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Nuclear Translocation of Cardiac G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Downstream of Select Gq-Activating Hypertrophic Ligands Is a Calmodulin-Dependent Process  [PDF]
Jessica I. Gold, Jeffrey S. Martini, Jonathan Hullmann, Erhe Gao, J. Kurt Chuprun, Linda Lee, Douglas G. Tilley, Joseph E. Rabinowitz, Julie Bossuyt, Donald M. Bers, Walter J. Koch
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057324
Abstract: G protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) kinases (GRKs) play a crucial role in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. Recent data from our lab has shown that, following ventricular pressure overload, GRK5, a primary cardiac GRK, facilitates maladaptive myocyte growth via novel nuclear localization. In the nucleus, GRK5’s newly discovered kinase activity on histone deacetylase 5 induces hypertrophic gene transcription. The mechanisms governing the nuclear targeting of GRK5 are unknown. We report here that GRK5 nuclear accumulation is dependent on Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) binding to a specific site within the amino terminus of GRK5 and this interaction occurs after selective activation of hypertrophic Gq-coupled receptors. Stimulation of myocytes with phenylephrine or angiotensinII causes GRK5 to leave the sarcolemmal membrane and accumulate in the nucleus, while the endothelin-1 does not cause nuclear GRK5 localization. A mutation within the amino-terminus of GRK5 negating CaM binding attenuates GRK5 movement from the sarcolemma to the nucleus and, importantly, overexpression of this mutant does not facilitate cardiac hypertrophy and related gene transcription in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that CaM binding to GRK5 is a physiologically relevant event that is absolutely required for nuclear GRK5 localization downstream of hypertrophic stimuli, thus facilitating GRK5-dependent regulation of maladaptive hypertrophy.
GRK5 Intronic (CA)n Polymorphisms Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Hainan Island  [PDF]
Zhenfang Xia, Tubao Yang, Zhuansuo Wang, Jianping Dong, Chunyan Liang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090597
Abstract: A genome-wide association study had showed G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) rs10886471 was related to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through upregulated GRK5 mRNA expression. Rs10886471 is located in the intron region of GRK5. However, the mechanism by which intronic SNP affects gene expression remains unclear, whether the effect on gene expression depends on the intronic short tandem repeat (STR) (CA)n splicing regulator or not. Here we investigated the STR (CA)n polymorphism in rs10886471 and further discussed its role in the T2DM risk of Chinese Hainan Island individuals. A total of 1164 subjects were recruited and classified into a normal fasting glucose (NFG) group, an impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group, an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group, and a T2DM group. STR (CA)n polymorphisms were detected through polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Five intronic (CA)n alleles, (CA)15 to (CA)19, were identified in GRK5 rs10886471. Only the (CA)16 allele was significantly associated with increased prediabetes and T2DM risk [odds ratio (OR)>1, P<0.05]. Conversely, multiple alleles without any (CA)16 protected against prediabetes and T2DM (0
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep  [PDF]
Lei Bai?,Amita Sehgal
PLOS Genetics , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005611
Abstract: Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes.
PDP-1 Links the TGF-β and IIS Pathways to Regulate Longevity, Development, and Metabolism  [PDF]
Sri Devi Narasimhan,Kelvin Yen,Ankita Bansal,Eun-Soo Kwon,Srivatsan Padmanabhan,Heidi A. Tissenbaum
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001377
Abstract: The insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is a conserved regulator of longevity, development, and metabolism. In Caenorhabditis elegans IIS involves activation of DAF-2 (insulin/IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase), AGE-1 (PI 3-kinase), and additional downstream serine/threonine kinases that ultimately phosphorylate and negatively regulate the single FOXO transcription factor homolog DAF-16. Phosphatases help to maintain cellular signaling homeostasis by counterbalancing kinase activity. However, few phosphatases have been identified that negatively regulate the IIS pathway. Here we identify and characterize pdp-1 as a novel negative modulator of the IIS pathway. We show that PDP-1 regulates multiple outputs of IIS such as longevity, fat storage, and dauer diapause. In addition, PDP-1 promotes DAF-16 nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. Interestingly, genetic epistasis analyses place PDP-1 in the DAF-7/TGF-β signaling pathway, at the level of the R-SMAD proteins DAF-14 and DAF-8. Further investigation into how a component of TGF-β signaling affects multiple outputs of IIS/DAF-16, revealed extensive crosstalk between these two well-conserved signaling pathways. We find that PDP-1 modulates the expression of several insulin genes that are likely to feed into the IIS pathway to regulate DAF-16 activity. Importantly, dysregulation of IIS and TGF-β signaling has been implicated in diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Our results may provide a new perspective in understanding of the regulation of these pathways under normal conditions and in the context of disease.
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 mediates Tazarotene-induced gene 1-induced growth suppression of human colon cancer cells
Chang-Chieh Wu, Fu-Ming Tsai, Rong-Yaun Shyu, Ya-Ming Tsai, Chun-Hua Wang, Shun-Yuan Jiang
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-175
Abstract: TIG1A and TIG1B stable clones derived from HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells were established using the GeneSwitch system; TIG1 isoform expression was induced by mifepristone treatment. Cell growth was assessed using the WST-1 cell proliferation and colony formation assays. RNA interference was used to examine the TIG1 mediating changes in cell growth. Gene expression profiles were determined using microarray and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses.Both TIG1 isoforms were expressed at high levels in normal prostate and colon tissues and were downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms significantly inhibited the growth of transiently transfected HCT116 cells and stably expressing TIG1A and TIG1B HCT116 and SW620 cells. Expression of 129 and 55 genes was altered upon induction of TIG1A and TIG1B expression, respectively, in stably expressing HCT116 cells. Of the genes analysed, 23 and 6 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in both TIG1A and TIG1B expressing cells. Upregulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses in both TIG1 stable cell lines. Silencing of TIG1A or GRK5 expression significantly decreased TIG1A-mediated cell growth suppression.Expression of both TIG1 isoforms was observed in normal prostate and colon tissues and was downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms suppressed cell growth and stimulated GRK5 expression in HCT116 and SW620 cells. Knockdown of GRK5 expression alleviated TIG1A-induced growth suppression of HCT116 cells, suggesting that GRK5 mediates cell growth suppression by TIG1A. Thus, TIG1 may participate in the downregulation of G-protein coupled signaling by upregulating GRK5 expression.The tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1), also known as retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1), is a retinoic acid receptor-responsive gene that was isolated from
Drosophila Activated Cdc42 Kinase Has an Anti-Apoptotic Function  [PDF]
Jessica A. Schoenherr,J. Michelle Drennan,Juan S. Martinez,Madhusudana Rao Chikka,Mark C. Hall,Henry C. Chang,James C. Clemens
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002725
Abstract: Activated Cdc42 kinases (Acks) are evolutionarily conserved non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Activating somatic mutations and increased ACK1 protein levels have been found in many types of human cancers and correlate with a poor prognosis. ACK1 is activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling and functions to regulate EGF receptor turnover. ACK1 has additionally been found to propagate downstream signals through the phosphorylation of cancer relevant substrates. Using Drosophila as a model organism, we have determined that Drosophila Ack possesses potent anti-apoptotic activity that is dependent on Ack kinase activity and is further activated by EGF receptor/Ras signaling. Ack anti-apoptotic signaling does not function through enhancement of EGF stimulated MAP kinase signaling, suggesting that it must function through phosphorylation of some unknown effector. We isolated several putative Drosophila Ack interacting proteins, many being orthologs of previously identified human ACK1 interacting proteins. Two of these interacting proteins, Drk and yorkie, were found to influence Ack signaling. Drk is the Drosophila homolog of GRB2, which is required to couple ACK1 binding to receptor tyrosine kinases. Drk knockdown blocks Ack survival activity, suggesting that Ack localization is important for its pro-survival activity. Yorkie is a transcriptional co-activator that is downstream of the Salvador-Hippo-Warts pathway and promotes transcription of proliferative and anti-apoptotic genes. We find that yorkie and Ack synergistically interact to produce tissue overgrowth and that yorkie loss of function interferes with Ack anti-apoptotic signaling. Our results demonstrate how increased Ack signaling could contribute to cancer when coupled to proliferative signals.
Distinct Cellular and Subcellular Distributions of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase and Arrestin Isoforms in the Striatum  [PDF]
Evgeny Bychkov, Lilia Zurkovsky, Mika B. Garret, Mohamed R. Ahmed, Eugenia V. Gurevich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048912
Abstract: G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.
The Tyrosine Kinase c-Src Directly Mediates Growth Factor-Induced Notch-1 and Furin Interaction and Notch-1 Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells  [PDF]
Yong-Chao Ma,Chong Shi,Yao-Nan Zhang,Lan-Ge Wang,Hao Liu,Hong-Ti Jia,Yu-Xiang Zhang,Fazlul H. Sarkar,Ze-Sheng Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033414
Abstract: The proteolytic activity of Furin responsible for processing full length Notch-1 (p300) plays a critical role in Notch signaling. The amplitude and duration of Notch activity can be regulated at various points in the pathway, but there has been no report regarding regulation of the Notch-1-Furin interaction, despite its importance. In the present study, we found that the Notch-1-Furin interaction is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Src. c-Src and Notch-1 are physically associated, and this association is responsible for Notch-1 processing and activation. We also found that growth factor TGF-α, an EGFR ligand, and PDGF-BB, a PDGFR ligand, induce the Notch-1-Furin interaction mediated by c-Src. Our results support three new and provocative conclusions: (1) The association between Notch-1 and Furin is a well-regulated process; (2) Extracellular growth factor signals regulate this interaction, which is mediated by c-Src; (3) There is cross-talk between the plasma growth factor receptor-c-Src and Notch pathways. Co-localization of Notch-1 and c-Src was confirmed in xenograft tumor tissues and in the tissues of pancreatic cancer patients. Our findings have implications for the mechanism by which the Notch and growth factor receptor-c-Src signaling pathways regulate carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth.
Accelerating Alzheimer’s pathogenesis by GRK5 deficiency via cholinergic dysfunction  [PDF]
William Z. Suo
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2013.24020
Abstract: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate a wide variety of physiological function. GPCR signaling is negatively regulated by the receptor desensitization, a procedure initiated by a group of kinases, including GPCR kinases (GRKs). Studies using genetargeted mice revealed that deficiency of a particular GRK member led to dysfunction of a highly selective group of GPCRs. In particular, for example, GRK5 deficiency specifically disrupts M2/M4-mediated muscarinic cholinergic function. Emerging evidence indicates that ?-amyloid accumulation may lead to GRK5 deficiency, while the latter impairs desensitization of M2/M4 receptors. Within memory circuits, M2 is primarily presynaptic autoreceptor serving as a negative feedback to inhibit acetylcholine release. The impaired desensitization of M2 receptor by GRK5 deficiency leads to hyperactive M2, which eventually suppresses acetylcholine release and results in an overall cholinergic hypofunctioning. Since the cholinergic hypofunctioning is known to cause ?-amyloid accumulation, the GRK5 deficiency appears to connect the cholinergic hypofunctioning and ?-amyloid accumulation together into a self-amplifying cycle, which accelerates both changes. Given that the ? -amyloid accumulation and the cholinergic hypofucntioning are the hallmark changes in the ?-amyloid hypothesis and the cholinergic hypothesis, respectively, the GRK5 deficiency appears to bring the two major hypotheses in Alzheimer’s disease together, whereas the GRK5 deficiency is the pivotal link. Therefore, any strategies that can break this cycle would be therapeutically beneficial for Alzheimer’s patients.
Brassinosteroids Regulate Plant Growth through Distinct Signaling Pathways in Selaginella and Arabidopsis  [PDF]
Jinyeong Cheon, Shozo Fujioka, Brian P. Dilkes, Sunghwa Choe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081938
Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes in plants. Most BR biosynthetic enzymes belong to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family. The gene encoding the ultimate step of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis likely evolved by gene duplication followed by functional specialization in a dicotyledonous plant-specific manner. To gain insight into the evolution of BRs, we performed a genomic reconstitution of Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic genes in an ancestral vascular plant, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Selaginella contains four members of the CYP90 family that cluster together in the CYP85 clan. Similar to known BR biosynthetic genes, the Selaginella CYP90s exhibit eight or ten exons and Selaginella produces a putative BR biosynthetic intermediate. Therefore, we hypothesized that Selaginella CYP90 genes encode BR biosynthetic enzymes. In contrast to typical CYPs in Arabidopsis, Selaginella CYP90E2 and CYP90F1 do not possess amino-terminal signal peptides, suggesting that they do not localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, one of the three putative CYP reductases (CPRs) that is required for CYP enzyme function co-localized with CYP90E2 and CYP90F1. Treatments with a BR biosynthetic inhibitor, propiconazole, and epi-brassinolide resulted in greatly retarded and increased growth, respectively. This suggests that BRs promote growth in Selaginella, as they do in Arabidopsis. However, BR signaling occurs through different pathways than in Arabidopsis. A sequence homologous to the Arabidopsis BR receptor BRI1 was absent in Selaginella, but downstream components, including BIN2, BSU1, and BZR1, were present. Thus, the mechanism that initiates BR signaling in Selaginella seems to differ from that in Arabidopsis. Our findings suggest that the basic physiological roles of BRs as growth-promoting hormones are conserved in both lycophytes and Arabidopsis; however, different BR molecules and BRI1-based membrane receptor complexes evolved in these plants.
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