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Environmental Sounds Enhance Cortical Responses Related to a Serial Arithmetic Task  [PDF]
Koichiro Fujimaki, Hidenori Takemoto, Shigeru Morinobu
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58094
Abstract:

In this study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the effects of environmental sounds on performance of a serial arithmetic task. Subjects included 6 males and 15 females aged 21 or 22 years. All subjects were required to perform a serial arithmetic task according to the Uchida-Kraepelin performance test. We used four environmental conditions: hubbub sound, forest sound, traffic noise, and a silent control condition. During the serial arithmetic task, we also measured hemodynamic changes in the frontal cortex using NIRS to assess the effects of environmental sounds on brain function during the serial arithmetic task. Results showed that exposure to environmental sounds did not enhance or detract from task performance speed in a serial arithmetic task performance when compared with results obtained upon exposure to silence. However, environmental sounds enhanced cortical responses during the serial arithmetic task. Our results reveal differences in activation of the prefrontal cortex under different sound conditions, which may help increase our understanding of the potential effects of environmental sounds.

Effects of temporal stimuli in the acquisition of a serial tracking task  [cached]
Cattuzzo MT,Tani G
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2012,
Abstract: Maria Teresa Cattuzzo,1 Go Tani21Physical Education Higher School, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 2School of Physical Education and Sports, University of S o Paulo, S o Paulo, BrazilAbstract: This study investigated the effects of temporal stimuli on qualitative responses during the acquisition of a serial tracking task. One hundred and twenty young adult men performed 100 trials of a tracking task that consisted of touching six response keys in a given sequence in response to flashing light-emitting diodes in order to identify and learn the serial pattern. Six experimental groups were created with diverse inter stimuli intervals (ISI): G1: ISI = 300 ms; G2: ISI = 400 ms; G3: ISI = 500 ms; G4: ISI = 600 ms; G5: ISI = 700 ms; and G6: ISI = 800 ms. Performance was assessed by means of four types of responses: omission, error, correct, and anticipatory responses. The results showed differential effects of temporal stimulus uncertainty in the hierarchy of responses as the learning course progressed.Keywords: motor learning, open system, dynamic system, potential information
Effects of temporal stimuli in the acquisition of a serial tracking task
Cattuzzo MT, Tani G
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S33221
Abstract: ts of temporal stimuli in the acquisition of a serial tracking task Original Research (1066) Total Article Views Authors: Cattuzzo MT, Tani G Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 65 - 70 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S33221 Received: 23 April 2012 Accepted: 17 May 2012 Published: 19 July 2012 Maria Teresa Cattuzzo,1 Go Tani2 1Physical Education Higher School, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 2School of Physical Education and Sports, University of S o Paulo, S o Paulo, Brazil Abstract: This study investigated the effects of temporal stimuli on qualitative responses during the acquisition of a serial tracking task. One hundred and twenty young adult men performed 100 trials of a tracking task that consisted of touching six response keys in a given sequence in response to flashing light-emitting diodes in order to identify and learn the serial pattern. Six experimental groups were created with diverse inter stimuli intervals (ISI): G1: ISI = 300 ms; G2: ISI = 400 ms; G3: ISI = 500 ms; G4: ISI = 600 ms; G5: ISI = 700 ms; and G6: ISI = 800 ms. Performance was assessed by means of four types of responses: omission, error, correct, and anticipatory responses. The results showed differential effects of temporal stimulus uncertainty in the hierarchy of responses as the learning course progressed.
Gender Differences in Prosodic Characteristics of Speech in the Task of Serial Subtracting of Sevens
Milkica Ne?i?,Svetlana ?i?evi?,Vladimir Ne?i?,Jelena Kosti?
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis , 2013, DOI: 10.2478/v10283-012-0030-6
Abstract: Significant differences in speech between genders are contained in nonsegmental correlates, i.e. in the prosody and paralinguistics. Pronunciation differences between genders are more numerous than those in grammatical form. This study aims to detect temporal prosodic patterns and investigate gender differences in performing serial sevens subtraction (SSS). One hundred students of medicine (equal number of males and females) voluntarily participated in the investigation. SSS was performed by asking the participant to perform mental arithmetic consisting of repeatedly subtractions of sevens, beginning from one thousand. The students had to pronounce aloud and simultaneously write the results for five minutes. The original program for the analysis of digital signals (ADS) converted the speech signal samples into digital data. MANOVA showed significant gender differences for a group of characteristics of the SSS test: F (11, 75)=4.06, p=0.000. The number of samples per each minute and the total number of samples during five minutes was higher in males compared to females. The average length of articulation of three-digit numbers, average length of articulation and length of pauses between the linguistic units, as well as between the samples, was shorter in males for each of these five minutes and for the average“ minute. The maximum intensity of speech was higher in males for each of the five minutes. Average duration of mispronunciations, with end results being correct, was longer in women in the first, second, and fourth minute, as well as for the average“ minute. A conclusion may be drawn that shorter utterances and pauses in men suggest the advantage on the part of men in SSS task, and not greater verbal fluency in general in men.
Normative data for the digit-letter substitution task in school children  [cached]
Pradhan Balaram,Nagendra H
International Journal of Yoga , 2009,
Abstract: Background/Aims: To establish the norms for the substitution task, a measure of psychomotor performance. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and forty three school students were selected in the present study aged between 9-16 years (mean age = 12.14; SD = 1.77). Subjects were assessed one at a time for Digit-Letter Substitution Task (DLST). Results: Both age and sex influenced performance on the DLST; therefore, correction scores were obtained on the basis of these factors. Conclusions: The availability of the Indian normative data for the DLST will allow wider application of this test in clinical practice.
Normative data for the letter-cancellation task in school children  [cached]
Pradhan Balaram,Nagendra H
International Journal of Yoga , 2008,
Abstract: Aims: To establish the norms for the letter-cancellation task-a psychomotor performance task. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred nineteen school students were selected in the present study in an age range between nine and 16 years ( M = 12.14; SD = 1.78 years). Subjects were assessed once for the cancellation task. Results: Both age and sex influenced performance on the SLCT; therefore, correction scores were obtained on the basis of these factors. Conclusions: The availability of Indian normative data for the SLCT will allow wider application of this test in clinical practice.
Letter
Laurenzi M
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S24686
Abstract: Letter Letter (2266) Total Article Views Authors: Laurenzi M Published Date January 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 33 - 34 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S24686 Received: 30 July 2011 Accepted: 01 August 2011 Published: 31 January 2012 Martino Laurenzi Senior Medical Director, Internal Medicine Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, USA The article “Optimizing management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the upcoming decade” by Russell et al1 (January edition of the International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) provides an overview of the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and discusses emerging treatment options for managing this disease. I wish to draw your attention to the general information and clinical trial data presented on roflumilast. Several inaccuracies have been noticed in this section as well as in Table 2 of the article. View original paper by Russell and colleagues. Post to: Cannotea Citeulike Del.icio.us Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Readers of this article also read: Role of aliskiren in cardio-renal protection and use in hypertensives with multiple risk factors Long term results of a prospective randomized bilateral eye comparison trial of higher fluence, shorter duration ultraviolet A radiation, and riboflavin collagen cross linking for progressive keratoconus Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension Undertreatment of COPD: a retrospective analysis of US managed care and Medicare patients Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation in a canine model of emphysema Efficacy and safety characteristics of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: findings from pooled analysis of two randomized, 52-week placebo-controlled trials Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: results from a 52-week Phase III trial Insight into 144 patients with ocular vascular events during VEGF antagonist injections Evaluation of the surgical learning curve for I-125 episcleral plaque placement for the treatment of posterior uveal melanoma: a two decade review Letter to the editor
Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises  [cached]
Rosati Giulio,Oscari Fabio,Spagnol Simone,Avanzini Federico
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-9-79
Abstract: Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas controller-task-related sound feedback did not. This result was particularly interesting, as the subjects relied more on auditory augmentation of the visualized target motion (which was altered with respect to arm motion by the visuomotor perturbation), rather than on sound feedback provided in the controller space, i.e., information directly related to the effective target motion of their arm. Conclusions Our results indicate that auditory augmentation of visual feedback can be beneficial during the execution of upper limb movement exercises. In particular, we found that continuous tas
Algorithm for Constructing Task DAGs of Serial Programs
串行程序的任务DAG图构造算法

SUN Li-Bin,DENG Rong,CHENG Hong-Zhong,
孙立斌
,邓蓉,陈闳中

计算机系统应用 , 2012,
Abstract: Task DAG is a mean of depicting dependency among tasks of a program. Apart from dependency between tasks, amount of computation and traffic between tasks are also reflected on DAG, All these information together provides a basis for scheduling. There are much research on scheduling base on DAG both domestic and abroad, but research on constructing task DAG based on analysis of correlation among serial program is rare. This paper focuses on analysis of data dependency and control dependency and discuss respectively on sequential, branch and loop structure, propose an algorithm for constructing task DAG of serial programs.
LETTER TO THE READER  [PDF]
Revista Eletr?nica de Educa??o , 2012,
Abstract: Letter to the Reader.
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