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Racial Differences in Perceived Disorder in Three Gentrifying Neighborhoods  [PDF]
Daniel Monroe Sullivan, James D. Bachmeier
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.23030
Abstract: To what extent do diverse residents living in the same neighborhood perceive problems? Do they have similar levels of concern regarding drug dealing, graffiti, or litter in the streets? This study uses survey data, probability sampling, and regression analysis to complement qualitative studies that examine perceived disorder in racially diverse, gentrifying neighborhoods. Findings from 571 residents in three neighborhoods in Portland, Oregon reveal that there are substantial racial differences: white residents perceive more disorder—both crimes and incivilities—than do blacks. And, in contrast to what contact theory would suggest, the racial differences are more pronounced among longer tenured residents than newcomers. Social class—at least the dimension measured by ownership status—is also important, with homeowners perceiving more than renters. These findings suggest that neighborhoods, and indeed entire cities, that have racially and socioeconomically diverse residents need to find ways to create stronger social bonds and solve what Sampson (2009) calls the “paradox of diversity meets disorder”.
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Rehabilitation Outcomes  [PDF]
Charles Ellis,Hyacinth I. Hyacinth,Jamie Beckett,Wuwei Feng,Marc Chimowitz,Bruce Ovbiagele,Dan Lackland,Robert Adams
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/950746
Abstract: Background. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence, severity, and morbidity have been consistently reported; however, less is known about potential differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Objective. To examine racial and ethnic differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Methods. We completed an in-depth search of Medline and several major journals dedicated to publishing research articles on stroke, rehabilitation, and racial-ethnic patterns of disease over a 10-year period (2003–2012). We identified studies that reported rehabilitation outcomes and the race or ethnicity of at least two groups. Results. 17 studies involving 429,108 stroke survivors met inclusion criteria for the review. The majority (94%) of studies examined outcomes between Blacks and Whites. Of those studies examining outcomes between Blacks and Whites, 59% showed that Blacks were generally less likely to achieve equivalent functional improvement following rehabilitation. Blacks were more likely to experience lower FIM gain or change scores (range: 1–60%) and more likely to have lower efficiency scores (range: 5–16%) than Whites. Conclusions. Black stroke survivors appear to generally achieve poorer functional outcomes than White stroke survivors. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the precise magnitude of these differences, whether they go beyond chance, and the underlying contributory mechanisms. 1. Background Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the US [1]. Estimates indicate that ~795,000 Americans experience a stroke each year [1]. Among those are non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) who are at twice the risk of first-ever stroke compared to non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) [2]. The age-adjusted risk of ischemic stroke is 0.88 in Whites, 1.49 in Hispanics, and 1.91 in Blacks [3]. Blacks are also more likely to experience a stroke at a younger age and more likely to become disabled and experience difficulties with daily living and activities [2]. Similarly, older Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to experience higher odds of one-year all-cause poststroke rehospitalization compared to Whites after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics [4]. Interestingly, there has been a decrease in ischemic stroke incidence among Whites in the US; however the incidence of overall ischemic stroke among Blacks has remained virtually the same [5]. Studies continue to demonstrate a differential impact of stroke between racial/ethnic groups with minorities experiencing worse poststroke outcomes.
Racial Differences in the Human Endogenous Circadian Period  [PDF]
Mark R. Smith, Helen J. Burgess, Louis F. Fogg, Charmane I. Eastman
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006014
Abstract: The length of the endogenous period of the human circadian clock (tau) is slightly greater than 24 hours. There are individual differences in tau, which influence the phase angle of entrainment to the light/dark (LD) cycle, and in doing so contribute to morningness-eveningness. We have recently reported that tau measured in subjects living on an ultradian LD cycle averaged 24.2 hours, and is similar to tau measured using different experimental methods. Here we report racial differences in tau. Subjects lived on an ultradian LD cycle (1.5 hours sleep, 2.5 hours wake) for 3 days. Circadian phase assessments were conducted before and after the ultradian days to determine the change in circadian phase, which was attributed to tau. African American subjects had a significantly shorter tau than subjects of other races. We also tested for racial differences in our previous circadian phase advancing and phase delaying studies. In the phase advancing study, subjects underwent 4 days of a gradually advancing sleep schedule combined with a bright light pulse upon awakening each morning. In the phase delaying study, subjects underwent 4 days of a gradually delaying sleep schedule combined with evening light pulses before bedtime. African American subjects had larger phase advances and smaller phase delays, relative to Caucasian subjects. The racial differences in tau and circadian phase shifting have important implications for understanding normal phase differences between individuals, for developing solutions to the problems of jet lag and shift work, and for the diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm based sleep disorders such as advanced and delayed sleep phase disorder.
Racial Differences in Genetic and Environmental Risk to Preterm Birth  [PDF]
Timothy P. York,Jerome F. Strauss III,Michael C. Neale,Lindon J. Eaves
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012391
Abstract: Preterm birth is more prevalent in African Americans than European Americans and contributes to 3.4 times more African American infant deaths. Models of social inequity do not appreciably account for this marked disparity and molecular genetic studies have yet to characterize whether allelic differences that exist between races contribute to this gap. In this study, biometrical genetic models are applied to a large mixed-race sample consisting of 733,339 births to measure the extent that heritable factors and environmental exposures predict the timing of birth and explain differences between racial groups. Although we expected significant differences in mean gestational age between racial groups, we did not anticipate the variance of gestational age in African Americans (σ2 = 7.097) to be nearly twice that of European Americans (σ2 = 3.764). Our results show that this difference in the variance of gestational age can largely be attributed to environmental sources; which were 3.1 times greater in African Americans. Specifically, environmental factors that change between pregnancies, versus exposures that influence all pregnancies within a family, are largely responsible for the increased reproductive heterogeneity observed in African American mothers. Although the contribution of both fetal and maternal genetic factors differed between race categories, genetic studies may best be directed to understanding the differences in the socio-cultural sources of this heterogeneity, and their possible interaction with genetic differences within and between races. This study provides a comprehensive description of the relative genetic and environmental contributions to racial differences in gestational age.
Satisfied or unaware? Racial differences in perceived weight status
Gary G Bennett, Kathleen Y Wolin
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-40
Abstract: Nationally-representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002 were examined. Participants included overweight and obese adult men (n = 3115) and women (n = 3437). Weight status misperception was identified among respondents who self-reported being "about the right weight/underweight."Blacks (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.71, 2.54) were twice as likely and Hispanics (OR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33, 2.17) were 70-percent more likely than Whites to misperceive their weight, in models adjusted for age, education, income, marital status, self-reported health, and self-reported medical diagnosis of overweight. Black overweight (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.26) and obese (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.11) women were considerably more likely to exhibit misperception compared to their White female counterparts. Odds of misperception were higher among overweight Black (OR = 2.20, 95%CI: 1.54, 3.15), Hispanic (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.75), and obese Black men (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.22), compared to White men.Weight status misperceptions among the overweight are more common among Blacks, and Hispanic men. The persistence of racial/ethnic differences after adjustment for medical diagnosis of overweight may suggest some resistance to physician weight counseling. Identifying strategies to correct weight status misperceptions status may be necessary to ensure the efficacy of clinical and public health obesity interventions conducted among these groups.The epidemic of obesity in the US shows no signs of abating – presently, over 65% of the US population are either overweight or obese [1]. Many racial/ethnic populations are disproportionately affected by the condition; non-Hispanic Black women, for example, are more than twice as likely to be obese, compared to non-Hispanic White women[1]. Obesity control efforts conducted among racial/ethnic minority populations may be hindered by numerous sociocultural factors that influence both dietary and physical
Potential Mechanisms for Racial and Ethnic Differences in Antimüllerian Hormone and Ovarian Reserve  [PDF]
Reshef Tal,David B. Seifer
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/818912
Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that reproductive potential and function may be different across racial and ethnic groups. Racial differences have been demonstrated in pubertal timing, infertility, outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, and reproductive aging. Recently, racial differences have also been described in serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a sensitive biomarker of ovarian reserve, supporting the notion that ovarian reserve differs between racial/ethnic groups. The existence of such racial/ethnic differences in ovarian reserve, as reflected by AMH, may have important clinical implications for reproductive endocrinologists. However, the mechanisms which may underlie such racial differences in ovarian reserve are unclear. Various genetic factors and environmental factors such as obesity, smoking, and vitamin D deficiency which have been shown to correlate with serum AMH levels and also display significant racial/ethnic variations are discussed in this review. Improving our understanding of racial differences in ovarian reserve and their underlying causes may be essential for infertility treatment in minority women and lead to better reproductive planning, improved treatment outcomes, and timely interventions which may prolong reproductive lifespan in these women. 1. Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that reproductive potential and function may be different across racial and ethnic groups. Differences have been demonstrated in pubertal timing, infertility, outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, and reproductive aging. Black females are known to initiate puberty one year earlier and to achieve pubertal milestones earlier than white females [1, 2]. While infertility affects women of all races and ethnicities, US black and Hispanic women have disproportionately greater rates of infertility than whites [3], with recent evidence suggesting that these differences have been widening [4]. Moreover, a mounting body of evidence shows racial differences in ART treatment outcomes, with black, Hispanic, and Asian races associated with significantly lower pregnancy rates and live birthrates than whites [5–9]. While environmental, socioeconomic status, behavioral, and anatomic factors are likely contributors to racial disparities in ART outcomes, significant differences still remain even when these factors are controlled for [10, 11], suggesting that genetic factors may also play a role. Racial/ethnic differences have also been described in reproductive aging, as reflected by menopausal timing [12–14]
Differences in Black and White Perceptions regarding Addressing Racial Inequality in the Workplace
Richard Lewis
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104199
This research effort explores the difference in black and white perceptions concerning racial inequality in the contemporary American workplace. Age, educational attainment, personal income, political views, gender, and work status were used to delineate interactive effects on inequality perceptions. Conflict Theory was used for framing the social inequality process. Historically, conflict theorists have viewed relationships between groups as being characterized by competition or conflict resulting in social inequality. The data used to examine perceptions of racial inequality were obtained from the 2016 General Social Survey. This research effort found that blacks and whites demonstrated very different perceptions regarding workplace racial inequality. Generally, blacks believed there are significant barriers to equal treatment while whites felt that no remedies are necessary for ensuring minority participation in the workplace. The findings showed black and white respondents had very different perceptions for addressing workplace inequality. Black individuals tended to view preferential hiring and promotion as a way to successfully reduce racial inequality. Whites, on the other hand, illustrated the opposite viewpoint by overwhelmingly not supporting preferential treatment as an organizational tool for dealing with workplace racial inequality.
Determinants of racial/ethnic differences in blood pressure management among hypertensive patients
LeRoi S Hicks, Shimon Shaykevich, David W Bates, John Z Ayanian
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-5-16
Abstract: We reviewed the medical records of 1,205 patients who had a minimum of two hypertension-related outpatient visits to 12 general internal medicine clinics during 7/1/01-6/30/02. Using logistic regression, we determined the odds of having therapy intensified by patient race/ethnicity after adjustment for clinical characteristics.Blacks (81.9%) and Whites (80.3%) were more likely than Latinos (71.5%) to have therapy intensified (P = 0.03). After adjustment for racial differences in the number of outpatient visits and presence of diabetes, there were no racial differences in rates of intensification.We found that racial/ethnic differences in therapy intensification were largely accounted for by differences in frequency of clinic visits and in the prevalence of diabetes. Given the higher rates of diabetes and hypertension related mortality among Hispanics in the U.S., future interventions to reduce disparities in cardiovascular outcomes should increase physician awareness of the need to intensify drug therapy more agressively in patients without waiting for multiple clinic visits, and should remind providers to treat hypertension more aggressively among diabetic patients.Hypertension is among the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States [1]. Despite the availability of effective medications and well-published guidelines for the treatment of hypertension [1-4], the majority (approximately 75%) of hypertension in the United States remains poorly controlled [5].Hypertension is particularly burdensome among racial/ethnic minority groups and hypertension-related cardiovascular disease has been shown to be the greatest contributor to previously documented racial differences in mortality [5-12]. Although higher rates of hypertension control and a reduction in racial differences in outcomes from hypertension may be obtained by increasing providers' aggressiveness in intensifying therapy when indicated [2,12], several studies have demonstrated that providers often all
Distributions of Intergenerational Earnings: A Nonparametric Analysis of Racial Differences
American Journal of Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20120206.08
Abstract: Nonparametric methods are used to analyze distributions of intergenerational earnings. A stochastic kernel generates stationary distributions for African-Americans and whites, indicating a long-run outcome not in favor of racial convergence. Tests indicate that the distribution of white earnings stochastically dominate the earnings distributions of African-Americans from similar economic backgrounds. Within-race decile comparisons demonstrate that the distributions for whites improve as fathers' earnings improve; each increase in fathers' deciles progressively improves the entire distribution for sons. The same results do not exist for African-Americans who appear to have extensive within-race mobility.
Income Inequality: How Do Racial and Gender Differences Influence the Incomes in US  [PDF]
Ting Liu, Enhao Yang, Zhiliang Wang
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies (JHRSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhrss.2019.72014
Abstract: Income inequality is a serious social economic issue in many countries. The issue is deteriorated due to the complex social environment and demographic composition in the Unites States. This study focuses on the racial and gender factors which influence workers’ income. And the easy-qualified year of schooling and working-year are chosen as the other two factors. Basing on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) analysis, the selected factors are qualified to understand their influence degree in income inequality. By comparing the coefficients of the factors, we find the inner relationships between the factors and income inequality. The precise results not only provide a chance for people to examine their income levels, but also help the government to develop fair policies.
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