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Holistic Processing of Words Modulated by Reading Experience  [PDF]
Alan C.-N. Wong,Cindy M. Bukach,Crystal Yuen,Lizhuang Yang,Shirley Leung,Emma Greenspon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020753
Abstract: Perceptual expertise has been studied intensively with faces and object categories involving detailed individuation. A common finding is that experience in fulfilling the task demand of fine, subordinate-level discrimination between highly similar instances is associated with the development of holistic processing. This study examines whether holistic processing is also engaged by expert word recognition, which is thought to involve coarser, basic-level processing that is more part-based. We adopted a paradigm widely used for faces – the composite task, and found clear evidence of holistic processing for English words. A second experiment further showed that holistic processing for words was sensitive to the amount of experience with the language concerned (native vs. second-language readers) and with the specific stimuli (words vs. pseudowords). The adoption of a paradigm from the face perception literature to the study of expert word perception is important for further comparison between perceptual expertise with words and face-like expertise.
Chinese characters reveal impacts of prior experience on very early stages of perception
Tobias Elze, Chen Song, Rainer Stollhoff, Jürgen Jost
BMC Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-14
Abstract: We performed stimulus discrimination experiments and compared a group of Chinese participants with a German control group. The perception of our briefly presented visual objects (targets) was disturbed by masking stimuli which appeared in close spatiotemporal proximity. These masking stimuli were either intact or scrambled Chinese characters and did not overlap with the targets. In contrast to German controls, Chinese participants show substantial performance differences for real versus scrambled Chinese characters if these masking stimuli were presented as early as less than 100 milliseconds after the onset of the target. For Chinese observers, it even occured that meaningful masking stimuli enhanced target identification if they were shown at least 100 milliseconds after target onset while the same stimuli impaired recognition if presented in close temporal proximity to the target. The latter finding challenges interpretations of our data that solely rely on stimulus contours or geometric properties and emphasizes the impact of prior experience on the very early temporal dynamics of the visual system.Our findings demonstrate that prior experience which had been accummulated long before the experiments can modulate the time course of perception intriguingly early, namely already immediately after the perceptual onset of a visual event. This modulation cannot solely operate as a feedback in response to the visual event but is rather a permanent effect.The optimal application of accumulated past experience about the visual world is considered a key property of perception. Already in the 19th century, von Helmholtz [1] introduced the concept of "unconscious inference" which explains visual perception as an interaction of experience-guided unconscious hypotheses about the sensory input and the sensory input itself. In recent years, this inference concept has become increasingly popular in vision science. Popular recent theoretical frameworks with focus on such perceptu
Prolonged Visual Experience in Adulthood Modulates Holistic Face Perception  [PDF]
Adéla?de de Heering, Bruno Rossion
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002317
Abstract: Background Using the well-known composite illusion as a marker of the holistic perception of faces, we tested how prolonged visual experience with a specific population of faces (4- to 6-year-old children) modulates the face perception system in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a face composite effect that is larger for adult than children faces in a group of adults without experience with children faces (“children-face novices”), while it is of equal magnitude for adults and children faces in a population of preschool teachers (“children-face experts”). When considering preschool teachers only, we observed a significant correlation between the number of years of experience with children faces and the differential face composite effect between children and adults faces. Participants with at least 10 years of qualitative experience with children faces had a larger composite face effect for children than adult faces. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these observations indicate that even in adulthood face processes can be reshaped qualitatively, presumably to facilitate efficient processing of the differential morphological features of the frequently encountered population of faces.
BASES ELECTROFISIOLóGICAS DE LA ESTIMULACIóN CARDíACA / Electrophysiological basis of cardiac pacing  [PDF]
Ginner Odorico Rizo Rivera,Raimundo Carmona Puerta
CorSalud , 2009,
Abstract: The search for a physiological cardiac pacing has made the functioning of the pacemakers increasingly complex. This complexity ranges from the detection of the cardiac signal, its fitting-outand the response of the pacemaker by means of algorithms, to the electrical pacing of the heart. It is a must for us, as professionals devoted to cardiology, to know the basic principles of this process.The electrophysiological basis of electrical cardiac pacing is treated in this article, trying to achieve a general understanding of it, and in consequence facilitating a better comprehension of a topic that we hear or deal with, over and over, in our medical practice.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2007,
Abstract: Due to the suitable climatic conditions, Iran is one of the most important growing centre for wild and domesticated species/varieties of almond. Because of the adaptability of wild almond species to severe environmental conditions and resistance to drought, salinity and some pest and diseases, these can be used as rootstock for almond cultivars and in breeding programs for rootstock improvement in Iran. In this study, seeds of Amygdalous scoparia, A.webbii and A. orientalis were planted. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference between species. However, A. scoparia had highest stem height and leaf length. At the end of the experiment, the thickest stems were developed by A. scoparia, whereas the thinnest stems by A. orientalis. A. webbii produced more number and longer roots per seedling than the other two species. The correlation between various morphological traits showed that a few shoot characters were significantly correlated with root traits. However, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, root number and root diameter for P. webbii, and leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length and root number characters for P.scoparia, and stem height, leaf number, leaf length, petiole length, internode length and root number for P. orientalis were found to be important morphological traits to evaluate seedling charactristics of wild almond genotypes before their nursery test.
Parafermionic quasi-particle basis and fermionic-type characters  [PDF]
P. Jacob,P. Mathieu
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00548-X
Abstract: A new basis of states for highest-weight modules in $\ZZ_k$ parafermionic conformal theories is displayed. It is formulated in terms of an effective exclusion principle constraining strings of $k$ fundamental parafermionic modes. The states of a module are then built by a simple filling process, with no singular-vector subtractions. That results in fermionic-sum representations of the characters, which are exactly the Lepowsky-Primc expressions. We also stress that the underlying combinatorics -- which is the one pertaining to the Andrews-Gordon identities -- has a remarkably natural parafermionic interpretation.
Foraging Behavior of the Blue Morpho and Other Tropical Butterflies: The Chemical and Electrophysiological Basis of Olfactory Preferences and the Role of Color  [PDF]
Alexandra Sourakov,Adrian Duehl,Andrei Sourakov
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/378050
Abstract: Inside a live butterfly exhibit, we conducted bioassays to determine whether the presence of color would facilitate the location of attractants by the butterflies. It was found that color facilitated odor attraction in some species that feed on flowers (Parthenos silvia, Heraclides thoas, Dryas julia, and Idea leuconoe), but not in the exclusively fruit-feeding species, such as Morpho helenor, hence demonstrating that species with different natural diets use different foraging cues. Green, ripe, and fermented bananas were evaluated for their attractiveness to butterflies together with honey and mangoes. The fermented bananas were determined to be the most attractive bait, and the electrophysiological responses to their volatiles were studied in Morpho helenor and Caligo telamonius. During GC-EAD evaluation, fifteen different aliphatic esters, such as isobutyl isobutyrate, butyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, and butyl butanoate (both fermentation products and fruit semiochemicals) were shown to be detected by the butterflies’ sensory apparatus located in the forelegs, midlegs, proboscis, labial palpi, and antennae. Legs, proboscis, and antennae of Morpho helenor and Caligo telamonius showed similar sensitivity, reacting to 11 chemicals, while labial palpi had a lower signal-to-noise ratio and responded to seven chemicals, only three of which produced responses in other organs. 1. Introduction Although the mechanisms involved in foraging for food have been studied in several model species of butterflies, there is still much unknown for this ecologically and physiologically diverse group of ca. 20,000 species. It is known that butterflies possess trichromatic vision, [1] which has a rather complex mechanism and evolutionary history [2]. It has been shown to play a role in the selection of potential mates [3], as well as in the location of adult food sources [4]. Butterflies possess the ability to discriminate even between fine variations of color, as it has been shown in Heliconius charithonia L. [5]. Many species have the capacity to learn to associate colors with a food source [6]. Papilio xuthus L., for example, was successfully trained to feed on a sucrose solution placed on a disk of a particular color and after a few such training sessions, the butterfly was able to select the color from an array of multi colored disks [7]. Butterflies can overcome their natural preferences, as in the case of newly emerged Heliconius, for which color stimulus can overtake scent in its importance after conditioning [8]. The same was found in monarchs, Danaus plexipus L.,
Note-Taking Assisted with Computers—A Practical Method to Build a Connection between Chinese Pinyin & Characters  [PDF]
Wu Yang, Isabella Kam
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.74026
Abstract: Chinese beginners often find themselves in struggling for learning complicated Chinese characters (also known as Hanzi), after the acquisition of Chinese pronunciation (Chinese Phonetic Alphabets, also called Pinyin). Actual experience of living and studying in China exposes a fact that people on daily basis are not using Pinyin to assist pronunciation. All means of social media only have Hanzi for people to recognize. The connection between Pinyin and Hanzi is a difficult part to accomplish for Chinese language beginners. Based on several years of teaching experience of Chinese language to speakers of other languages and working memory drill in English-Chinese interpretation, the author explores a practical way to build this connection between Pinyin and Hanzi by taking-notes using computers and mobile phones in class. In alliance with fun language teaching methodologies, i.e., the Audiolingual method, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) to reassure the memory rehearsal drill in association with imaginary situations. The research experiment results show that this method can stimulate beginners’ learning enthusiasm and arouse their confidence and initiative in the long-run Chinese language learning process and it can facilitate Chinese beginners to better communicate in the fast-changing social media.
“Reality” of near-death-experience memories: evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study  [PDF]
Arianna Palmieri,Vincenzo Calvo,Johann R. Kleinbub,Federica Meconi,Matteo Marangoni,Alice Broggio,Paola Sessa
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00429
Abstract: The nature of near-death-experiences (NDEs) is largely unknown but recent evidence suggests the intriguing possibility that NDEs may refer to actually “perceived,” and stored, experiences (although not necessarily in relation to the external physical world). We adopted an integrated approach involving a hypnosis-based clinical protocol to improve recall and decrease memory inaccuracy together with electroencephalography (EEG) recording in order to investigate the characteristics of NDE memories and their neural markers compared to memories of both real and imagined events. We included 10 participants with NDEs, defined by the Greyson NDE scale, and 10 control subjects without NDE. Memories were assessed using the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire. Our hypnosis-based protocol increased the amount of details in the recall of all kind of memories considered (NDE, real, and imagined events). Findings showed that NDE memories were similar to real memories in terms of detail richness, self-referential, and emotional information. Moreover, NDE memories were significantly different from memories of imagined events. The pattern of EEG results indicated that real memory recall was positively associated with two memory-related frequency bands, i.e., high alpha and gamma. NDE memories were linked with theta band, a well-known marker of episodic memory. The recall of NDE memories was also related to delta band, which indexes processes such as the recollection of the past, as well as trance states, hallucinations, and other related portals to transpersonal experience. It is notable that the EEG pattern of correlations for NDE memory recall differed from the pattern for memories of imagined events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, at a phenomenological level, NDE memories cannot be considered equivalent to imagined memories, and at a neural level, NDE memories are stored as episodic memories of events experienced in a peculiar state of consciousness.
Interdisciplinary Pedagogical Experience for Health Human Resources Focused on the Holistic Promotion of Health and the Prevention of the Disease
Ruth Pérez Hernández,Adriana Fajardo Hoyos,Gladys Navarrete,Carlos Alfonso Avenda?o
Revista Ciencias de la Salud , 2006,
Abstract: The object of this experience is to offer thestudents the opportunity to take part in theconstruction of a pedagogic strategy centred onthe ludic, for the promotion of the integral healthand the prevention of the disease with aneducational community; directed to supportingand qualifying the well-being so much individuallyas group. The project is designed to fiveyears, about interdisciplinary character (SpeechTherapy, Medicine, Psychology, Nursery,Occupational Therapy), interinstitutional (Universidaddel Rosario, Universidad de San Buenaventuray Universidad de Cundinamarca) andintersectorial (Education and Health). It considersthe different actors of the educationalcommunity and school and the home as propitiousscenes for the strengthening potential,beside being the fundamental spaces for theconstruction of knowledges and learnings concerningthe integral health.To achieve the target, one has come constructingfrom the second semester of 2003, onepedagogic strategy centred on the ludic and thecreativity, from which they are planned, theydevelop and evaluate the actions of promotionof skills, values, behaviors and attitudes in thecare of the health and the prevention of disease,orientated to the early, opportune and effectivedetection of risk factors and problematic of thedevelopment that they affect the integral health.The above mentioned strategy raises a socalled scene Bienestarópolis: A healthy worldfor conquering, centred on prominent figures,spaces and elements that alternate between thefantasy and the reality to facilitate the approximation,the interiorización and the appropriationof the integral health. Across this one, thechildren motivated by the adults enter an imaginaryworld in that theirs desires, knowledgesand attitudes are the axis of his development.Since Vigotsky raises it, in the game the childrealizes actions in order to adapt to the world thatsurrounds it acquiring skills for the learning. Theactions of the project have involved 410 childrenand 25 teachers, of the degrees Zero, The Firstand The Second of basic primary; 90 parents offamily, and an average of 40 students and 8teachers of the already mentioned disciplines.
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