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Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts  [PDF]
Chandrasekhar Akileshwari,Puppala Muthenna,Branislav Nastasijevi ,Gordana Joksi ,J. Mark Petrash,Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/147965
Abstract: Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.
Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts  [PDF]
Chandrasekhar Akileshwari,Puppala Muthenna,Branislav Nastasijevi?,Gordana Joksi?,J. Mark Petrash,Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/147965
Abstract: Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications. 1. Introduction According to the latest WHO estimates, currently approximately 200 million people all over the world are suffering from diabetes. This may increase to at least 350 million by the year 2025, which could have a severe impact on human health [1]. Prolonged exposure to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes can lead to various complications affecting the cardiovascular, renal, neurological, and visual systems [2]. Although mechanisms leading to diabetic complications are not completely understood, many biochemical pathways associated with hyperglycemia have been implicated [2]. Among these, the polyol pathway has been extensively studied [3]. Aldose reductase (ALR2; EC: 1.1.1.21) belongs to aldo-keto reductases (AKR) super family. It is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway where it reduces glucose to sorbitol utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. Subsequently, sorbitol dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, thus constituting the polyol pathway [3]. Accumulation of sorbitol leads to osmotic swelling, changes in membrane permeability, and also oxidative stress culminating in tissue injury [4]. Experimental animal models suggest
Content of heavymetals in Gentiana lutea L. roots and galenic forms
DRAGOJA RADANOVIC,SVETLANA ANTIC-MLADENOVIC,MIODRAG JAKOVLJEVIC,MIRJANA KRESOVIC
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2007,
Abstract: An experimental field for the cultivated production of Gentiana lutea L. was established five years ago at the Suvobor Mountain, Serbia. Soil analysis of this area revealed the occurrence of high pseudo-total (Ni – 1270 mg/kg, Cr – 423 mg/kg, Co – 385 mg/kg) and available (especially Ni – 133 mg/kg) heavy metals contents in the soil. Hence, the aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of Gentiana lutea L. – roots and galenic forms (liquid extract in 70 % ethanol, spissum and siccum) produced from the roots, because, for most plants, heavy metals accumulate in the root tissue. The amounts of Ni and Cr found in the analyzed roots were very high (54 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg, respectively). The efficiency of ethanol in extracting heavy metals from the roots varied depending on the particular element. The highest efficiency was obtained for Ni (41.3 %), then for Cd (39.5 %), Pb (37.0%) and Co (30.4 %). According to this, a potential hazard exists for humans, if gentian's galenic forms are produced from the raw material with high heavy metals contents. It is concluded that quality control of the raw material must be carried out before further utilization of gentian.
Biological Efficacy of the Extracts and Pure Compound of Gentiana olivieri
Arsala Mansoor Mudassir I. Zaidi,M. A. K Malghani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Biological activity of the extracts of Gentiana olivieri and its pure compound Gentianine was evaluated by performing antibacterial and antifungal assays .The anti bacterial screening observed by Agar well diffusion method revealed the activity of all the fractions against four of the ten organisms employed. These fractions were also found to be significantly active against seven of the ten fungi tested.
Toxicological Evaluation of the Extracts and Pure Compound of Gentiana olivieri  [PDF]
Arsala Mansoor
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Biological and pharmacological assays of the extracts of Gentiana oliveri and its pure alkaloid gentianine indicated to be highly efficacious. Toxicity in vertebrates was evaluated by chronic toxicity assay in rats. LD50 was found to be greater than 1000. Slightly elevated values of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase were observed at higher doses, but hypoglycemia did not occurred. At lower doses it was found to be non-toxic.
The correlations between phenotypical characthers in selected families by Gentiana lutea L. and the chemical compounds of underground organs
Mihai Radu POP,Camelia SAND,Horea BARBU
Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie , 2008,
Abstract: The ground organs of Gentiana lutea L. contain active principles, which have certain properties recommended for anorexia or convalescence.Along the year we tried to show cast the existent correlations between the main morphological characters and the productivity elements, such as the concentration in active principles. It is proved that the development of a character influence either the development of positive correlation or negative correlation [7].Having in mind that the phonotypical expression is influenced by the phases of vegetation, a very important thing to know is the morph chemical characteristics of specie in different phases of vegetation. The superior quality of the raw materials obtained by different sowing methods defined during our research, will decrease the crop from our country wild flora [10].
Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea (polygalaceae) G. Don. in rats
LL Nwidu, PA Nwafor
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The preliminary screening of the gasroprotective effects of Carpolobia lutea leaf extracts was investigated through bioactivity guided gradient extraction. Experimentally induced gastric ulceration was affected using ulcerogens such as indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine in 0.5% acetic acid, stress, serotonin and diethylthiocarbamate in rats. The median lethal dose (LD 50) of the ethanol extract was also investigated intraperitoneally in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract was conducted. The acute toxicity shows the median lethal dose to be 3850.0 mg/kg. The phytochemical screening of C. lutea revealed that alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, flavoniods were presents. The ethanol extract gave a preventive ratios (PRs) of 3.08, 90.09, 22.17, 70.00, 43.44 and 51.58; the ethyl acetate extract gave 57.50, 100.00, 83.33, 63.61, 84.80, and 68.79; the chloroform extract gave 4.85, 45.05, -13.80, 46.37, 35.88 and 70.29; n-hexane extract gave 38.02, 34.83, 55.50, 100.00, 68.49 and 31.30 PRs respectively for the indomethacin, ethanol, reserpine in 0.5% acetic acid, stress, serotonin and diethylthiocarbamate induced ulceration in rats. The PRs of cimetidine are 90.26, 66.67, 91.82, and 49.97 respectively for indomethacin, reserpine in 0.5% acetic acid, stress and serotonin induced ulceration in rats. The ethyl acetate extract (770 mg/kg) consistently and effectively reduced the ulcer index significantly (p<0.01 - 0.001) than the ethanol, chloroform and nhexane extracts of C. lutea in all the experimentally induced ulcer models studied. C. lutea could be exploited in the treatment of peptic ulcer in man justifying its ethnomedical use as stomach medicine.
Recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. as a source for synthetic seed production for medium-term preservation
Holobiuc Irina,Catana R.
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/abs1202809h
Abstract: Our aim was to establish an efficient and reproducible system for producing synthetic seeds from recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. This species is a vulnerable medicinal plant, protected both at the national and international levels, and is included in different Red Lists and Books. In vitro culture, as an alternative to classical methods of preservation, allows for the cyclic multiplication of plant material and short-, medium- and long-term preservation of tissue collections. Biotechnological approaches allow for maintenance of the plant material in a confined space and protection against biotic and abiotic factors. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the most efficient way to regenerate plants, ensuring material for preservation and fundamental research. In our experiment, recurrent somatic embryogenesis was developed in long-term cultures in the presence of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol) and in the absence of growth factors. This process proceeded at a high rate, with adventive somatic embryos being generated in a continuous process, followed by maturation, germination and development into plants. To follow the somatic embryogenesis process, histological samples were made. We used these embryogenic cultures for synthetic seed production and medium-term conservation. The viability of somatic embryos after moderate osmotic stress treatment was tested using TTC. Our methodology relied on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxins in the first cycle of in vitro cultures, long-term high embryogenic culture maintenance in the presence of sugar alcohols and synthetic seed production.
Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.)  [PDF]
Pavlovi? Sne?ana ?.,Stojanovi? Sa?a D.,Starovic Mira S.,Jo?i? Dragana Lj.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1120177p
Abstract: Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %). Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti) were present in a small percentage (2-6 %). These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.
The Influence of Caldesmon Suppression on Proliferation and Motilities of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells  [PDF]
Bin Gao, Qifeng Jiang
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2016.99038
Abstract: Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to intima constitutes a critical step in the development of proliferative vascular diseases. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of VSMCs motility, the roles of caldesmon (CaD) were investigated previously. CaD is an actin-binding protein dynamically regulating cytoskeleton structure. In this study, the potential role of CaD in mediating proliferation and motility of VSMCs were discussed. First, structural effect of CaD on cytoskeleton integrity was analyzed with CaD knock-down; second, the proliferation of VSMCs was measured in CaD knock-down and control cells; third, the specific role of CaD on VSMCs motilities was evaluated with in vitro migration and invasion assays. We found that CaD is an integral component to maintain cytoskeleton integrity of VSMCs. Our data indicated that CaD suppression does not show significant influence on VSMCs proliferation, but negatively modulates the motilities of VSMCs, and CaD depletion would significantly facilitate migration and invasion of VSMCs.
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