production should therefore be a top priority, because it could curb warming fairly rapidly. Among the GHGs, CH4 is considered to be the largest potential contributor to the global warming phenomenon. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. Indian livestock system is a large contributor to GHGs and therefore also to the global warming phenomenon. Methane emission from enteric fermentation from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo) and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.
Global Mapping of Transposon Location  [PDF]
Abram Gabriel ,Johannes Dapprich,Mark Kunkel,David Gresham,Stephen C Pratt,Maitreya J Dunham
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020212
Abstract: Transposable genetic elements are ubiquitous, yet their presence or absence at any given position within a genome can vary between individual cells, tissues, or strains. Transposable elements have profound impacts on host genomes by altering gene expression, assisting in genomic rearrangements, causing insertional mutations, and serving as sources of phenotypic variation. Characterizing a genome's full complement of transposons requires whole genome sequencing, precluding simple studies of the impact of transposition on interindividual variation. Here, we describe a global mapping approach for identifying transposon locations in any genome, using a combination of transposon-specific DNA extraction and microarray-based comparative hybridization analysis. We use this approach to map the repertoire of endogenous transposons in different laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that transposons are a source of extensive genomic variation. We also apply this method to mapping bacterial transposon insertion sites in a yeast genomic library. This unique whole genome view of transposon location will facilitate our exploration of transposon dynamics, as well as defining bases for individual differences and adaptive potential.
Livestock Demand, Global Land Use Changes, and Induced Greenhouse Gas Emissions  [PDF]
Sunil P. Dhoubhadel, Farzad Taheripour, Matthew C. Stockton
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.77087
Abstract:

With increasing global population and income, the demand for livestock products continues to grow and is likely to grow in future as well. This raises concerns about the implications of such growth for the environment. A well-known Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE), GTAP- BIO, is used to project the growth of livestock output between 2004 and 2022 and to estimate the land use changes and associated Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Results indicate that the increased livestock output leads to considerable increase in pasture (about 45 million hectares) and decrease in forest area (about 44 million hectares) between 2004 and 2022. Estimated emissions associated with this change are about 20 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 e) during 2004-2022 or an annual average of 1.1 billion tons. Results also indicate that a significant portion of the emissions (about 11%) can be reduced if consumer preferences could be altered. In practice, this will require policy interventions that promote substitution of non-ruminant for ruminant meat products.

A sufficient condition for global invertibility of Lipschitz mapping  [PDF]
S. Tarasov
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: We show that S.Vavasis' sufficient condition for global invertibility of a polynomial mapping can be easily generalized to the case of a general Lipschitz mapping. Keywords: Invertibility conditions, generalized Jacobian, nonsmooth analysis.
A Basic Strategy to Manage Global Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia  [PDF]
David C. Hall,Quynh Ba Le
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/328307
Abstract: Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health. 1. Introduction In the last two decades, as many countries have broadened their network of trading partners, moved quickly to adopt previously unimagined technologies, and hastened the pace of economic migration, it has become increasingly apparent that health too is a global matter that commands a global perspective. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic (There was and is still disagreement as to whether or not SARS was a pandemic. By the Center for Disease Control (CDC) standards, SARS was a pandemic (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no11/04-0797_02.htm). The simplest WHO definition of a pandemic at the time was “a worldwide epidemic of a disease". Although the World Health Organization (WHO) did indeed declare that we had entered the early phases of a pandemic, the official declaration of the highest stage of a pandemic, Phase 6, was never made) in 2003 accentuated this point, as did the Influenza Type A/H1N1 outbreaks of 2009. But before one jumps to the erroneous conclusion that globalization is the new demon, we need to recall that there have long been global movements of disease with devastating consequences such as the smallpox epidemic brought upon the Aztecs by invading Spanish Conquistadors in the 1500s [1]. No doubt the infrastructural differences in today’s world mean the risk of a pandemic is greater than 500 years ago but so too are our defenses, particularly in terms of scientific technologies, research and knowledge transfer capacity, and institutional coordination. This paper outlines a broad approach to framing a strategy for managing and improving global health. For a global health management strategy to be
Paradoxies of global and individual within the network of discursive mapping  [PDF]
Teodorovi? Jasmina
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/fid1102031t
Abstract: The paper initially establishes the theoretical framework including the crucial notions of the contemporary philosophical and cultural studies the aim of which is to investigate the Global and Individual phenomena. Following the principal tenets of Paul de Man’s tropological approach, the paper also seeks to critically explore theoretical elaborations constituting their own discursive mappings, whereas, at the same time, the latter are subject to the acute critical theoretical endeavours in the context of constructing hyperdiscursive network and spatial logic of the Global, hence totalizing which is precisely to neutralize the Individual. Consequently, by means of their own metadiscursive “schisms”, Foucault’s visibly-invisible interactive relations of power are established, within which the Individual equally constitutes itself as an operational factor of Jameson’s culture as megastructure on the next level of abstraction - cultural selfproduction. The final segment of the paper seeks to highlight the fact that, in the contemporary epoch, discourse coequally constitutes itself as a manipulative factor in Jameson’s “New World System” and Baudrillard’s “fatal strategies of seduction”. Henceforth, within the contemporary discursive mapping establishing itself as a paraliterature in its own right, there remains the issue as to what extent the metastasis of the Global conditions the metastasis of the Individual, and vice versa.
Spatial and Seasonal Dynamic of Abundance and Distribution of Guanaco and Livestock: Insights from Using Density Surface and Null Models  [PDF]
Natalia M. Schroeder, Silvia D. Matteucci, Pablo G. Moreno, Pablo Gregorio, Ramiro Ovejero, Paula Taraborelli, Pablo D. Carmanchahi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085960
Abstract: Monitoring species abundance and distribution is a prerequisite when assessing species status and population viability, a difficult task to achieve for large herbivores at ecologically meaningful scales. Co-occurrence patterns can be used to infer mechanisms of community organization (such as biotic interactions), although it has been traditionally applied to binary presence/absence data. Here, we combine density surface and null models of abundance data as a novel approach to analyze the spatial and seasonal dynamics of abundance and distribution of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and domestic herbivores in northern Patagonia, in order to visually and analytically compare the dispersion and co-occurrence pattern of ungulates. We found a marked seasonal pattern in abundance and spatial distribution of L. guanicoe. The guanaco population reached its maximum annual size and spatial dispersion in spring-summer, decreasing up to 6.5 times in size and occupying few sites of the study area in fall-winter. These results are evidence of the seasonal migration process of guanaco populations, an increasingly rare event for terrestrial mammals worldwide. The maximum number of guanacos estimated for spring (25951) is higher than the total population size (10000) 20 years ago, probably due to both counting methodology and population growth. Livestock were mostly distributed near human settlements, as expected by the sedentary management practiced by local people. Herbivore distribution was non-random; i.e., guanaco and livestock abundances co-varied negatively in all seasons, more than expected by chance. Segregation degree of guanaco and small-livestock (goats and sheep) was comparatively stronger than that of guanaco and large-livestock, suggesting a competition mechanism between ecologically similar herbivores, although various environmental factors could also contribute to habitat segregation. The new and compelling combination of methods used here is highly useful for researchers who conduct counts of animals to simultaneously estimate population sizes, distributions, assess temporal trends and characterize multi-species spatial interactions.
Mapping the Global Distribution of Trachoma: Why an Updated Atlas Is Needed  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Smith ,Danny Haddad,Sarah Polack,Emma M. Harding-Esch,Pamela J. Hooper,David C. Mabey,Anthony W. Solomon,Simon Brooker
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000973
Abstract:
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