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CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT  [PDF]
Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ,Fadilj N. EMINOVIKJ,Radmila M. NIKIKJ,Gordana I. ACHIKJ
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2008,
Abstract: Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.
Hedging: An exploratory study of pragmatic transfer in nonnative English readers’ rhetorical preferences
Rosa Alonso Alonso,María Alonso Alonso,Laura Torrado Mari?as
Ibérica , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims at analysing the role of pragmatic transfer in the use of the rhetorical strategy of hedging in academic writing in English as a second language (henceforth, L2). Two groups of Spanish researchers (n=30) took part in the study, performing two different experiments. The first one consisted of reading two versions of the same passage, one hedged and the other unhedged, and they were asked to decide which text they considered more academic and why. The second experiment consisted of identifying hedges in a passage. The results indicate that Spanish researchers apply pragmatic transfer, either frequently failing to identify hedges in the L2 or considering them as negative evasive concepts.
Music Education, Aesthetics, and the Measure of Academic Achievement  [PDF]
Karl Madden, David Orenstein, David Orenstein, Alexei Oulanov, Yelena Novitskaya, Ida Bazan, Thomas Ostrowski, Min Hyung Ahn
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.519194
Abstract: Grades and test scores are the traditional measurement of academic achievement. Quantitative improvements on standardized scores in Math/Science/Language are highly-coveted outcomes for meeting accreditation standards required for institutional program funding. Music and the Fine Arts, difficult to assess by traditional academic achievement measurement, and often devalued as so-called “luxury” subjects, struggle for necessary funding. Showing measureable collateral value to other academic subjects—such as math—in order to justify music program funding is dubious. To objectify the purpose of music education in terms of its influence on other subjects is to overlook aesthetic value. The scholarly literature recognizes an historical tendency to correlate music activities and aptitude to other subjects (and to intelligence in general), but quantitative cause-effect claims are not supported scientifically. Music participation from childhood helps build productive, well-socialized, excellent people, but to quantitatively trace the cause to music itself remains unproven. To recognize the benefits of music and the arts by aesthetic merit involves practical, holistic views of education not based on quantifiable test scoring.
Morphological Knowledge and Decoding Skills of Deaf Readers  [PDF]
M. Diane Clark, Gizelle Gilbert, Melissa L. Anderson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22018
Abstract: Many studies have reported the necessity of phonological awareness to become a skilled reader, citing barriers to phonological information as the cause for reading difficulties experienced by deaf individuals. In contrast, other research suggests that phonological awareness is not necessary for reading acquisition, citing the importance of higher levels of syntactic and semantic knowledge. To determine if deaf students with higher language skills have better word decoding strategies, students responded to a morphological test, where monomorphemic words and multimorphemic words were matched to their definitions. Two studies are reported, one focusing on English placement levels and a second with formal measures of both ASL and English language proficiency. Results in-dicated that performance on the morphological decoding test was related to language proficiency scores, but not to phonological awareness scores.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF READING SKILLS IN A SAMPLE OF PORTUGUESE NORMAL READERS AND DYSLEXIC CHILDREN
LéNIA SOFIA DE ALMEIDA CARVALHAIS,CARLOS FERNANDES DA SILVA
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this article is to discuss the theoretical issues behind reading processes, the relationbetween this skill and dyslexia, and to present some results from a pseudowords reading test with Portuguesechildren. Developmental dyslexia is a specific learning disability characterized by difficulty inlearning to read, and there is strong evidence that dyslexia is related to underlying deficiencies in phonologicalskills. Phonological deficits establish robust differences between dyslexic and normal readers and,according to the theoretical background, phonological awareness can be assessed with pseudowords tests.In this study, we applied the Pseudo words Reading Test, one of twenty tests of the Battery of Tests toAssess Developmental Dyslexia (BADD) constructed to assess dyslexia in Portuguese children between 7and 12 years old. We gave the Pseudo words Reading Test to 555 Portuguese children, aged 8 to 12.Fifty-seven of these children had been previously assessed by other professionals as dyslexics. We triedto verify how factors like age, gender and learning disabilities influence the acuity in pseudo words readingand if this test can be used to assist in an early diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. The results provethat there are significant differences between dyslexic children and normal readers in reading pseudowords in Portuguese language.
COGNITIVE AND PRAGMATIC APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS REFLECTIVE SKILLS
Usheva Tatyana Fedorovna
Magister Dixit , 2012,
Abstract: The article reveals experience of the development of students reflective skills from the point of view of cognitive and pragmatic approach. The author shows the characteristics of the organization of pedagogical work with students in the educational process. The necessity of the use of individual education programs is powered in this article.
The Role of Phonology and Morphology in the Development of Basic Reading Skills of Dyslexic and Normal Native Arabic Readers  [PDF]
Salim Abu-Rabia, Nariman Abu-Rahmoun
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37185
Abstract: This study is an investigation of the role of some basic reading skills of dyslexic (n = 27) and normal readers of Arabic: A reading-age-matched group (n = 29) and a chronological age-matched group (n = 31). The children were tested on reading and cognitive measures, all of which had vowelized and unvowelized versions: phonological, orthographic, reading, spelling, syntax, and working memory skills. The results of the MANOVA revealed significant differences between the dyslexic readers and the two control groups on most measures. Moreover, main effects of vowels and roots were found. In other words, subjects were much better at the vowelized than the unvowelized tests and used morphology to assist their reading accuracy. However, the Stepwise Regression analysis revealed that syntax, reading measures (isolated words, real roots and false roots), morphology and spelling were the most powerful predictors of reading accuracy among dyslexic and normal readers.
The Infuence of the Critical Thinking Skills on the Students`Achievement
Cetin Semerci
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine "The Influence of the Critical Thinking Skills on the Students`Achievement". An experimental method is employed in the study. "Achievement Test" was applied to the experiment and control groups before and after the application of the programs. The study is designed according to the model with "pre-test, post-test control groups". Using the cluster sampling, 50 students are selected; 25 for the experiment group and 25 for the control group. The KR-20 reliability coefficient of the test using in the study was 0.73 and the difficulty of the test was 0.44. In conclusion, the students in the experiment group were more successful than the students in the control traditional group through use of the critical thinking skills which are learnable.
Lexical Processing in Deaf Readers: An fMRI Investigation of Reading Proficiency  [PDF]
David P. Corina, Laurel A. Lawyer, Peter Hauser, Elizabeth Hirshorn
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054696
Abstract: Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21), comparing proficient (N = 11) and less proficient (N = 10) readers’ performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left) which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals.
PRAGMATIC
Jurgen Herzog,Volkmar Welker
Le Matematiche , 2008,
Abstract: The subsequent papers are based on results obtained during or in the sequel of the Pragmatic School 2008. The school was held from July 14 till August 1, 2009 on the campus of the University of Catania. It was devoted to combinatorial aspects of commutative algebra under the title: Free resolutions and Hilbert series: algebraic, combinatorial and geometric aspects
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