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Effect of smoking habits on sleep
Conway, S.G.;Roizenblatt, S.S.;Palombini, L.;Castro, L.S.;Bittencourt, L.R.A.;Silva, R.S.;Tufik, S.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2008000800014
Abstract: to evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the sleep institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15) defined smoking severity. the association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (ahi) ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (tst) spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (sao2) <90%, and arousal index. the arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17) and former smokers (20 ± 17) than non-smokers (17 ± 15; p < 0.04). former smokers had a higher percent of tst at sao2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; p < 0.04). former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher ahi (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; p < 0.05) and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; p < 0.05). current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; p < 0.05) and percent of tst at sao2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; p < 0.05). smoking status and pack-years were not associated with ahi ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of tst at sao2 <90% than non-smokers (95%ci = 1.21-2.97; p = 0.005). the variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, ahi and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all p < 0.01). smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with ahi. the effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.
Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia
Stojanovi? Miodrag,Mu?ovi? Dijana,Petrovi? Branislav,Milo?evi? Zoran
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1305493s
Abstract: Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and smoking cessation practices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43012]
Whole Exome Re-Sequencing Implicates CCDC38 and Cilia Structure and Function in Resistance to Smoking Related Airflow Obstruction  [PDF]
Louise V. Wain ,Ian Sayers,María Soler Artigas,Michael A. Portelli,Eleftheria Zeggini,Ma'en Obeidat,Don D. Sin,Yohan Bossé,David Nickle,Corry-Anke Brandsma,Anders Malarstig,Ciara Vangjeli,Scott A. Jelinsky,Sally John,Iain Kilty,Tricia McKeever,Nick R. G. Shrine,James P. Cook,Shrina Patel,Tim D. Spector,Edward J. Hollox,Ian P. Hall,Martin D. Tobin
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004314
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and, whilst smoking remains the single most important risk factor, COPD risk is heritable. Of 26 independent genomic regions showing association with lung function in genome-wide association studies, eleven have been reported to show association with airflow obstruction. Although the main risk factor for COPD is smoking, some individuals are observed to have a high forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) despite many years of heavy smoking. We hypothesised that these “resistant smokers” may harbour variants which protect against lung function decline caused by smoking and provide insight into the genetic determinants of lung health. We undertook whole exome re-sequencing of 100 heavy smokers who had healthy lung function given their age, sex, height and smoking history and applied three complementary approaches to explore the genetic architecture of smoking resistance. Firstly, we identified novel functional variants in the “resistant smokers” and looked for enrichment of these novel variants within biological pathways. Secondly, we undertook association testing of all exonic variants individually with two independent control sets. Thirdly, we undertook gene-based association testing of all exonic variants. Our strongest signal of association with smoking resistance for a non-synonymous SNP was for rs10859974 (P = 2.34×10?4) in CCDC38, a gene which has previously been reported to show association with FEV1/FVC, and we demonstrate moderate expression of CCDC38 in bronchial epithelial cells. We identified an enrichment of novel putatively functional variants in genes related to cilia structure and function in resistant smokers. Ciliary function abnormalities are known to be associated with both smoking and reduced mucociliary clearance in patients with COPD. We suggest that genetic influences on the development or function of cilia in the bronchial epithelium may affect growth of cilia or the extent of damage caused by tobacco smoke.
Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents
Naing Nyi,Ahmad Zulkifli,Musa Razlan,Hamid Farique
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-2-13
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.
Use of spirometry and recording of smoking habits of COPD patients increased in primary health care during national COPD programme
Tuula Vasankari, Anne Pietinalho, Kalle Lertola, Seppo YT Junnila, Kari Liippo
BMC Family Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-97
Abstract: We compared patients with respiratory symptoms or diseases visiting primary health care during 1997 (before programme) and 2002 (during programme). Patients with respiratory symptoms were divided into two groups: COPD patients and "others". Patient records were thoroughly investigated and data retrieved from them.There was a significant increase in the whole study group from 8.0% to 38.9% in the use of spirometry (p < 0.001). This increase was significant both in the COPD group (from 32.0% to 79.6%, p < 0.001) and "others" (from 5.6% to 32.8%, p < 0.001). Written information on smoking habits in patient records increased from 16.6% of all patients in 1997 to 53.2% in 2002 (p < 0.001), and in COPD group from 45.0% to 84.3% (p < 0.001).We observed a significant increase in the use of spirometry and knowledge of smoking habits in COPD patients, which may be a result of the Finnish national COPD programme.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem causing morbidity and mortality worldwide [1-3]. The incidence of COPD is increasing and its financial impact escalating [4]. International and national guidelines of COPD have been published recently to standardize in order to make the diagnosis and treatment of the disease equal in different settings [5-7].COPD should be diagnosed using the appropriate measurements of lung function [8-11]. In the early stage of COPD airflow obstruction can be present without causing symptoms. Especially this group warrants an early diagnosis, and the role of primary healthcare physicians is crucial in this respect [9,12]. There are some reports that indicate shortcomings of the detection of COPD in primary care such as underuse of spirometry, in its diagnosis [13-16]. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for the disease, and the importance of smoking cessation has been shown in preventing further decline of lung function [17]. Knowledge of patients smoking habits is essential both in diagnosis and treatment
Smoking habits of physicians in Enugu, Nigeria
TA Okeke
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Physicians are highly respected in their communities. They play a crucial role in issues related to health and people turn to them for advice and consultation. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking among physicians in Enugu, Nigeria, a group of health professionals who should act as role models. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out between June and July 2004 at a tertiary health facility located in Enugu, the capital of Enugu state in south-east Nigeria. Information was obtained with the aid of a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 450 physicians contacted, 377 completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 83.8%. The mean age of the respondents was 30.9 years and majority 319(84.6%) were males. The physicians comprised of about 8 % current smokers, 13.3% ex-smokers and 78.8% who had never smoked. Majority (60%) of smokers began smoking before the age of 20 and reasons for starting included curiosity (55%), peer pressure (35%), stress of medical school (22.5%) and having a family member who smoked (10%). All respondents agreed that smoking is hazardous to health and majority recognized the association between smoking and various diseases. Non -smokers were more likely than smokers to counsel their patients on the dangers of smoking and to consider themselves as role models. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Majority (60.5%) would recommend a ban on smoking in public places, 50.7% an increase in price of cigarettes and 31.3% prohibition of advertisement of cigarettes. Conclusion: Because of their important role as health educators, physicians should not smoke. It is highly recommended that smoking cessation training be implemented in medical schools and also be made available to practicing Nigerian physicians through continuing medical education. A national policy on tobacco control should also be developed and strictly enforced. KEY WORDS: Tobacco smoking; Physicians; Enugu Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health Care Vol.16(2) 2004: 34-38
Miodrag Stojanovic,Zoran Milosevic,Dijana Musovic,Aleksandar Visnjic
Acta Medica Medianae , 2007,
Abstract: The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women).The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women). Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.
The Impact of Family Relationships on the Smoking Habits of University Students  [PDF]
Fumihiro Omasu, Shiori Uemura, Sayaka Yukizane
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.51002
Abstract: Smoking habits are thought to be strongly impacted by family relationships. In this study, we looked specifically at family relationships with the aim of finding effective anti-smoking education measures. We surveyed 290 university students in order to establish their current smoking habits, along with their family relationships from primary and junior high school until now. The results showed that students with one or more smokers in their family were clearly more likely to smoke. Furthermore, a poor relationship between the student’s parents and a poor relationship with his/her father are believed to have a causal relationship with the student smoking. In the section in which students were asked how often they were told to study, we found that students who smoked had been instructed to study a significantly higher number of times. It is believed that the stress experienced by students frequently told that they must study during their elementary or junior high school years leads to a tendency to smoke. Among the group of non-smokers, we found many who ate breakfast with their parents during elementary or junior high school, along with many who regularly went on holidays with their families. The lack of these things appears to distance parents from children and may be a factor regarding why children end up smoking. In this study, while no clear correlation was found between family relationships and smoking, several types of family relationships that may lead to smoking were suggested.
Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents
Nyi Naing, Zulkifli Ahmad, Razlan Musa, Farique Hamid, Haslan Ghazali, Mohd Bakar
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-2-3-133
Abstract: Smoking is the single most important preventable cause of death [1]. The secondary school age is a critical period in the formation of the smoking habit. Most smokers start smoking during their adolescence or early adult years. The earlier they start to smoke, the more likely they are to become regular smokers [2,3]. Those concerned about the health, welfare and education of young people should be anxious to find ways to prevent them from taking up this habit.In Malaysia, with the improvement of socioeconomic status and the standard of health care, the incidence of communicable diseases has declined significantly, but other health problems are emerging. An example of the diseases related to smoking is coronary artery disease, which now is the main cause of death in hospitals in peninsular Malaysia [4].Adolescent and teenage smoking have been studied widely, and it has been found in developed countries that nearly one-half of school students who have reached the age of 18 have already established the habit of smoking with some degree of regularity, and it is a rather unrealistic hope on the part of adults to expect that children will abstain until reaching the adult approved age of decision [5].Smoking is a major problem among youth in Malaysia. In a recent survey by the Ministry of Youth and Sports on negative behaviors among 5,860 adolescents, 80% indicated that they had ever experienced smoking [6]. Schooling is the major activity of most children between the ages of 7 and 17 years and school is the place where most of them socialize outside their home environment for the first time. A school is the place where much knowledge is obtained, attitudes are formed and sometimes habits are chosen. Studies have demonstrated that the secondary school age is a critical period in the formation of the smoking habit [7]. Experimenting with cigarettes often begins during childhood or early adolescence and there is usually a period of about 1.5 to 2 years between initiation of
Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students  [PDF]
Ylli Vakeffliu,Silvana Bala,Rudina Pirushi,Kujtime Vakeffliu,Jul Bushati,Andrea S. Melani
ISRN Pulmonology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/518560
Abstract: Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questionnaire with an overall response rate of 87%. Current smokers were 19%; of this group, 37% of males and 49% of females were occasional smokers. Among current smokers, males smoked more than females (46% versus 13%; ). The knowledge about smoking was generic; only a part (24%) of students reported having received a formal specific training on smoking related issues. The percentage of current smokers who reported at least one serious attempt to quit was 64%. Most students (78%) reported recent exposure to second hand smoke at home. Most students (84%) were felt to be a model of healthy lifestyle, but only a part (42% of the total) was recognized to have a role in advising smokers to quit. Conclusions. Smoking habits of Albanian nurse students are not higher than those of other European countries and Albanian population of similar age and gender. Our students showed many positive attitudes towards tobacco. Targeted training about smoking related issues should be mandatory in nursing schools. 1. Introduction Tobacco smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) encourages smoking monitoring and control programmes [1]. Health caregivers’ (HCGs) tobacco smoking is important not only for their own health, but also for their exemplary behavioural role. People see HCGs as models for healthy lifestyles, including tobacco smoking. Moreover, HCGs who smoke advise against smoking less frequently than those who do not smoke. Nurses are the largest professional group among health caregivers and work in close physical proximity to patients with great responsibility for obtaining a smoke-free society. Student nurses’ smoking habits, attitudes, and knowledge have a key role to understand the dynamics of future smoking among general population. The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) [2] has been organized by WHO, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Canadian Public Health Association to monitor smoking habits, beliefs, and attitudes of 3rd year HCG students and enhance tobacco smoking control
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