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Interdependence and Predictability of Human Mobility and Social Interactions  [PDF]
Manlio De Domenico,Antonio Lima,Mirco Musolesi
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that human movement is predictable to a certain extent at different geographic scales. Existing prediction techniques exploit only the past history of the person taken into consideration as input of the predictors. In this paper, we show that by means of multivariate nonlinear time series prediction techniques it is possible to increase the forecasting accuracy by considering movements of friends, people, or more in general entities, with correlated mobility patterns (i.e., characterised by high mutual information) as inputs. Finally, we evaluate the proposed techniques on the Nokia Mobile Data Challenge and Cabspotting datasets.
Intra-Urban Human Mobility and Activity Transition: Evidence from Social Media Check-In Data  [PDF]
Lun Wu, Ye Zhi, Zhengwei Sui, Yu Liu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097010
Abstract: Most existing human mobility literature focuses on exterior characteristics of movements but neglects activities, the driving force that underlies human movements. In this research, we combine activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach to model the intra-urban human mobility observed from about 15 million check-in records during a yearlong period in Shanghai, China. The proposed model is activity-based and includes two parts: the transition of travel demands during a specific time period and the movement between locations. For the first part, we find the transition probability between activities varies over time, and then we construct a temporal transition probability matrix to represent the transition probability of travel demands during a time interval. For the second part, we suggest that the travel demands can be divided into two classes, locationally mandatory activity (LMA) and locationally stochastic activity (LSA), according to whether the demand is associated with fixed location or not. By judging the combination of predecessor activity type and successor activity type we determine three trip patterns, each associated with a different decay parameter. To validate the model, we adopt the mechanism of an agent-based model and compare the simulated results with the observed pattern from the displacement distance distribution, the spatio-temporal distribution of activities, and the temporal distribution of travel demand transitions. The results show that the simulated patterns fit the observed data well, indicating that these findings open new directions for combining activity-based analysis with a movement-based approach using social media check-in data.
An Analysis of Interactions Within and Between Extreme Right Communities in Social Media  [PDF]
Derek O'Callaghan,Derek Greene,Maura Conway,Joe Carthy,Pádraig Cunningham
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Many extreme right groups have had an online presence for some time through the use of dedicated websites. This has been accompanied by increased activity in social media platforms in recent years, enabling the dissemination of extreme right content to a wider audience. In this paper, we present an analysis of the activity of a selection of such groups on Twitter, using network representations based on reciprocal follower and interaction relationships, while also analyzing topics found in their corresponding tweets. International relationships between certain extreme right groups across geopolitical boundaries are initially identified. Furthermore, we also discover stable communities of accounts within local interaction networks, in addition to associated topics, where the underlying extreme right ideology of these communities is often identifiable.
Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties  [PDF]
Jameson L. Toole,Carlos Herrera-Yague,Christian M. Schneider,Marta C. Gonzalez
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behavior. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare it's ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility.
Social media fingerprints of unemployment  [PDF]
Alejandro Llorente,Manuel Garcia-Herranz,Manuel Cebrian,Esteban Moro
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Recent wide-spread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and inter-personal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 145 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.
Fungible dynamics: there are only two types of entangling multiple-qubit interactions  [PDF]
Michael J. Bremner,Jennifer L. Dodd,Michael A. Nielsen,Dave Bacon
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.012313
Abstract: What interactions are sufficient to simulate arbitrary quantum dynamics in a composite quantum system? It has been shown that all two-body Hamiltonian evolutions can be simulated using \emph{any} fixed two-body entangling $n$-qubit Hamiltonian and fast local unitaries. By \emph{entangling} we mean that every qubit is coupled to every other qubit, if not directly, then indirectly via intermediate qubits. We extend this study to the case where interactions may involve more than two qubits at a time. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary $n$-qubit Hamiltonian to be \emph{dynamically universal}, that is, able to simulate any other Hamiltonian acting on $n$ qubits, possibly in an inefficient manner. We prove that an entangling Hamiltonian is dynamically universal if and only if it contains at least one coupling term involving an \emph{even} number of interacting qubits. For \emph{odd} entangling Hamiltonians, i.e., Hamiltonians with couplings that involve only an odd number of qubits, we prove that dynamic universality is possible on an encoded set of $n-1$ logical qubits. We further prove that an odd entangling Hamiltonian can simulate any other odd Hamiltonian and classify the algebras that such Hamiltonians generate. Thus, our results show that up to local unitary operations, there are only two fundamentally different types of entangling Hamiltonian on $n$ qubits. We also demonstrate that, provided the number of qubits directly coupled by the Hamiltonian is bounded above by a constant, our techniques can be made efficient.
Identify the Success Factors of Social Media (Marketing Perspective)  [cached]
Mahmoud Mohammadian,Marjan Mohammadreza
International Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ibm.1923842820120402.1120
Abstract: The social media of an organization helps marketing managers establish a long lasting relationship and powerful interactions with their customers. These interactions help them determine customers’ needs and provide products according to them. Therefore, this process results in increased sales, profitability and strengthening their brand name. So an organization’s social media must be able to attract customers and harmonize them with organization’s activity. In the current study we tried to determine the social media success factors from the viewpoint of Iranian audience. The researcher while checking the national and international scientific sources couldn’t find any evidence of a social media success factor’s model. So we tried to provide a model for social media success factors. The researcher made this model with focus on Allameh Tabatabai university students, through questionnaire, factor analysis and structural models. Results showed that security, attractive content, reputation, interaction and communication factors have positive influence on social media success. Key words: Media; Social media; Social media marketing; The success of social media
Signed Networks in Social Media  [PDF]
Jure Leskovec,Daniel Huttenlocher,Jon Kleinberg
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe --- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as well as providing a perspective for reasoning about social media sites.
Social mobility and fertility  [cached]
Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna
Demographic Research , 2007,
Abstract: Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1) intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2) status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries). Therefore, the provocative idea of Ari ¨s that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.
Explore Spatiotemporal and Demographic Characteristics of Human Mobility via Twitter: A Case Study of Chicago  [PDF]
Feixiong Luo,Guofeng Cao,Kevin Mulligan,Xiang Li
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Characterizing human mobility patterns is essential for understanding human behaviors and the interactions with socioeconomic and natural environment. With the continuing advancement of location and Web 2.0 technologies, location-based social media (LBSM) have been gaining widespread popularity in the past few years. With an access to locations of users, profiles and the contents of the social media posts, the LBSM data provided a novel modality of data source for human mobility study. By exploiting the explicit location footprints and mining the latent demographic information implied in the LBSM data, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of human mobility with a particular focus on the impact of demography. We first collect geo-tagged Twitter feeds posted in the conterminous United States area, and organize the collection of feeds using the concept of space-time trajectory corresponding to each Twitter user. Commonly human mobility measures, including detected home and activity centers, are derived for each user trajectory. We then select a subset of Twitter users that have detected home locations in the city of Chicago as a case study, and apply name analysis to the names provided in user profiles to learn the implicit demographic information of Twitter users, including race/ethnicity, gender and age. Finally we explore the spatiotemporal distribution and mobility characteristics of Chicago Twitter users, and investigate the demographic impact by comparing the differences across three demographic dimensions (race/ethnicity, gender and age). We found that, although the human mobility measures of different demographic groups generally follow the generic laws (e.g., power law distribution), the demographic information, particular the race/ethnicity group, significantly affects the urban human mobility patterns.
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