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Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion
Ben Y Reis, John S Brownstein
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-514
Abstract: As a test use case, we studied the relationships between abortion-related search volume, local abortion rates, and local abortion policies available for study.Our initial integrative analysis found that, both in the US and internationally, the volume of Internet searches for abortion is inversely proportional to local abortion rates and directly proportional to local restrictions on abortion.These findings are consistent with published evidence that local restrictions on abortion lead individuals to seek abortion services outside of their area. Further validation of these methods has the potential to produce a timely, complementary data source for studying the effects of health policies.Traditional health surveillance techniques are limited in their abilities to measure the impact of health policies in a timely and geographically comprehensive fashion. Emerging surveillance approaches that track patterns of online searches have the potential to provide timely global population health monitoring across a range of health indicators [1]. These search data are currently being used to detect and monitor emerging infectious diseases, including influenza [2-5]. We propose that these data can also be used more broadly to study the impact of public health policies at fine geographic scales and with fewer delays in data collection.As an example of the potential value of search query data, we focus on the relationship between local abortion policies and local abortion rates, both in the US and internationally. Abortion policies and their effects have been widely researched, and their impact continues to be intensely debated around the world. Major issues include differences in ethical and cultural approaches towards abortion and concerns about patient safety [6-10]. The potential to measure the relationships between local policy decisions and local abortion rates in a more efficient manner could have significant implications for public health planning, monitoring and intervent
LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS
DRITAN SHORAJ,DORINA ZENELAJ
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.
Post abortion family planning counseling as a tool to increase contraception use
Ali Ceylan, Meliksah Ertem, Gunay Saka, Nurten Akdeniz
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-20
Abstract: The Diyarbakir Office of Turkish Family Planning Association (DTFPA) is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization which runs a family planning clinic to serve the lower socio-economic populations, in Diyarbakir-Turkey. Post abortion counseling is introduced by using proper communication skills and with using appropriate methods to women. In this study we introduced contraceptive usage of women who had induced abortion one year ago and followed by DTFPA's clinic.55.3% of our clients were not using contraceptive methods before abortion. At the end of the one year, 75.9% of our followed-up clients revealed that they were using one of the modern contraceptive methods. There was no woman with IUD before induced abortion. At the end of one year 124 (52.3%) women had IUD. "A modern method was introduced immediately after abortion" was the most important factor increasing modern method usage.Our results advocate that post-abortion counseling may be an effective tool to increase the usage of contraceptives. Improved and more qualified post-abortion family planning counseling should be an integral part of abortion services.The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, worldwide, almost 20 million unsafe abortions take place each year, with 95% of these performed in developing countries. About 80,000 maternal deaths per year are thought to be due to abortion complications, accounting for about 13% of all maternal deaths in the world, one in eight pregnancy-related deaths [1]. An estimated 123 million couples, mainly in developing countries, do not use contraceptives, despite wanting to space or limit their childbearing [2]. Post-abortion counseling incorporated into post abortion care has been regarded as an appropriate venue or vehicle to decrease unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions [3].Abortion services have been readily available in Turkey since 1983, when it was first legalized. According to the family planning law (1983), induced abortions can be performed
Abortion and Unmet Need for Contraception in Nigeria the Effects of Abortion and Contraception Policies on the Incidence of Unintended Pregnancy among Adolescents in an Urban Area of South-West, Nigeria
O.L.A. Tolulope Monisola
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study is an investigation of the effects of abortion and contraception policies in Nigeria on adolescents` unintended pregnancy in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 80 adolescent abortion patients supplemented with key informants interviews and clinical findings in five privately owned health institutions in Ado-Ekiti. Findings of the study revealed that majority (82%) of the patients did not use any method to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Furthermore, abortions were induced majorly by the use of synthetic/hormonal drugs and injections prescribed by chemists, peers and nurses while few of them reported having the abortions induced by dilation and curettage in other privately-owned hospitals not included in this study. It was revealed in this study that despite the fact that abortion is highly restricted in Nigeria, it takes place in large numbers under both safe and unsafe conditions.
The abortion culture issue in Serbia  [PDF]
Ra?evi? Mirjana,Sedlecki Katarina
Stanovni?tvo , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/stnv1101001r
Abstract: The problem of a large number of abortions in our country was first pointed out as far back as 1935 at the 17th Congress of Yugoslav Physicians. The abortion problem in Serbia is still present today, even though modern science has provided new methods and means which are a logical solution to the dilemma on birth control methods from the health and social aspect. Namely, total abortion rate in Serbia was estimated at 2.76 in the year 2007. It is very high; double the number of the total fertility rate and among the highest in Europe and the world. The term abortion culture was first used, as far as we know, by Henry David in the introduction of the book From Abortion to Contraception - A Resource to Public Policies and Reproductive Behavior in Central and Eastern Europe from 1917 to the Present in 1999, without specifically determining it. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important factors of the deterministic basis of endemic induced abortions in Serbia together with indirectly estimating their connection with the existence, namely nonexistence, of the abortion culture in our country. In that sense, potential factors of abortion incidence in Serbia which emerge from the social system and those connected to the individual level have been considered. In other words, a series of laws and other legal and political documents have been analyzed which are significant for perceiving the abortion matter, as well as institutional frameworks for family planning, health services, educating the youth regarding reproductive health, including findings of numerous researches carried out among women of various age and doctors from 1990 till present day in Serbia. The following most significant factors for the long duration of the abortion problem have been singled out: insufficient knowledge of modern contraception, a belief that modern contraceptive methods are harmful to health and a number of psychological barriers as well as those arising from relationships with partners. Gynecological attitudes about modern contraception and behavior do not differ significantly from the rest of the population. Additionally, there are few organized efforts to promote sex education, as well as limitations in the family planning programme. Distinguished macro and micro factors of traditional birth control in Serbia confirm the existence of the abortion culture. The nature of these factors though, indicate to the presence of the abortion culture in our country on the political, educational, health and individual level. The abortion culture obstructs the adoption of a mode
Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Bangladesh Economy
Md. Alauddin Majumder
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This research work has been undertaken with a view to ascertaining the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies in Bangladesh economy analyzing the data for the period from 1973-74 to 1999-2000. The results of the study indicates that in our economy fiscal policy is more effective and faster as well than monetary policy. Thus the economist`s statements regarding the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy has been proved true in the case of our country. The same results are expected to hold in the case of all countries like that of ours.
Anti-abortion Policies in Late Ottoman Empire and Early Republican Turkey: Intervention of State on Women’s Body and Reproductivity  [PDF]
Ece Cihan Erte
Fe Dergi : Feminist Ele?tiri , 2011,
Abstract: The issue of abortion started to be perceived as a public health problem during the late Ottoman eraand early Republican Turkey by the state and committing an abortion was accepted as a crime that wascommitted against the whole society. This paper states that the criminalization of abortion startingfrom late Ottoman era as an intervention on reproductivity is an act on female body since it implied theassignment of a duty on women as child raisers and reduces female identity into motherhood. Hence,this state interference on female body paved the way for women’s inferior position subjected to onlybeing mothers by eulogizing the duty of child bearing. In this paper, the concept of abortion is studiedthrough legal changes during the late Ottoman and early Republican era by the edicts and legaldocuments of the term indicating the applications and events related to abortion. The policies in earlyRepublican Turkey went hand in hand with the applications of the general frame work of healthpolicies of late Ottoman era which were a part of the reform movements starting in late 18th century.
Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey
Bulent Kilic
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2007,
Abstract: Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size), quality (skill), distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP) and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6): 501-514]
Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Turkish Economy
Recep DüZGüN
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: The effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies is an issue which is continuously discussed but could not be reached to any solution. In fact, the essence of the issue is based on the Monetarist-Keynesian debate. Monetarists favour monetary policy while Keynesian favour fiscal policy in the sense of effectiveness. In this study, it has been examined whether monetary or fiscal policy is more effective in Turkish economy. The variables GDP, money supply (M2) and public expenditures are employed in the study. The data used are quarterly and cover the period 1987:Q1-2007:Q3. According to the findings obtained from the results of ARDL approach, fiscal policy is more effective than monetary policy in Turkish economy and its effect is negative.
OpenGIS System to Monitor the Impact of Spatial Planning Policies
ANTONIO TACHE
Romanian Review of Regional Studies , 2008,
Abstract: Based on the studies of European experience in spatial planning (policies, strategies, indicators), the project aims to create two databases for Romania, one at region level and one at the level of the administrative-territorial unit, in OpenGIS system using adequate indicators allowing for the identification and measurement of socio-economic development trends in a spatial context. To achieve this, competent studies will look at the differences between the European territorial indicators (EUROSTAT, ESPON) and the national ones, level NUTS II, or NUTS V. Following the identification of the two sets of territorial indicators, the structure of alphanumeric databases will be conceived in GIS. Concomitantly with the NUTS V digital map of Romania, alphanumeric databases will be fed with statistical data according to proposed territorial indicators schemes. Proposed model will be tested on territorial analyses by groups of indicators. The novelty consists in the spatial planning approach based on the conjunction between GIS and mathematical methods of evaluation and prognosis, the transposition of the mathematical method in a TurboC++ program, and the integration in the proposed system. Based on the results, NUTS II and NUTS V territorial indicators will be classified in groups, in charts and maps underlining socio-economic development disparities at national level. The GISTEREG project is conceived to be integrated into the OpenGIS database proposed by ESPON, aiming at a fast quantification of European regional policies. This is why the structure of the database will be conceived in accordance with EUROSTAT, level NUTS V, and ESPON and the Regional Operational Program – Priority Axis VI, level NUTS II. The proposed GISTEREG model, due to the mathematical component integrated into the system will be able to diagnose the main existing challenges and forecast the development of regions and zones within Romania. Databases obtained and presented in OpenGIS and mathematical instruments will provide a scientific method that could help identifying the underdeveloped areas requiring priority interventions based on European funds. Also, based on the experience of the purposed Consortium, punctual solutions will be recommended for a balanced development of the national territory.
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