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Psychometric Properties of Turkish Version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire among Adolescents with Gender Differences  [PDF]
Ay?e Rezan, ?e?en Erogul
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.310138
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and its subscales among adolescents. The participants consisted of 1275 high school students (14 - 19 years) with a mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.01). The confirmatory factor analysis has revealed that CTQ has three subscale (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse). Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was .91, for physical abuse .84, for emotional abuse .89, for sexaul abuse .70. The test-retest correlation coefficient for the total score (n = 65) was .81, for physical abuse .82, for emotional abuse .80, and sexual abuse .75 at 3 weeks indicating adequate reliability. Discriminant validity was satisfactory. The results of the study have shown that the Turkish version of CTQ psychometrically sound among high school students.
Tradu??o e valida??o de conteúdo da vers?o em português do Childhood Trauma Questionnaire
Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo; Stein,Lilian Milnitsky; Pezzi,Júlio Carlos;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000200010
Abstract: objective: the childhood trauma questionnaire is a self-applied instrument for adolescents and adults to assess childhood abuse. the objective was to translate, adapt and validate the questionnaire content into a portuguese language version called questionário sobre traumas na infancia. methods: the translation and adaptation into portuguese was carried out in five steps: (1) translation; (2) back translation; (3) correction and semantic adaptation; (4) content validation by professional experts (judges); and (5) a final critical assessment by the target population using a verbal rating scale. results: the translated and adapted 28-item portuguese version of the scale and instructions produced an instrument called questionário sobre traumas na infancia. in the assessment by the target population, 32 adult users of the brazilian unified health system answered the questionnaire and showed good understanding of the instrument (mean=4.86±0.27) in the verbal rating scale. conclusion: the questionnaire's portuguese version proved to be easily understandable showing good semantic validation. nevertheless, further studies should address other psychometric characteristics of this instrument.
Tradu o e valida o de conteúdo da vers o em português do Childhood Trauma Questionnaire  [cached]
Grassi-Oliveira Rodrigo,Stein Lilian Milnitsky,Pezzi Júlio Carlos
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: O Childhood Trauma Questionnaire é um instrumento auto-aplicável em adolescentes e adultos que investigam história de abuso e negligência durante a infancia. O objetivo do trabalho foi de traduzir, adaptar e validar o conteúdo do questionário para uma vers o em português denominada Questionário Sobre Traumas na Infancia. MéTODOS: O processo de tradu o e adapta o envolveu cinco etapas: (1) tradu o; (2) retradu o; (3) corre o e adapta o semantica; (4) valida o do conteúdo por profissionais da área (juízes) e (5) avalia o por amostra da popula o-alvo, por intermédio de uma escala verbal-numérica. RESULTADOS: As 28 quest es e as instru es iniciais traduzidas e adaptadas criaram o Questionário Sobre Traumas na Infancia. Na avalia o pela popula o-alvo, 32 usuários adultos do Sistema único de Saúde responderam a avalia o, com boa compreens o do instrumento na escala verbal-numérica (média=4,86?0,27). CONCLUS ES: A vers o mostrou ser de fácil compreens o obtendo-se adequada valida o semantica. Entretanto, ainda carece de estudos que avaliem outras qualidades psicométricas.
Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study
Matthias Majer, Urs M Nater, Jin-Mann S Lin, Lucile Capuron, William C Reeves
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-61
Abstract: In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income).Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01.Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.Traumatic experiences early in life, such as child abuse, neglect and parental loss, are major risk factors for the development of a range of psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) [1-3]. There is ample evidence from animal models and human studies that adverse experience early in life, during periods of heightened brain plasticity, permanently programs the development of multiple brain circuits involved in the processing of environmental stimuli and the regulation of behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine responses to stress [4]. Studies in humans have shown that several cardinal biological features of depression or
Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women
Zyrhea CE Troeman, Georgina Spies, Mariana Cherner, Sarah L Archibald, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Rebecca J Theilmann, Bruce Spottiswoode, Dan J Stein, Soraya Seedat
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-84
Abstract: The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count.In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.South Africa is a country severely affected by the AIDS epidemic, with one of the highest rates of HIV infections in the world [1]. The number of premature AIDS related deaths has risen significantly over the last 10 years from 39% to 75% in 2010 [2], resulting in HIV/AIDS being a major, if not principal contributory factor in the overall rising number of deaths. In 2009, UNAIDS estimated the total number of people in South Africa living with HIV to be 5.7 million [3]. It is well known that South African women are disproportionately affected by the disease. 55% of infections were in women, especially women between the ages of 25 and 29 years old, reflected by an HIV prevalence of approximately 40% for this age group [4].A women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is largely attributable not on
Affect-Modulated Startle: Interactive Influence of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype and Childhood Trauma  [PDF]
Benedikt Klauke, Bernward Winter, Agnes Gajewska, Peter Zwanzger, Andreas Reif, Martin J. Herrmann, Andrea Dlugos, Bodo Warrings, Christian Jacob, Andreas Mühlberger, Volker Arolt, Paul Pauli, Jürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039709
Abstract: The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system – partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation – for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design) and childhood maltreatment (CTQ) as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.
Epidemiological findings of ocular trauma in childhood
Cariello, Angelino Julio;Moraes, Nilva Simerem Bueno;Mitne, Somaia;Oita, Celina Shizuka;Fontes, Bruno Machado;Melo Jr, Luiz Alberto Soares;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492007000200015
Abstract: purpose: to describe epidemiological findings of ocular trauma in childhood in an emergency unit. methods: a retrospective study was carried out including patients under 16 years old who were treated for ocular trauma at the emergency unit of the federal university of s?o paulo from september 2001 to september 2004. age, sex, involved eye, place, circumstance and mechanism of injury, initial visual acuity and immediate management were recorded. results: a total of 273 patients were included in the study. the age group comprising most cases was 7 to 10 years (39.9%). the most frequent cause of ocular injury was traumatism by external agents like stone, iron and wood objects (27.9%). the commonest place was the home (53.1%). initial visual acuity was over 20/40 in 63.4% of cases. closed globe injury occurred in 201 (73.6%) accidents. seventy-six children (27. 8%) were treated with medicines and in forty-eight (17.6%) cases surgery was necessary. conclusion: ocular trauma in childhood was more frequent in the male schoolchild and was due mostly to traumatism with agents like stone, wood and iron pieces, domestic utensils and leisure objects. the injuries occurred most frequently at home. closed globe injuries predominated. programs of education and prevention for ocular trauma in childhood are necessary.
The Influence of Motherhood on the Emergence of Trauma Symptoms in Two Cases with Childhood Sexual Trauma
Ejder Akgün YILDIRIM,Peykan G?KALP,Münevver HACIO?LU,Yunus Emre KO?AK
N?ropsikiyatri Ar?ivi , 2010,
Abstract: Trauma history is not uncommon in patients with sexual problems. Trauma is experienced as a sexual secret. In this paper, two cases with sexual problems are presented, who are survivors of childhood sexual trauma. Similarity between these cases is that the worries about their children play an important role on the emergence of the symptoms of the childhood trauma. Case A was a 34-year-old mother of two children. She had been sexually abused by her brother when she was 12. She had sexual desire and arousal disorders, which started after her worries about a probable similar situation between her children. Case B was a 30-year-old mother of two children. She was sexually abused by a neighbor from 5 years of age until adolescence. Complaints of lack of sexual desire and aversion started when her daughter was 5. PTSD symptoms were related to their childhood sexual trauma in both cases. The aim of this report is to discuss the influence of motherhood on the appearance of trauma symptoms in women with childhood sexual trauma and to emphasize the presence of sexual trauma and sexual secrets. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 174-7)
A Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) - 12
Adam B Smith, Lesley J Fallowfield, Dan P Stark, Galina Velikova, Valerie Jenkins
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-45
Abstract: The data were drawn from a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. The Partial Credit Model (Rasch) was applied to the 12-item GHQ. Item misfit (infit mean square ≥ 1.3) was identified, misfitting items removed and unidimensionality and differential item functioning (age, gender, and treatment aims) were assessed. The factor structures of the various alternative models proposed in the literature were explored and optimum model fit evaluated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis.The Rasch analysis of the 12-item GHQ identified six misfitting items. Removal of these items produced a six-item instrument which was not unidimensional. The Rasch analysis of an 8-item GHQ demonstrated two unidimensional structures corresponding to Anxiety/Depression and Social Dysfunction. No significant differential item functioning was observed by age, gender and treatment aims for the six- and eight-item GHQ. Two models competed for best fit from the confirmatory factor analysis, namely the GHQ-8 and Hankin's (2008) unidimensional model, however, the GHQ-8 produced the best overall fit statistics.The results are consistent with the evidence that the GHQ-12 is a multi-dimensional instrument. Use of the summated scores for the GHQ-12 could potentially lead to an incorrect assessment of patients' psychiatric morbidity. Further evaluation of the GHQ-12 with different target populations is warranted.The General Health Questionnaire belongs to a family of instruments for assessing psychiatric morbidity in both community and non-psychiatric settings [1]. The original General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) comprised 60 items and versions with fewer items have been developed from this, e.g. the GHQ - 30, GHQ - 28 and GHQ- 12 [1,2]. The GHQ -12 is a brief, well validated instrument [3], yet despite its brevity there has been considerable debate in the literature regarding the dimensionality of the instrument. Although originally intended as a unidimensional instrument, a number of exploratory and
Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire  [cached]
Shahrum Vahedi,Farahman Farrokhi,Ali Mahdavi,Samad Moradi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Objective:The present study aimed at validating the structure of Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ).Methods: Five hundred and eleven undergraduate students took part in this research; from these participants, 63 males and 200 females took part in the first study, and 63 males and 185 females completed the survey for the second study.Results:The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated strong support for the three-factor structure, consisting of lack of information about the self, inconsistent information, lack of information and lack of readiness factors. A confirmatory factor analysis was run with the second sample using structural equation modeling. As expected, the three-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models. Conclusion: CDDQ was recommended to be used for college students in this study due to the fact that this instrument measures all three aspects of the model. Future research is needed to learn whether this model would fit other different samples.
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