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Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic and interannual climate variations
Bingyi Wu,Ronghui Huang,Dengyi Gao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03187015
Abstract: Variations of winter Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic are closely related to climate variations in the same region. When winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is positive (negative) anomaly phase, Icelandic Low is obviously deepened and shifts northwards (southwards). Simultaneously, the Subtropical High over the North Atlantic is also intensified, and moves northwards (southwards). Those anomalies strengthen (weaken) westerly between Icelandic Low and the Subtropical High, and further result in positive (negative) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the mid-latitude of the North Atlantic, and increase (decrease) the warm water transportation from the mid-latitude to the Barents Sea, which causes positive (negative) mixed-layer water temperature anomalies in the south part of the Barents Sea. Moreover, the distribution of anomaly air temperature clearly demonstrates warming (cooling) in northern Europe and the subarctic regions (including the Barents Sea) and cooling (warming) in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait. Both of distributions of SST and air temperature anomalies directly result in sea ice decrease (increase) in the Barents/Kara Seas, and sea ice increase (decrease) in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait.
Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic and inter-annual climate variations

WU Bingyi,HUANG Ronghui,GAO Dengyi,

科学通报(英文版) , 2001,
Abstract: Variations of winter Arctic sea ice bordering on the North Atlantic are closely related to climate variations in the same region. When winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is positive (negative) anomaly phase, Icelandic Low is obviously deepened and shifts northwards (southwards). Simultaneously, the Subtropical High over the North Atlantic is also intensified, and moves northwards (southwards). Those anomalies strengthen (weaken) westerly between Icelandic Low and the Subtropical High, and further result in positive (negative) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the mid-latitude of the North Atlantic, and increase (decrease) the warm water transportation from the mid-latitude to the Barents Sea, which causes positive (negative) mixed-layer water temperature anomalies in the south part of the Barents Sea. Moreover, the distribution of anomaly air temperature clearly demonstrates warming (cooling) in northern Europe and the subarctic regions (including the Barents Sea) and cooling (warming) in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait. Both of distributions of SST and air temperature anomalies directly result in sea ice decrease (increase) in the Barents/Kara Seas, and sea ice increase (decrease) in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait. :
An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea–air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009  [PDF]
U. Schuster,G. A. McKinley,N. Bates,F. Chevallier
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bg-10-607-2013
Abstract: The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is 0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr 1, and by the Arctic it is 0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr 1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of 0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr 1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.
Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009
U. Schuster,G. A. McKinley,N. Bates,F. Chevallier
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-10669-2012
Abstract: The Atlantic and Arctic oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea-air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales, for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea-air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modelling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our best estimate of the contemporary sea-to-air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is 0.49 ± 0.11 Pg C yr 1 and by the Arctic is 0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr 1, leading to a combined sea-to-air flux of 0.61 ± 0.12 Pg C yr 1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor; and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and South Subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and South Subtropics.
Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea
James E. Overland,Kevin R. Wood,Muyin Wang
Polar Research , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/polar.v30i0.15787
Abstract: Recent Arctic changes are likely due to coupled Arctic amplification mechanisms with increased linkage between Arctic climate and sub-Arctic weather. Historically, sea ice grew rapidly in autumn, a strong negative radiative feedback. But increased sea-ice mobility, loss of multi-year sea ice, enhanced heat storage in newly sea ice-free ocean areas, and modified wind fields form connected positive feedback processes. One-way shifts in the Arctic system are sensitive to the combination of episodic intrinsic atmospheric and ocean variability and persistent increasing greenhouse gases. Winter 2009/10 and December 2010 showed a unique connectivity between the Arctic and more southern weather patterns when the typical polar vortex was replaced by high geopotential heights over the central Arctic and low heights over mid-latitudes that resulted in record snow and low temperatures, a warm Arctic—cold continents pattern. The negative value of the winter (DJF 2009/10) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index associated with enhanced meridional winds was the lowest observed value since the beginning of the record in 1865. Wind patterns in December 2007 and 2008 also show an impact of warmer Arctic temperatures. A tendency for higher geopotential heights over the Arctic and enhanced meridional winds are physically consistent with continued loss of sea ice over the next 40 years. A major challenge is to understand the interaction of Arctic changes with climate patterns such as the NAO, Pacific North American and El Ni o–Southern Oscillation.
Possible Impacts of Winter Arctic Oscillation on Siberian High, the East Asian Winter Monsoon and Sea-Ice Extent
冬季北极涛动对西伯利亚高压、东亚冬季风以及海冰范围的可能影响

Wu Bingyi,Wang Jia,
Wu Bingyi
,Wang Jia

大气科学进展 , 2002,
Abstract: Using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset covering a 40-year period from January 1958 to December 1997, sea surface temperature (1950-1992), and monthly sea-ice concentration dataset for the period from 1953to 1995, we investigate connections between winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Siberian high (SH), the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and winter sea-ice extent in the Barents Sea. The results indicate that winter AO not only influences climate variations in the Arctic and the North Atlantic sector, but also shows possible effects on winter SH, and further influences EAWM. When winter AO is in its positive phase, both of winter SH and the EAWM are weaker than normal, and air temperature from near the surface to the middle troposphere is about 0.S-2°C higher than normal in the southeastern Siberia and the East Asian coast, including eastern China,Korea, and Japan. When AO reaches its negative phase, an opposite scenario can be observed. The results also indicate that winter SH has no significant effects on climate variations in Arctic and the ture in contrast to AO. This study further reveals the possible mechanism of how the winter AO is related to winter SH. It is found that winter SH variation is closely related to both dynamic processes and air temperature variations from the surface to the middle troposphere. The western SH variation mainly depends on dynamic processes, while its eastern part is more closely related to air temperature variation. The maintaining of winter SH mainly depends on downward motion of airflow of the nearly entire troposphere. The airflow originates from the North Atlantic sector, whose variation is influenced by the AO. When AO is in its positive (negative) phase,downward motion remarkably weakened (strengthened), which further influences winter SH. In addition, winter AO exhibits significant influences on the simultaneous sea-ice extent in the Barents Sea.
The North Atlantic Oscillation controls air pollution transport to the Arctic
S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, S. Beirle, N. Spichtinger, P. James, C. Forster, C. Junker, T. Wagner, U. Platt,S. G. Jennings
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2003,
Abstract: This paper studies the interannual variability of pollution pathways from northern hemisphere (NH) continents into the Arctic. Using a 15-year model simulation of the dispersion of passive tracers representative of anthropogenic emissions from NH continents, we show that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts a strong control on the pollution transport into the Arctic, particularly in winter and spring. For tracer lifetimes of 5 (30) days, surface concentrations in the Arctic winter are enhanced by about 70% (30%) during high phases of the NAO (in the following referred to as NAO+) compared to its low phases (NAO-). This is mainly due to great differences in the pathways of European pollution during NAO+ and NAO- phases, respectively, but reinforced by North American pollution, which is also enhanced in the Arctic during NAO+ phases. In contrast, Asian pollution in the Arctic does not significantly depend on the NAO phase. The model results are confirmed using remotely-sensed NO2 vertical atmospheric columns obtained from seven years of satellite measurements, which show enhanced northward NO2 transport and reduced NO2 outflow into the North Atlantic from Central Europe during NAO+ phases. Surface measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and black carbon at high-latitude stations further corroborate the overall picture of enhanced Arctic pollution levels during NAO+ phases
The North Atlantic Oscillation controls air pollution transport to the Arctic  [PDF]
S. Eckhardt,A. Stohl,S. Beirle,N. Spichtinger
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: This paper studies the interannual variability of pollution pathways from northern hemisphere (NH) continents into the Arctic. Using a 1-year model simulation of the dispersion of passive tracers representative of anthropogenic emissions from NH continents, we show that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts a strong control on the pollution transport into the Arctic, particularly in winter and spring. For tracer lifetimes of 5 (30) days, surface concentrations in the Arctic winter are enhanced by about 70% (30%) during high phases of the NAO (in the following referred to as NAO+) compared to its low phases (NAO ). This is mainly due to great differences in the pathways of European pollution during NAO+ and NAO phases, respectively, but reinforced by North American pollution, which is also enhanced in the Arctic during NAO+ phases. In contrast, Asian pollution in the Arctic does not significantly depend on the NAO phase. The model results are confirmed using remotely-sensed NO2 vertical atmospheric columns obtained from seven years of satellite measurements, which show enhanced northward NO2 transport and reduced NO2 outflow into the North Atlantic from Central Europe during NAO+ phases. Surface measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and black carbon at high-latitude stations further corroborate the overall picture of enhanced Arctic pollution levels during NAO+ phases.
A Possible Feedback Mechanism Involving the Arctic Freshwater,the Arctic Sea Ice, and the North Atlantic Drift

Odd Helge OTTER,Helge DRANGE,

大气科学进展 , 2004,
Abstract: Model studies point to enhanced warming and to increased freshwater fluxes to high northern latitudes in response to global warming. In order to address possible feedbacks in the ice-ocean system in response to such changes, the combined effect of increased freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean and Arctic warming--the latter manifested as a gradual melting of the Arctic sea ice--is examined using a 3-D isopycnic coordinate ocean general circulation model. A suite of three idealized experiments is carried out: one control integration, one integration with a doubling of the modern Arctic river runoff, and a third more extreme case, where the river runoff is five times the modern value. In the two freshwater cases, the sea ice thickness is reduced by 1.5-2 m in the central Arctic Ocean over a 50-year period. The modelled ocean response is qualitatively the same for both perturbation experiments: freshwater propagates into the Atlantic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, leading to an initial weakening of the North Atlantic Drift.Furthermore, changes in the geostrophic currents in the central Arctic and melting of the Arctic sea ice lead to an intensified Beaufort Gyre, which in turn increases the southward volume transport through the Canadian Archipelago. To compensate for this southward transport of mass, more warm and saline Atlantic water is carried northward with the North Atlantic Drift. It is found that the increased transport of salt into the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas tends to counteract the impact of the increased freshwater originating from the Arctic, leading to a stabilization of the North Atlantic Drift.
Teleconnections of Inter-Annual Streamflow Fluctuation in Slovakia with Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Phenomena
Pavla PEKAROVA,Jan PEKAR,
Pavla PEKAROVA
,Jan PEKAR

大气科学进展 , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyze a possible teleconnection of Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), Southern Oscillation (SO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Arctic Oscillation (AO) phenomena with longterm streamflow fluctuation of the Bela River (1895-2004) and Cierny Hron River (1931-2004) (central Slovakia). Homogeneity, long-term trends, as well as inter-annual dry and wet cycles were analyzed for the entire 1895-2004 time series of the Bela River and for the 1931-2004 time series of the Cierny Hron River.Inter-annual fluctuation of the wet and dry periods was identified using spectral analysis. The most significant period is that of 3.6 years. Other significant periods are those of 2.35 years, 13.5 years, and 21 years.Since these periods were found in other rivers of the world, as well as in SO, NAO, and AO phenomena,they can be considered as relating to the general regularity of the Earth.
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