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BST2/Tetherin Enhances Entry of Human Cytomegalovirus  [PDF]
Kasinath Viswanathan,M. Shane Smith,Daniel Malouli,Mandana Mansouri,Jay A. Nelson,Klaus Früh
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002332
Abstract: Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.
Aberrant Regulation of the BST2 (Tetherin) Promoter Enhances Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Evasion in High Grade Breast Cancer Cells  [PDF]
Aejaz Sayeed, Gloria Luciani-Torres, Zhenhang Meng, James L. Bennington, Dan H. Moore, Shanaz H. Dairkee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067191
Abstract: Normal cellular phenotypes that serve an oncogenic function during tumorigenesis are potential candidates for cancer targeting drugs. Within a subset of invasive primary breast carcinoma, we observed relatively abundant expression of Tetherin, a cell surface protein encoded by the Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen (BST2) known to play an inhibitory role in viral release from infected immune cells of the host. Using breast cancer cell lines derived from low and intermediate histopathologic grade invasive primary tumors that maintain growth-suppressive TGFβ signaling, we demonstrate that BST2 is negatively regulated by the TGFβ axis in epithelial cells. Binding of the transcription factor AP2 to the BST2 promoter was attenuated by inhibition of the TGFβ pathway thereby increasing BST2 expression in tumor cells. In contrast, inherent TGFβ resistance characteristic of high grade breast tumors is a key factor underlying compromised BST2 regulation, and consequently its constitutive overexpression relative to non-malignant breast epithelium, and to most low and intermediate grade cancer cells. In both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional growth conditions, BST2-silenced tumor cells displayed an enhancement in tamoxifen or staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death together with a reduction in the S-phase fraction compared to BST2 overexpressing counterparts. In a subset of breast cancer patients treated with pro apoptotic hormonal therapy, BST2 expression correlated with a trend for poor clinical outcome, further supporting its role in conferring an anti apoptotic phenotype. Similar to the effects of gene manipulation, declining levels of endogenous BST2 induced by the phytoalexin – resveratrol, restored apoptotic function, and curbed cell proliferation. We provide evidence for a direct approach that diminishes aberrant BST2 expression in cancer cells as an early targeting strategy to assist in surmounting resistance to pro apoptotic therapies.
Modulation of Acetylation: Creating a Pro-survival and Anti-Inflammatory Phenotype in Lethal Hemorrhagic and Septic Shock
Yongqing Li,Hasan B. Alam
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/523481
Abstract: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in homeostasis of protein acetylation in histone and nonhistone proteins and in regulating fundamental cellular activities. In this paper we review and discuss intriguing recent developments in the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to combat some critical conditions in an animal model of hemorrhagic and septic shock. HDACIs have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, renal-protective, and anti-inflammatory properties; survival improvements have been significantly shown in these models. We discuss the targets and mechanisms underlying these effects of HDACIs and comment on the potential new clinical applications for these agents in the future. This paper highlights the emerging roles of HDACIs as acetylation modulators in models of hemorrhagic and septic shock and explains some contradictions encountered in previous studies.
BST2/Tetherin Inhibits Dengue Virus Release from Human Hepatoma Cells  [PDF]
Xiao-Ben Pan, Jin-Chao Han, Xu Cong, Lai Wei
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051033
Abstract: Type I interferons (IFN) have been shown to play an important role for inhibiting Dengue virus (DENV) infection. Identifying IFN-induced cellular proteins are essential for understanding its mechanisms against DENV. Here we established stable Huh7-derived cell lines expressing the IFN-induced cell membrane protein BST2 (Huh7-BST2) or its variant bearing a V5 tag at the C-terminal (Huh7-BST5CV5). These cell lines were infected with DENV to determine proteins modulating their anti-DENV response. We found that expression of BST2 did not affect the efficiency of DENV infection and intracellular replication. Rather, it significantly reduced the virion yield of the infected cells, particularly at low MOI infection. In addition, BST2 also decreased the foci formation and the size of infectious foci in cultured Huh7 monolayers with media containing methocellulose. The addition of the V5 tag at C-terminal inhibited the GPI modification of BST2 and blocked its shift from endoplasm to cytoplastic membrane. BST2CV5 did not affect DENV infection and foci formation in Huh7 cells but reduced virion yield by 1 log at low MOI infection. Interestingly, intracellular BST2CV5 expression was reduced by high level of DENV production. Conclusion Our results imply that BST2 is a functional mediator of the IFN response against DENV infection. BST2 inhibits the release of DENV virions from Huh7 cells and limits viral cell-to-cell transmission. BST2CV5 variant is unable to inhibit DENV release but impairs viral infection in cells.
Differential Acetylation of Histone H3 at the Regulatory Region of OsDREB1b Promoter Facilitates Chromatin Remodelling and Transcription Activation during Cold Stress  [PDF]
Dipan Roy, Amit Paul, Adrita Roy, Ritesh Ghosh, Payel Ganguly, Shubho Chaudhuri
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100343
Abstract: The rice ortholog of DREB1, OsDREB1b, is transcriptionally induced by cold stress and over-expression of OsDREB1b results in increase tolerance towards high salt and freezing stress. This spatio-temporal expression of OsDREB1b is preceded by the change in chromatin structure at the promoter and the upstream region for gene activation. The promoter and the upstream region of OsDREB1b genes appear to be arranged into a nucleosome array. Nucleosome mapping of ~700bp upstream region of OsDREB1b shows two positioned nucleosomes between ?610 to ?258 and a weakly positioned nucleosome at the core promoter and the TSS. Upon cold stress, there is a significant change in the nucleosome arrangement at the upstream region with increase in DNaseI hypersensitivity or MNase digestion in the vicinity of cis elements and TATA box at the core promoter. ChIP assays shows hyper-acetylation of histone H3K9 throughout the locus whereas region specific increase was observed in H3K14ac and H3K27ac. Moreover, there is an enrichment of RNA PolII occupancy at the promoter region during transcription activation. There is no significant change in the H3 occupancy in OsDREB1b locus negating the possibility of nucleosome loss during cold stress. Interestingly, cold induced enhanced transcript level of OsDREB1b as well as histone H3 acetylation at the upstream region was found to diminish when stressed plants were returned to normal temperature. The result indicates absolute necessity of changes in chromatin conformation for the transcription up-regulation of OsDREB1b gene in response to cold stress. The combined results show the existence of closed chromatin conformation at the upstream and promoter region of OsDREB1b in the transcription “off” state. During cold stress, changes in region specific histone modification marks promote the alteration of chromatin structure to facilitate the binding of transcription machinery for proper gene expression.
ISWI Remodelling of Physiological Chromatin Fibres Acetylated at Lysine 16 of Histone H4  [PDF]
Henrike Klinker, Felix Mueller-Planitz, Renliang Yang, Ignasi Forné, Chuan-Fa Liu, Lars Nordenski?ld, Peter B. Becker
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088411
Abstract: ISWI is the catalytic subunit of several ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling factors that catalyse the sliding of nucleosomes along DNA and thereby endow chromatin with structural flexibility. Full activity of ISWI requires residues of a basic patch of amino acids in the N-terminal ‘tail’ of histone H4. Previous studies employing oligopeptides and mononucleosomes suggested that acetylation of the H4 tail at lysine 16 (H4K16) within the basic patch may inhibit the activity of ISWI. On the other hand, the acetylation of H4K16 is known to decompact chromatin fibres. Conceivably, decompaction may enhance the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA and the H4 tail for ISWI interactions. Such an effect can only be evaluated at the level of nucleosome arrays. We probed the influence of H4K16 acetylation on the ATPase and nucleosome sliding activity of Drosophila ISWI in the context of defined, in vitro reconstituted chromatin fibres with physiological nucleosome spacing and linker histone content. Contrary to widespread expectations, the acetylation did not inhibit ISWI activity, but rather stimulated ISWI remodelling under certain conditions. Therefore, the effect of H4K16 acetylation on ISWI remodelling depends on the precise nature of the substrate.
Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis
Dongqing Cai, Jie Cao, Zhen Li, Xin Zheng, Yao Yao, Wanglin Li, Ziqiang Yuan
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-102
Abstract: cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis.The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues by real time RT-PCR, Western blot and TMA. Furthermore, serum levels of BST2 measured by ELISA were also significantly higher among patients with breast cancer metastatic to bone compared to breast cancer patients without metastatic to bone (P < .0001). Most importantly, the breast cancer cell line that transfected with BST2 demonstrated increased BST2 expressions, which was associated with increased cancer cell migration and cell proliferation.These results p
Site-specific acetylation of ISWI by GCN5
Roger Ferreira, Anton Eberharter, Tiziana Bonaldi, Mariacristina Chioda, Axel Imhof, Peter B Becker
BMC Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-8-73
Abstract: We found further diversification of remodelling factors by posttranslational modification. The histone acetyltransferase GCN5 can acetylate the Drosophila remodelling ATPase ISWI at a single, conserved lysine, K753, in vivo and in vitro. The target sequence is strikingly similar to the N-terminus of histone H3, where the corresponding lysine, H3K14, can also be acetylated by GCN5. The acetylated form of ISWI represents a minor species presumably associated with the nucleosome remodelling factor NURF.Acetylation of histone H3 and ISWI by GCN5 is explained by the sequence similarity between the histone and ISWI around the acetylation site. The common motif RKT/SxGx(Kac)xPR/K differs from the previously suggested GCN5/PCAF recognition motif GKxxP. This raises the possibility of co-regulation of a nucleosome remodelling factor and its nucleosome substrate through acetylation of related epitopes and suggests a direct crosstalk between two distinct nucleosome modification principles.Disruption of DNA-histone interactions by nucleosome remodelling ATPases may lead to a variety of transitions of chromatin structure, such as the partial or complete disassembly of nucleosomes, the exchange of histones, or the sliding of intact histone octamers on DNA [1-4]. In many cases their activity is focused on local disruption of the nucleosomal fibre through recruitment of DNA-binding regulators to promote access of factors further downstream in the cascade of events that leads to promoter opening [2]. However, genome-wide processes like replication, DNA damage responses or homologous recombination require chromatin to be dynamic on a global scale. In addition to generating local access to nucleosomal DNA, nucleosome disruption may also have profound consequences for the folding of the nucleosomal fibre into higher order structures [5,6].One largely unresolved issue to date is how the activity of chromatin remodelling enzymes is regulated. Established regulatory principles that govern,
Mitochondrial Acetylation and Diseases of Aging
Gregory R. Wagner,R. Mark Payne
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/234875
Abstract: In recent years, protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a prominent and conserved regulatory posttranslational modification that is abundant on numerous enzymes involved in the processes of intermediary metabolism. Well-characterized mitochondrial processes of carbon utilization are enriched in acetyl-lysine modifications. Although seminal discoveries have been made in the basic biology of mitochondrial acetylation, an understanding of how acetylation states influence enzyme function and metabolic reprogramming during pathological states remains largely unknown. This paper will examine our current understanding of eukaryotic acetate metabolism and present recent findings in the field of mitochondrial acetylation biology. The implications of mitochondrial acetylation for the aging process will be discussed, as well as its potential implications for the unique and localized metabolic states that occur during the aging-associated conditions of heart failure and cancer growth.
Maxillary Mucocele with Orbital Floor Remodelling
Tahrina Salam,Maryam Zamani,Jane Olver
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/439541
Abstract: A 79-year-old man presents with signs of an orbital mass. A CT scan revealed a large maxillary mucocele eroding through the orbital floor. Surgical drainage of the mucocele and conservative postoperative care, returned all ophthalmic signs to normal and bony remodelling of the orbital floor was demonstrated. Maxillary mucoceles should be assessed by both ENT and Ophthalmic surgeons. Postoperative remodelling of the orbital floor can be illustrated with serial CT Scans.
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