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Normative Measurements of Grip and Pinch Strengths of 21st Century Korean Population  [PDF]
Jin Hee Shim,Si Young Roh,Jin Soo Kim,Dong Chul Lee
Archives of Plastic Surgery , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5999/aps.2013.40.1.52
Abstract: Background Measuring grip and pinch strength is an important part of hand injuryevaluation. Currently, there are no standardized values of normal grip and pinch strengthamong the Korean population, and lack of such data prevents objective evaluation of postsurgicalrecovery in strength. This study was designed to establish the normal values of gripand pinch strength among the healthy Korean population and to identify any dependentvariables affecting grip and pinch strength.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out. The inclusion criterion was being a healthyKorean person without a previous history of hand trauma. The grip strength was measuredusing a Jamar dynamometer. Pulp and key pinch strength were measured with a hydraulicpinch gauge. Intra-individual and inter-individual variations in these variables were analyzedin a standardized statistical manner.Results There were a total of 336 healthy participants between 13 and 77 years of age.As would be expected in any given population, the mean grip and pinch strength wasgreater in the right hand than the left. Male participants (137) showed mean strengthsgreater than female participants (199) when adjusted for age. Among the male participants,anthropometric variables correlated positively with grip strength, but no such correlationswere identifiable in female participants in a statistically significant way.Conclusions Objective measurements of hand strength are an important component ofhand injury evaluation, and population-specific normative data are essential for clinical andresearch purposes. This study reports updated normative hand strengths of the South Koreanpopulation in the 21st century.
Humanists for 21st century  [cached]
Joan Campàs
DIGITHUM , 2004,
Abstract: From certain critical considerations with respect to which, faced with the new challenges and transformations brought on by the information society which affect areas of culture, knowledge and learning, only fears and concerns arise, and, likewise, from a positive assessment of the Humanist manifesto for the 21st century, this paper reflects on three aspects that serve to reconfigure a new digital humanism: the complexity paradigm, the digital revolution and globalisation, leading to an invitation to form a political commitment and praxis to not convert humanists into a cultural illusion and mere ornamental whim of the system.
Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society
Andrea Cerroni
JCOM : Journal of Science Communication , 2007,
Abstract: The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new) ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society), it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation). The current situation also sees the traditional (modern) structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC). In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.
Parasitic diseases: opportunities and challenges in the 21st century
Colley, Daniel G;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000700015
Abstract: the opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. the general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. however, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. a major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control, elimination and eradication of the parasitic diseases that pose major public health threats to the physical and cognitive development and health of so many people worldwide.
Parasitic diseases: opportunities and challenges in the 21st century  [cached]
Colley Daniel G
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: The opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. Based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. The general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. Such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. However, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. Furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. A major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control, elimination and eradication of the parasitic diseases that pose major public health threats to the physical and cognitive development and health of so many people worldwide.
LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY  [PDF]
Reviewed by Alev ATE?
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2010,
Abstract: As an edited book, “Learning and Instructional Technologies for the 21st century” provides us a sense of integrated puzzle or a big picture which consists of valuable contributions and forward looking ideas in many chapters regarding instructional technology design, development, application, tools, models and views for the 21st century.In preface, Leslie Moller, an Associate Professor and former Chair of the Technology for Education and Training Division at the University of South Dakota, introduces the book and explains readers how the first AECT Research Symposia resulted a series of reading from leading scholars in instructional technology field.
National costumes of peoples of Russia at the turn of 20–21st century
Natal’ya M. Kalashnikova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article covers the functionality of national costumes of Russian people in 20th century, describing the ways of preserving them in the 21st century
Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies
Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco
Knowledge Management & E-Learning : an International Journal , 2013,
Abstract: This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.
Biology High School Science Curricula for the 21st Century  [PDF]
Mahmood Khalil, Reuven Lazarowitz, Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.516164
Abstract: High school science curricula of the 21st century have to include science-technology content and pedagogical content knowledge in a continuous interaction in order to be relevant to students’ needs. Learning units, including science, technology and related societal issues written on the Science, Technology and Society (STS), approach have to use teaching/learning strategies, and learning settings, such as cooperative learning in small groups, individual learning and computer episodes, so students will acquire science-technology literacy connected to societal issues. This approach may provide integration and participation in the advance society, so students will be able to look and find a job based on their learning. Dreyfus (1995) emphasized the importance of moral and ethics education. Science knowledge is not only for academic achievement and mastery of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, but to educate students on the affective domain being active in the community life based on moral and ethical values, and positive attitudes toward societal issues, like social justice. Preservation of the environment and peace, as other values are addressed in the learning units presented.
Challenges facing NATO in the 21st century
Simi? Jasminka
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0904387s
Abstract: During the entire post Cold-War era numerous security challenges were pushing NATO in search of a new mission. Although redefined several times in the past, NATO's mission is still not steady and in its final shape. NATO's framework is not final yet for several reasons: lack of internal balance; NATO is moving towards rather 'loose' formula of Trans-Atlantic relations, through a 'Coalition of the Willing', in which countries accept the level and scope of military engagement in war missions (Afghanistan and Iraq) according to their own interests. This certainly has influenced the character of NATO mission in the 21st Century. Therefore, NATO countries do not speak with 'one voice' and they do not equally participate in military missions. Instead, specific countries are engaged in specific issues, in compliance with UN Security Council resolutions. NATO deepening and widening process is continuing in the 21st Century. .
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