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Co-Culture of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells with Human Osteblasts Favours Mono/Macrophage Differentiation at the Expense of the Erythroid Lineage  [PDF]
Simona Salati, Gina Lisignoli, Cristina Manferdini, Valentina Pennucci, Roberta Zini, Elisa Bianchi, Ruggiero Norfo, Andrea Facchini, Sergio Ferrari, Rossella Manfredini
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053496
Abstract: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are located in the bone marrow in a specific microenvironment referred as the hematopoietic stem cell niche, where HSCs interact with a variety of stromal cells. Though several components of the stem cell niche have been identified, the regulatory mechanisms through which such components regulate the stem cell fate are still unknown. In order to address this issue, we investigated how osteoblasts (OBs) can affect the molecular and functional phenotype of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) and vice versa. For this purpose, human CD34+ cells were cultured in direct contact with primary human OBs. Our data showed that CD34+ cells cultured with OBs give rise to higher total cell numbers, produce more CFUs and maintain a higher percentage of CD34+CD38- cells compared to control culture. Moreover, clonogenic assay and long-term culture results showed that co-culture with OBs induces a strong increase in mono/macrophage precursors coupled to a decrease in the erythroid ones. Finally, gene expression profiling (GEP) allowed us to study which signalling pathways were activated in the hematopoietic cell fraction and in the stromal cell compartment after coculture. Such analysis allowed us to identify several cytokine-receptor networks, such as WNT pathway, and transcription factors, as TWIST1 and FOXC1, that could be activated by co-culture with OBs and could be responsible for the biological effects reported above. Altogether our results indicate that OBs are able to affect HPSCs on 2 different levels: on one side, they increase the immature progenitor pool in vitro, on the other side, they favor the expansion of the mono/macrophage precursors at the expense of the erythroid lineage.
Wnt4 Enhances Murine Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Expansion Through a Planar Cell Polarity-Like Pathway  [PDF]
Krista M. Heinonen,Juan Ruiz Vanegas,Deborah Lew,Jana Krosl,Claude Perreault
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019279
Abstract: While the role of canonical (β-catenin-mediated) Wnt signaling in hematolymphopoiesis has been studied extensively, little is known of the potential importance of non-canonical Wnt signals in hematopoietic cells. Wnt4 is one of the Wnt proteins that can elicit non-canonical pathways. We have previously shown that retroviral overexpression of Wnt4 by hematopoietic cells increased thymic cellularity as well as the frequency of early thymic progenitors and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). However, the molecular pathways responsible for its effect in HPCs are not known.
Eafs Control Erythroid Cell Fate by Regulating c-myb Expression through Wnt Signaling  [PDF]
Xufa Ma, Jing-Xia Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064576
Abstract: ELL associated factor 1 and ELL associated factor 2 (EAF1/2 factors) are reported to play important roles in tumor suppression and embryogenesis. Our previous studies showed that eaf factors mediated effective convergence and extension (C&E) movements and modulated mesoderm and neural patterning by regulating both non-canonical and canonical Wnt signaling in the early embryonic process. In this study, through knockdown of both eaf1 and eaf2 in embryos, we found that differentiation of primary erythroid cells was blocked, but hematopoietic precursor cells maintained in eafs morphants. Co-injection of c-myb-MO rescued the erythroid differentiation in eafs morphants, as indicated by the restored expression of the erythroid-specific gene, βe3 globin. In addition, low dosage of c-myb effectively blocked the βe3 globin expression in embryos, and did not affect the expression of markers of hematopoietic progenitor cells and other mesoderm, which was similar to the phenotypes we observed in eafs morphants. We also revealed that knockdown Wnt signaling by transiently inducing dn-Tcf in embryos at the bud stage down-regulated the increased c-myb to normal level and also restored βe3 globin expression in eafs morphants. Our evidence points to a novel role for eaf factors in controlling erythroid cell fate by regulating c-Myb expression through canonic Wnt signaling.
Erythroid-Specific Expression of β-globin from Sleeping Beauty-Transduced Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells  [PDF]
Lucas M. Sjeklocha, Chang-Won Park, Phillip Y-P Wong, Mark J. Roney, John D. Belcher, Dan S. Kaufman, Gregory M. Vercellotti, Robert P. Hebbel, Clifford J. Steer
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029110
Abstract: Gene therapy for sickle cell disease will require efficient delivery of a tightly regulated and stably expressed gene product to provide an effective therapy. In this study we utilized the non-viral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system using the SB100X hyperactive transposase to transduce human cord blood CD34+ cells with DsRed and a hybrid IHK–β-globin transgene. IHK transduced cells were successfully differentiated into multiple lineages which all showed transgene integration. The mature erythroid cells had an increased β-globin to γ-globin ratio from 0.66±0.08 to 1.05±0.12 (p = 0.05), indicating expression of β-globin from the integrated SB transgene. IHK–β-globin mRNA was found in non-erythroid cell types, similar to native β-globin mRNA that was also expressed at low levels. Additional studies in the hematopoietic K562 cell line confirmed the ability of cHS4 insulator elements to protect DsRed and IHK–β-globin transgenes from silencing in long-term culture studies. Insulated transgenes had statistically significant improvement in the maintenance of long term expression, while preserving transgene regulation. These results support the use of Sleeping Beauty vectors in carrying an insulated IHK–β-globin transgene for gene therapy of sickle cell disease.
Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies
Peppino Mirabelli, Rosa Di Noto, Catia Lo Pardo, Paolo Morabito, Giovanna Abate, Marisa Gorrese, Maddalena Raia, Caterina Pascariello, Giulia Scalia, Marica Gemei, Elisabetta Mariotti, Luigi Del Vecchio
BMC Physiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-8-13
Abstract: In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively). As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a). Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA).Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of ALDH+/CD34+, ALDH-/CD34+ and ALDH+/CD34- progenitor cell subsets in human bone marrow, clearly indicated that ALDH+CD34- cells are mainly committed towards erythropoiesis. To the best of our knowledge this finding is new and could be useful for basic studies about normal erythropoietic differentiation as well as for enabling the employment of ALDH as a red cell marker in polychromatic flow cytometry characterization of bone marrow from patients with aplastic anemia and myelodysplasia.Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a family of enzymes involved in metabolism of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids [1]. It plays an important role in metabolism of vitamin A as well as in mechanisms of resistance to alchylating agents, e.g. cyclophosphamide [2]. For these reasons, ALDH is considered a protecting or detoxifying enzyme, able to preserve stem cells from cytotoxic effects [2-4]. One of the accepted technologies to identify human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is based upon flow cytometry (FCM) detection of ALDH enzymatic activity [2]. In particular, Storms et al [2] designed a substrate for ALDH, termed BODIPY aminoacet
Towards an understanding of lineage specification in hematopoietic stem cells: A mathematical model for the interaction of transcription factors GATA-1 and PU.1  [PDF]
Ingo Roeder,Ingmar Glauche
Quantitative Biology , 2006,
Abstract: In addition to their self-renewal capabilities, hematopoietic stem cells guarantee the continuous supply of fully differentiated, functional cells of various types in the peripheral blood. The process which controls differentiation into the different lineages of the hematopoietic system (erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid) is referred to as lineage specification. It requires a potentially multi-step decision sequence which determines the fate of the cells and their successors. It is generally accepted that lineage specification is regulated by a complex system of interacting transcription factors. However, the underlying principles controlling this regulation are currently unknown. Here, we propose a simple quantitative model describing the interaction of two transcription factors. This model is motivated by experimental observations on the transcription factors GATA-1 and PU.1, both known to act as key regulators and potential antagonists in the erythroid vs. myeloid differentiation processes of hematopoietic progenitor cells. We demonstrate the ability of the model to account for the observed switching behavior of a transition from a state of low expression of both factors (undifferentiated state) to the dominance of one factor (differentiated state). Depending on the parameter choice, the model predicts two different possibilities to explain the experimentally suggested, stem cell characterizing priming state of low level co-expression. Whereas increasing transcription rates are sufficient to induce differentiation in one scenario, an additional system perturbation (by stochastic fluctuations or directed impulses) of transcription factor levels is required in the other case.
RUNX1B Expression Is Highly Heterogeneous and Distinguishes Megakaryocytic and Erythroid Lineage Fate in Adult Mouse Hematopoiesis  [PDF]
Julia E. Draper?,Patrycja Sroczynska?,Olga Tsoulaki?,Hui Sun Leong?,Muhammad Z. H. Fadlullah?,Crispin Miller?,Valerie Kouskoff?,Georges Lacaud
PLOS Genetics , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005814
Abstract: The Core Binding Factor (CBF) protein RUNX1 is a master regulator of definitive hematopoiesis, crucial for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence during ontogeny. RUNX1 also plays vital roles in adult mice, in regulating the correct specification of numerous blood lineages. Akin to the other mammalian Runx genes, Runx1 has two promoters P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal) which generate distinct protein isoforms. The activities and specific relevance of these two promoters in adult hematopoiesis remain to be fully elucidated. Utilizing a dual reporter mouse model we demonstrate that the distal P1 promoter is broadly active in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. By contrast the activity of the proximal P2 promoter is more restricted and its upregulation, in both the immature Lineage- Sca1high cKithigh (LSK) and bipotential Pre-Megakaryocytic/Erythroid Progenitor (PreMegE) populations, coincides with a loss of erythroid (Ery) specification. Accordingly the PreMegE population can be prospectively separated into “pro-erythroid” and “pro-megakaryocyte” populations based on Runx1 P2 activity. Comparative gene expression analyses between Runx1 P2+ and P2- populations indicated that levels of CD34 expression could substitute for P2 activity to distinguish these two cell populations in wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM). Prospective isolation of these two populations will enable the further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in megakaryocytic/erythroid (Mk/Ery) cell fate decisions. Having characterized the extensive activity of P1, we utilized a P1-GFP homozygous mouse model to analyze the impact of the complete absence of Runx1 P1 expression in adult mice and observed strong defects in the T cell lineage. Finally, we investigated how the leukemic fusion protein AML1-ETO9a might influence Runx1 promoter usage. Short-term AML1-ETO9a induction in BM resulted in preferential P2 upregulation, suggesting its expression may be important to establish a pre-leukemic environment.
Functional Analysis of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Expression Using Zebrafish  [PDF]
Craig E. Eckfeldt,Eric M. Mendenhall,Catherine M. Flynn,Tzu-Fei Wang,Michael A. Pickart,Suzanne M. Grindle,Stephen C. Ekker,Catherine M. Verfaillie
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030254
Abstract: Although several reports have characterized the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transcriptome, the roles of HSC-specific genes in hematopoiesis remain elusive. To identify candidate regulators of HSC fate decisions, we compared the transcriptome of human umbilical cord blood and bone marrow CD34+CD33?CD38?Rholoc-kit+ cells, enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with CD34+CD33?CD38?Rhohi cells, enriched in committed progenitors. We identified 277 differentially expressed transcripts conserved in these ontogenically distinct cell sources. We next performed a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-based functional screen in zebrafish to determine the hematopoietic function of 61 genes that had no previously known function in HSC biology and for which a likely zebrafish ortholog could be identified. MO knock down of 14/61 (23%) of the differentially expressed transcripts resulted in hematopoietic defects in developing zebrafish embryos, as demonstrated by altered levels of circulating blood cells at 30 and 48 h postfertilization and subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for erythroid-specific hbae1 and myeloid-specific lcp1 transcripts. Recapitulating the knockdown phenotype using a second MO of independent sequence, absence of the phenotype using a mismatched MO sequence, and rescue of the phenotype by cDNA-based overexpression of the targeted transcript for zebrafish spry4 confirmed the specificity of MO targeting in this system. Further characterization of the spry4-deficient zebrafish embryos demonstrated that hematopoietic defects were not due to more widespread defects in the mesodermal development, and therefore represented primary defects in HSC specification, proliferation, and/or differentiation. Overall, this high-throughput screen for the functional validation of differentially expressed genes using a zebrafish model of hematopoiesis represents a major step toward obtaining meaningful information from global gene profiling of HSCs.
Functional analysis of human hematopoietic stem cell gene expression using zebrafish.
Eckfeldt Craig E,Mendenhall Eric M,Flynn Catherine M,Wang Tzu-Fei
PLOS Biology , 2005,
Abstract: Although several reports have characterized the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transcriptome, the roles of HSC-specific genes in hematopoiesis remain elusive. To identify candidate regulators of HSC fate decisions, we compared the transcriptome of human umbilical cord blood and bone marrow (CD34+)(CD33-)(CD38-)Rho(lo)(c-kit+) cells, enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with (CD34+)(CD33-)(CD38-)Rho(hi) cells, enriched in committed progenitors. We identified 277 differentially expressed transcripts conserved in these ontogenically distinct cell sources. We next performed a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-based functional screen in zebrafish to determine the hematopoietic function of 61 genes that had no previously known function in HSC biology and for which a likely zebrafish ortholog could be identified. MO knock down of 14/61 (23%) of the differentially expressed transcripts resulted in hematopoietic defects in developing zebrafish embryos, as demonstrated by altered levels of circulating blood cells at 30 and 48 h postfertilization and subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for erythroid-specific hbae1 and myeloid-specific lcp1 transcripts. Recapitulating the knockdown phenotype using a second MO of independent sequence, absence of the phenotype using a mismatched MO sequence, and rescue of the phenotype by cDNA-based overexpression of the targeted transcript for zebrafish spry4 confirmed the specificity of MO targeting in this system. Further characterization of the spry4-deficient zebrafish embryos demonstrated that hematopoietic defects were not due to more widespread defects in the mesodermal development, and therefore represented primary defects in HSC specification, proliferation, and/or differentiation. Overall, this high-throughput screen for the functional validation of differentially expressed genes using a zebrafish model of hematopoiesis represents a major step toward obtaining meaningful information from global gene profiling of HSCs.
Functional Analysis of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Expression Using Zebrafish  [PDF]
Craig E Eckfeldt equal contributor,Eric M Mendenhall equal contributor,Catherine M Flynn,Tzu-Fei Wang,Michael A Pickart,Suzanne M Grindle,Stephen C Ekker,Catherine M Verfaillie
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030254
Abstract: Although several reports have characterized the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transcriptome, the roles of HSC-specific genes in hematopoiesis remain elusive. To identify candidate regulators of HSC fate decisions, we compared the transcriptome of human umbilical cord blood and bone marrow CD34+CD33?CD38?Rholoc-kit+ cells, enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with CD34+CD33?CD38?Rhohi cells, enriched in committed progenitors. We identified 277 differentially expressed transcripts conserved in these ontogenically distinct cell sources. We next performed a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-based functional screen in zebrafish to determine the hematopoietic function of 61 genes that had no previously known function in HSC biology and for which a likely zebrafish ortholog could be identified. MO knock down of 14/61 (23%) of the differentially expressed transcripts resulted in hematopoietic defects in developing zebrafish embryos, as demonstrated by altered levels of circulating blood cells at 30 and 48 h postfertilization and subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for erythroid-specific hbae1 and myeloid-specific lcp1 transcripts. Recapitulating the knockdown phenotype using a second MO of independent sequence, absence of the phenotype using a mismatched MO sequence, and rescue of the phenotype by cDNA-based overexpression of the targeted transcript for zebrafish spry4 confirmed the specificity of MO targeting in this system. Further characterization of the spry4-deficient zebrafish embryos demonstrated that hematopoietic defects were not due to more widespread defects in the mesodermal development, and therefore represented primary defects in HSC specification, proliferation, and/or differentiation. Overall, this high-throughput screen for the functional validation of differentially expressed genes using a zebrafish model of hematopoiesis represents a major step toward obtaining meaningful information from global gene profiling of HSCs.
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