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Revision of the Maddenia clade of Prunus (Rosaceae)  [cached]
Jun Wen,Wenting Shi
PhytoKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.11.2825
Abstract: The Maddenia clade of Prunus L. is monographed based on herbarium and field studies. Four species are currently accepted in this group: Prunus himalayana J.Wen, P. hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen, P. hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen, and P. gongshanensis J.Wen, with the last described herein as a new species. Maddenia fujianensis Y.T.Chang and M. incisoserrata T.T.Yü & T.C.Ku are treated as synonyms of Prunus hypoleuca.
Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits) and Fragaria (the strawberry)
Santiago Vilanova, Daniel J Sargent, Pere Arús, Amparo Monfort
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-67
Abstract: The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16) and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14) were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78%) and Fragaria (78%) genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria.Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36), most of which produced by inversions (27) and the rest (9) by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.Genome comparisons based on the map position of homologous markers between different plant taxa have established that the genomes of species within families of the Plant Kingdom, such as Solanaceae [1,2], Poaceae [3], Fabaceae [4] and Brassicaceae [5] differ in a limited number of chromosomal rearrangements, meaning that extensive chromosomal regions, and even entire chromosomes, are syntenic and colinear between different species [6]. However, conservation of synteny is greatly reduced when comparisons are made between members of different families, as shown through the comparison of the genomes of several crop species with that of Arabidopsis thaliana [7-9].The Rosaceae encompass a large number (3,000) of diploid and polyploid species [10] including important crops, such as those belonging to the genera Prunus (almond and all stone fruits: peach, apricot, cherry and plum), Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear), Rosa (rose), Rubu
Aspectos químicos dos frutos de Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urban, (Rosaceae) – alimento de algumas aves silvestres. Chemical components of fruits of Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urban, (Rosaceae) – wild birds food.  [PDF]
Marilda Rapp de ESTON,Maria Isabel VALLILO,Maria Lima GARBELOTTI,Roberto STARZYNSKI
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2007,
Abstract: Frutos maduros de Prunus myrtifolia,pertencente à família Rosaceae, s o procuradoscomo alimento por algumas espécies de avessilvestres, no Núcleo Cunha do Parque Estadual daSerra do Mar – município de Cunha, Estado deS o Paulo. Com o objetivo de avaliar algunscomponentes químicos e valor calórico, amostrascoletadas em agosto de 2005 foram analisadasquimicamente nos laboratórios dos InstitutosFlorestal e Adolfo Lutz e Instituto de Química daUniversidade de S o Paulo. Os resultados mostrarama presen a de glicosídeo cianogenético tanto nacasca como nas sementes, além de umidade(38,52%), lipídios (0,62%), proteínas (5,38%) ea úcares totais (46,27%). Como elementosinorganicos (16), predominaram, tanto na cascacomo nas sementes, os elementos K (0,54 e 0,45%)e Ca (0,51 e 0,14%), respectivamente, e em rela oaos micronutrientes, destacaram-se o Mg (1676,80e 843,50 ppm), P (708,50 e 892,10 ppm) e S(351,50 e 321,50 ppm), respectivamente.Mature fruits of Prunus myrtifolia(Rosaceae) are sought as food for some speciesof wild birds, in the Serra do Mar State Park –Cunha Nucleus, Cunha county, S o Paulo State.Aiming to evaluate some chemical and nutritionalcomponents, samples collected in August 2005were analyzed chemically in the laboratories of theInstituto Florestal, Adolph Lutz and Instituto deQuímica (Universidade de S o Paulo). The resultsshowed the presence of cyanogenic glycoside asmuch in the peel as in the seeds, besides humidity(38.52%), lipid (0.62%), protein (5.38%), and totalsugars (46.27%). As inorganic elements (16),K (0.54 and 0.45%) and Ca (0.51 and 0.14%),predominated as much in the peel as in the seeds,and in relation to the micronutrients, Mg (1676.80and 843.50 ppm), P (708,50 and 892.10 ppm) andS (351.50 and 321.50 ppm) were detached.
Evolutionary patterns at the RNase based gametophytic self - incompatibility system in two divergent Rosaceae groups (Maloideae and Prunus)
Jorge Vieira, Pedro G Ferreira, Bruno Aguiar, Nuno A Fonseca, Cristina P Vieira
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-200
Abstract: It is here shown that many features are shared between the two species groups such as levels of recombination at the S-RNase (the S-pistil component) gene, and the rate at which new specificities arise. Nevertheless, important differences are found regarding the number of ancestral lineages and the degree of specificity sharing between closely related species. In Maloideae, about 17% of the amino acid positions at the S-RNase protein are found to be positively selected, and they occupy about 30% of the exposed protein surface. Positively selected amino acid sites are shown to be located on either side of the active site cleft, an observation that is compatible with current models of specificity determination. At positively selected amino acid sites, non-conservative changes are almost as frequent as conservative changes. There is no evidence that at these sites the most drastic amino acid changes may be more strongly selected.Many similarities are found between the GSI system of Prunus and Maloideae that are compatible with the single origin hypothesis for RNase based GSI. The presence of common features such as the location of positively selected amino acid sites and lysine residues that may be important for ubiquitylation, raise a number of issues that, in principle, can be experimentally addressed in Maloideae. Nevertheless, there are also many important differences between the two Rosaceae GSI systems. How such features changed during evolution remains a puzzling issue.In flowering plants, self-incompatibility systems can be found that prevent self-fertilization, thus contributing to the avoidance of inbreeding depression. In the widespread gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, when the S-pollen specificity matches that of the S-pistil the pollen is recognized as S-locus has been shown to be a S-RNase in Plantaginaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae [2]. Phylogenetic evidence, as well as the conserved gene structure (conserved and hypervariable regions, intr
RELATIONSHIP OF THE FOREST FLORAS AMONG ZHEJIANG, TAIWAN PROVINCES IN CHINA AND JAPAN
我国浙江与日本和我国台湾森林植物区系的联系

Wang Jingxiang,
王景祥

植物科学学报 , 1988,
Abstract: 1. There are 56 families of flora commonly distributed in Zhejiang, Taiwan Provinces of China and Japan. There are 71 families, 148 genera 222 species similar in Zhejiang and Japan, and 68 families, 135 genera, 214 species similar in Zhejiang and Taiwan Provinces. It denotes that the relationship of Zhejiang and Japan is closer than the relationship of Zhejiang and Taiwan.2. All kinds of elements of the tropical forest flora are common in Zhejiang, Taiwan and Japan. The common tropical elements in Zhejiang and Japan are 68 genera, i. e. 46 percent of the total common genera. There are 82 common genera of tropical elements in Zhejiang and Taiwan, i. e. 61 percent of the total common genera. It denotes that the relation of tropic elements of the later is more closer. than the former.3. The East Asian elements in Zhejiang and Japan arc onefold more than Zhejiang and Taiwans'. All kinds of the temperate elements, and the cosmopolitan genera in Zhejiang and Japan are much more than in Zhejiang and Taiwans'. For example, Rosaceae is common and much more in Zhejiang and Japan. It has 13 genera, 23 species, seven genera of them are the temperate (the North temperate one, the old world temperate one), four genera of them are the East Asian, one genus of them is the consmopolitan and the East Asian and the North American have one genus respectively. There are only two genera, four species of woody plants of Rosaceae in Zhejiangand Taiwan. They are all the North temperate elements.4. The endemic elements only exist in common flora of Zhejiang and Taiwan. There are no endemic common flora in Zhejiang and Japan. It shows that the division between Taiwan and the Continent happened at a later stage and the Continent has great influence on Taiwan.
Revisión taxonómica del género Prunus L. (Rosaceae) para Colombia
Pérez Zabala Jorge Andrés,Fernández Alonso José Luis
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2006,
Abstract: Se presenta la revisión del género Prunus para Colombia con base en el análisis crítico de caracteres morfológicos de 626 ejemplares de herbario. Se documentó la distribución geográfica, la fenología, el estado de conservación y los usos a partir de la información de etiquetas de ejemplares y fuentes secundarias; adicionalmente se realizaron descripciones y análisis comparativos sobre las variaciones de la anatomía de la sección foliar a nivel de la glándula y la morfología polínica de algunas de las especies. Se encontraron como caracteres más importantes con resolución taxonómica los detalles de la nerviación foliar, glándulas, estípulas, tama os e indumento de inflorescencias e hipantio, forma y tama o de los frutos. Se reconocieron 21 taxones para Colombia (siete endémicos), 18 de ellos nativos que comprenden 15 especies de los subgéneros Padus y Laurocerasus. Se proponen dos nuevas variedades (P. guanaiensis var. littlei y P. stipulata var. antioquensis), se reducen a sinonimia cinco taxones descritos con base en material del país (P. betancurii, P. carolinae, P. ernestii, P. recurviflora y P. villegasiana) y se registraron seis species nuevas para el territorio colombiano. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies basada en caracteres vegetativos y se discute ampliamente la delimitación taxonómica y las novedades nomenclaturales. Igualmente, se replantearon las categorías de amenaza hasta ahora asignadas a nombres que pasaron a sinonimia y se reconocen siete taxones en algún nivel de riesgo.
Origin and Evolution of Rosaceae
蔷薇科植物的起源和进化

俞德浚
中国科学院研究生院学报 , 1984,
Abstract: Rosaceae. consisting of about 126 genera and 3200 species, is widely distribu- ted in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, while more than half of the genera are Asiatic and more then 80% of the total number of Asiatic occur in China (Table 1). In this paper, the origin and evolution of Chinese genera is discussed mainly. The principal tendency of the whole family is also described from the point of view of evolution. First of all, the systematic position of Rosaceae in Angiospermae is reviewed. Ac- cording to the records of paleobotany, rosaceous plants occurred first in the Tertiary, from the early period of Eocene (genera such as Spiraea and Prunus) to the late period of Miocene (e.g. Crataegus, Malus amd Rosa). They have quite a long history in geolo- gical data. Where has this big and old family originated and what steps does it stand in the long course of evolution of flowering plants? There are several opinions and ex- planations by different authors. In this paper, a general survey of the six prevailing classical systems (Table 2) is made to give a brief idea of the position of this family in the Angiospermae and of the relationships between the subfamilies and also the rela- tionships between different genera in each subfamily. At the end of this paper, an at- tempt is made to analyse and sum up the major evolutionary tendency of the whole fa- mily. As generally condidered, Rosaceae originated from Magnoliales, and woody plants of the family still hold a dominant position. For instance, subfamily Spiraeoideae con- sists of only one herbaceous genus (i.e., Aruncus) and subfamily Rosoideae only a few herbaceous genera. All of these herbaceous genera are derived from the closely related woody genera of the same subfamily. In the course of evolution of Angiospermae, Rosaceae stands at the initial to the middle stages of development. All parts of plant body in this family are at the chang- ing and developing stages, with carpels, fruits and inflorescences being the most active. The primitive types in this family, such as the members of subfamily Spiraeoideae, usually have 5 and free carpels, the number of which are either reduced to 2-1 or in- creased to 10-numerous. They have different levels of union and are either completely free from each other or coherent at base. The carpels usually occur on the upper part of the receptacle, because the shapes of receptacle are variable, sometimes disk-shaped, cup- shaped, tube-shaped or even bottle-shaped. In the last case carpels grow inside the rece- ptacle. Thus the position of carpels has changed from superior to inferior through half- superior. In accordance with the development of the carpels, various kinds of fruits are produ- ced. The primitive types of fruit are follicles, with dry, dehiscent carpels opened along different sutures. The next step, the carpels have developed into an indehiscent, I-ce
Synteny of Prunus and other model plant species
Sook Jung, Derick Jiwan, Ilhyung Cho, Taein Lee, Albert Abbott, Bryon Sosinski, Dorrie Main
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-76
Abstract: We found a well conserved synteny across the Prunus species – peach, plum, and apricot – and Populus using a set of homologous Prunus BACs. Conversely, we could not detect any synteny with Arabidopsis in this region. Other peach BACs also showed extensive synteny with Populus. The syntenic regions detected were up to 477 kb in Populus. Two syntenic regions between Arabidopsis and these BACs were much shorter, around 10 kb. We also found syntenic regions that are conserved between the Prunus BACs and Medicago. The array of synteny corresponded with the proposed whole genome duplication events in Populus and Medicago. Using map-anchored Prunus sequences, we detected many syntenic blocks with several gene pairs between Prunus and Populus or Arabidopsis. We observed a more complex network of synteny between Prunus-Arabidopsis, indicative of multiple genome duplication and subsequence gene loss in Arabidopsis.Our result shows the striking microsynteny between the Prunus BACs and the genome of Populus and Medicago. In macrosynteny analysis, more distinct Prunus regions were syntenic to Populus than to Arabidopsis.Prunus belongs to Rosaceae, the third most economically important plant family in the United States and other temperate regions of the world [1,2]. Within Rosaceae, Prunus contains the most diverse array of crops: fruits such as peach, apricot, plum, sweet cherry, and sour cherry, nuts like almond, and lumber trees like black cherry. Other important fruit producing crops in Rosaceae include apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus), raspberry/blackberry (Rubus) and strawberry (Fragaria). In addition, Rosaceae contains a wide variety of ornamental plants including roses, flowering cherry, crabapple and quince.Significant conservation of the genomes among the Prunus member species has been shown by comparative mapping studies [3]. For example, comparisons of the anchor marker positions on the Prunus reference map with those on 13 other maps showed that the genomes of the diploid
Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers
Xiaoying Li, Lingfei Shangguan, Changnian Song, Chen Wang, Zhihong Gao, Huaping Yu, Jinggui Fang
BMC Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-11-66
Abstract: In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047), among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65%) and low in the peach (46%), and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species.We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.Mei (Prunus mume) originated in China and belongs to the sub-family Prunoideae within the Rosaceae family and is widely cultivated in East Asian countries. Mei trees are classified into two groups, fruiting mei and flowering mei, based on their uses [1]. The fruiting mei has been cultivated in China for more than 7000 years according to the historical records, and now it is also widely cultivated in Japan [2]. The proces
A New Species of Photinia (Rosaceae) from the Wuling Mountains
武陵山区石楠属一新种

Ku Tsue-chih,
谷粹芝

中国科学院研究生院学报 , 1993,
Abstract: In the present paper, a new species of Photinia (Rosaceae) P.zhijiangensis Ku is described from the Wuling Mountains, China.
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